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StateNameState
DistrictofColumbia
DC
Maryland MD
Pennsylvania
PA
Virginia
VA
WestVirginia
WV
NorthCarolina
NC
SouthCarolina
SC
Missouri MO
Montana MT
Nebraska NE
Wisconsin WI
Illinois
IL
Indiana
IN
Iowa
IA
Kansas
KS
Michigan MI
Ohio
OH
Kentucky KY
ConnecticutCT
Delaware DE
Maine
ME
Massachusetts
MA
NewHampshire
NH
NewJersey NