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VERTEBRATE POST-CRANIAL SKELETON
In this portfolio, illustrate the post-cranial skeletal anatomy marked with an “*.”
• Find pictures for structure listed it below (with red color) and then label the postcranial skeletal anatomy marked with an “*.”
Structure
Pisces (Shark for example)
Trunk and caudal vertebrate
Centrum
Neural arch *
Hemal arch
Hemal spine
Spinal cord
Pectoral girdle and fins
Scapulocoracoid bar
Coracoid bar *
Scapular cartilage
Suprascapular cartilage
Ceratotrichia
Basal pterygiophores
Propterygium *
Mesopterygium
Metapterygium
Radial pterygiophores
Pelvic girdle
Puboischiadic bar*
Metapterygium
Radial pterygiophores
Ceratotrichia *
Clasper *
1
Amphibia (frog for example)
Structure
Vertebral regions
Cervical vertebrae
*Atlas
Trunk vertebrae
Ribs
Neural arch
Neural spine
Centrum
Diapophysis
Parapophysis*
Capitulum
Tuberculum *
Sacral vertebrae *
Caudal vertebrae
Pectoral girdle
Coracoids
Procoracoid
Suprascapular cartilage
Scapula
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges
Pelvic girdle and hindlimbs
Acetabulum *
Puboischiadic plate
Ishium
Pubis
Ilium *
Femur
Tibia
Fibula
Tarsals
Metatarsals
Phalanges
2
Mammalia (Cat for Example)
Structure
Vertebral column
Cervical vertebra
Atlas*
Transverse process
Atlantal foramen *
Vertebral canal
Axis*
Odontoid process/dens
Spinous process
Centrum *
Transverse foramen
Thoracic vertebra
Centrum*
Spinous process
Prezyopophyses
Postzygopophyses
Lumbar vertebra
Pleurapophysis
Mammillary processes
Accessory process
Spinous process
Sacral vertebra
Fused pleurapophyses
Dorsal foramen
Prezygopophyses
Postzygopophyses
Caudal vertebra
Hemal process
Hemal arch
Sternum *
Stenebra
Manubrium
Coastal cartilage
Xiphisternum
Xiphoid process
3
Ribs
Capitulum
Tuberculum
Pectoral girdle and forelimb
Scapula*
Metacromion
Acromion process
Scapular spine
Humerus
Head
Supracondyloid foramen
Trochea
Capitiulum
Radius
Head
Articular circumference
Styloid process
Ulna
Olecranon
Styloid process
Manus
Carpals
Scapholunate
Trapezoid
Metacarpals
Phalanges
Pelvic girdle and hindlimb
Os coxa*
Acetabulum * (Function Only)
Crest of ilium
Ramus of pubis
Femur
Head
Linae aspera
Patella
4
Lower Limb
Tibia
Fibula
Tarsals
Calcaneus
Talus
Metatarsals
Phalanges
5
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM OF VERTEBRATES
In this portfolio, illustrate the muscular anatomy marked with an “*.”
• Find pictures for structure list it below (PISCES and AMHIBIA, MAMMALIA)
then illustrate the muscular anatomy marked with “*.”
Pisces
TRUNK or AXIAL MUSCLES
Myomeres
Myosepta
Linea alba
Epaxial muscle
Hypaxial muscle
Horizontal septum*
FIN MUSCLES
Pectoral fin abductor *
Pectoral fin adductor *
Pelvic fin abductor *
Pelvic fin adductor *
Siphons *
DORSAL FIN MUSCLE *
BRANCHIMERIC MUSCLES
Levator palatoquadrati*
Spircularis *
Adductor mandibulae*
Preorbitalis *
Intermandibularis *
Levator hyomandibulae
Levator hyoideus
Interhyoideus *
Cucullaris *
HYPOBRACHIAL MUSCLES
Coracomandibularis*
Coracoarcuals *
Coracohyoid *
1
Amphibia
AXIAL MUSCLES
Myomeres
Myosepta
Linea alba *
Horizontal septum *
Epaxial muscles
Dorsalis trunci*
Hypaxial muscles
Rectus abdominis*
External oblique *
Internal oblique*
Transverseus abdominis *
DORSAL AND LATERAL MUSCLES OF THE HEAD
Adductor mandibulae anterior *
Adductor mandibulae externus *
Depressor mandibulae *
Branchiohyoideus *
Cuccularis
Dorsalis scapulae
Latissimus dorsi
VENTRAL MUSCLES OF THE THROAT
Intermandibularis *
Interhyoideus *
Sphincter colli *
Rectus cervicis*
Procoracohumeralis
DEEP MUSCLES of the THROAT and VISCERAL ARCHES
Genioglossus
Geniohyoideus *
Branchiohyoideus *
MEDIAL SHOULDER, VENTRAL PECTORAL and FORELIMB MUSCLES
Levator scapulae *
Thoracioscapularis
Supracoracocoideus
Pectoralis *
Triceps brachii*
Coracobrachialis
Humeroantebrachialis
Forlimb flexor *
2
PELVIC and HINDLIMB MUSCLES
Puboishiofemoralis externus
Puboischiotibialis *
Puboischiofemoralis internus
Pubotibialis
Ischioflexorius *
Caudofemoralis
Caudocrualis *
Mammalia
SUPERFICIAL THORACIC MUSCLES
Pectoantebranchialis
Pectoralis major
Pectoralis minor
Xiphihumeralis
ABDOMINAL MUSCLES
External oblique
Internal oblique
Transverseus abdominis *
SUPERFICIAL BACK MUSCLES
Clavotrapezius
Clavobranchialis
Acromiotrapezius
Spinotrapezius *
Latissumus dorsi *
Acromiodeltoid
Spinodeltoid
Levator scapulae ventralis
DEEP THORACIC MUSCLES
Serratus ventralis *
Scalenes
• Scalenus posterior
• Scalenus medius
• Scalenes anterior
Transversus costarum
Intercostalis externus
Intercostalis internus
Rectus abdominis
LOWER BACK MUSCLES : LUMBAR and THORACIC
3
Mulfidus spinae
Spinalis dorsi *
Longissimus dorsi *
Lumbodorsal fascia *
MUSCLES OF THE NECK
Digastric *
Mylohyoid
Sternohyoid
HEAD MUSCLES
Masseter *
Anterior facial nerve
Parotid duct
Posterior facial nerve
BRACHIUM (UPPER FORELIMB) MUSCLES
Coracobranchialis
Biceps branchii
Triceps branchii *
Subscapularis
ANTEBRACHIUM (LOWER FORELIMB) MUSCLES
Brachioradialis
Extensor carpi ulnaris
Supinator
Abductor pollicis longus
Brachialis
MUSCLES OF THE THIGH
Sartorius *
Gracilis *
Gluteus medius
Gluteus maxiumus
Caudofemoralis
Tensor fascia latae
Biceps femoris
Semitendinosus
Tenuissimus
Ischiadic nerve
Semimebranosus
Adductor femoris
MUSCLES OF THE SHANK
Tibialis cralialis
Extensor digitorum longus
4
Gastrocnemius *
Soleus *
Flexor hallucis longus
Peroneus longus
Extensor digitorum brevis
Flexor digitorum brevis
5
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE RESPIRATORY AND UROGENTAL
SYSTEMS
In this portfolio illustrate the anatomical structures listed below.
• Find pictures for structure list it below (PISCES and AMHIBIA, MAMMALIA)
then illustrate the structure marked with “*.”
PISCES
A. Respiratory System
Gill Slit (Operculum)
Parabranchial Chamber
Gill Arch
Gill Rays
Primary Gill Filaments
Afferent Branchial Artery
B. Urinary System
Kidney
Accessory Urinary Duct
Urinary Papilla
C. Reproductive System
Female Reproductive Parts:
Ovary
Uterus
Cloaca
Male Reproductive System
Testis
Urogenital Papilla
AMPHIBIA
A. Respiratory System
External Gill Slits
External Gills
External Nares
Glottis
Trachea
Lung
B. Urinary System
Kidney
Suprarenal Glands
Urinary Bladder
C. Reproductive System
Female:
Ovaries
Oviduct
Male:
Testes
Cloacal Gland
Cloacal Papillae
MAMMALIA
A. Respiratory System
External Nares
Epiglottis
Thyroid Gland
Trachea
Primary Bronchi
Secondary Bronchi
Tertiary Bronchi
Lobes of the Lung
•
R/L Anterior Lobe
•
R/L Medial Lobe
•
R/L Posterior Lobe
Diaphragm
B. Urinary System
Kidney
â–ª
Renal Cortex
â–ª
Renal Medulla
â–ª
Renal Artery
Ureter
Urinary Bladder
Rectum
Urethra
C. Reproductive System
Female:
Ovaries
Ostium Tubae
Mesometrium
Uterine Horns
Body of the Uterus
Male:
Penis
•
Vas Deferens
•
Testis
•
Spermatic Cord
•
Scrotum
Epididymis
Mesorchium
VERTEBRATE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
In this portfolio, illustrate the anatomical structures marked with an asterisk (*) below.
•
Find pictures for structure list it below (PISCES and AMHIBIA, MAMMALIA)
then illustrate the anatomical structures s marked with “*.”
PISCES
Heart
External
Ventral aorta *
Conus arteriosus *
Sinus venosus *
Atrium
Ventricle *
Internal
Myocardium of ventricle
Branchial arteries
5 afferent branchial arteries *
Efferent branchial arteries *
External carotid artery
Cross trunks *
Internal carotid artery
Subclavian artery *
Dorsal aorta and its branches
Dorsal aorta *
Coeliac artery *
Reproductive arteries
Ovarian/testicular artery
Abdominal arteries
Hepatic artery *
Gastric artery *
Duodenal artery *
Pyloric artery and vein
Anterior intestinal artery
Gastrosplenic artery *
Pelvic arteries
Femoral artery *
Venous system
Renal portal system
Caudal vein *
Renal portal vein
Hepatic portal system
Hepatic portal vein *
Gastric vein *
Pancreaticomesenteric vein
Anterior intestinal vein
Posterior intestinal vein *
AMHIBIA
A. Heart
External
Bulbous arteriosus*
Right Atrium*
Left Atrium
Conus arteriosus
Ventricle*
External carotid artery*
B. Arteries
Afferent branchial arteries*
Internal carotid artery*
Dorsal aorta
Efferent branchial arteries*
Pulmonary artery*
Brachial artery
Gastric, Mesenteric, and Lower Arteries
Gastric artery*
Splenic artery*
Mesenteric artery*
Coeliacomesenteric artery
Renal Artery*
Testicular / Ovarian Artery
Femoral artery
C. Venous System
Posterior vena cava*
Common cardinal veins*
Renal, Digestive, and Pulmonary Veins
Renal portal vein*
Posterior cardinal veins*
Pulmonary vein
Mesenteric vein*
Hepatic portal vein*
Ventral Abdominal Vein*
Cloacal vein*
Head and Forelimb
External jugular veins*
Brachial veins*
Submaxillary vein
MAMMALIA
Heart
Ventricles (left and right) *
Coronary arteries
Coronary veins
Atria (left and right) *
Postcava *
Precava *
Pulmonary arteries (left and right) *
Aorta
Dorsal aorta *
Subclavian artery (left and right) *
Common carotid arteries
Right subclavian artery
Neck
External carotid artery
External maxillary artery
External jugular vein
Lumbar region
Internal spermatic artery
Ovarian artery & vein
Pyloric artery
Splenic artery
Coelicac artery
Gastric artery
Renal artery & vein
Femoral artery
Hepatic system
Hepatic portal vein
Coronary vein
Gastrosplenic vein
Splenic vein (posterior and anterior)
FORM AND FUNCTION OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
In this portfolio, illustrate the structures marked with “*.”
•
Find pictures for structure listed it below (with red color) then illustrate the structures marked
with “*.”
You can choose any animals related with Pisces
PISCES
A. Body cavities and mesenteries
Parietal pericardium*
Pleuroperitoneal cavity
Pericardial cavity
Greater omentum*
Mesentery proper*
Mesocolon*
Falciform ligament
Lesser omentum (gastrohepatoduodenal ligament)
Ostium tubae (female) *
Mesorchium (male) *
B. Digestive system
Oral Cavity
Teeth
Tongue
Pharynx
Internal Gill Slits
Esophagus
• Papillae of esophagus*
Stomach
• Greater curvature of the stomach
• Rugae of stomach*
Liver
Pancreas
Pyloric sphincter
Duodenum
Valvular Intestine
• Spiral valve of valvular intestine*
Spleen
Rectum
Rectal Gland
Gallbladder
1
AMPHIBIA
You can choose any animals related with AMPHIBIA
A. Body cavities and mesenteries
Pericardial cavity
Pleuroperitoneal cavity*
Falciform ligament
Dorsal mesentery
Mesogaster (greater omentum)
Mesentery proper*
Pulmonary ligament*
Mesorchium * (male)
Mesovarium* (female)
Mesotubarium* (female)
B. Digestive system
Oral Cavity
Glottis
Tongue
Pharynx
Gill Slit
Esophagus
Stomach
• Rugae of the stomach*
Phyloric sphincter
Small intestine
•
Plicae in small intestine
Duodenum*
Large intestine
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
2
Cloaca
MAMMALIA
You can choose any animals related with MAMMALIA
A. Body cavities and mesenteries
Thoracic mesenteries
Pleural cavity
Parietal pleura*
Visceral pleura
Mediastinal septum
Pulmonary ligament*
Diaghram
Pericardial mesenteries
Pericardial cavity*
Round ligament
Falciform ligament*
Abdomenopelvic mesenteries
Lesser omentum
Gastrohepatic ligament*
Greater omentum
Gastrosplenic ligament*
Duodenocolic fold*
Mesocolon
Median vesical ligament (urinary bladder)
B. Digestive system
Oral cavity (Dorso-ventral cut of the head only)
Hard palate
Rugae
3
Incisive duct
Epiglottis*
Papillae of the tongue
•
•
•
•
Filiform papillae*
Fungiform papillae*
Foliate papillae*
Vallate papillae*
Esophagus
Cardiac sphincter
Stomach
•
•
Greater curvature of the stomach
Gastric rugae*
Pylorus (Pyloric Sphincter)
Intestine
•
•
•
•
•
Duodenum
Jejunum*
Ileum*
Cecum*
Colon
Rectum
Accessory digestive organs
Liver
Gallbladder
Spleen
Pancreas
4

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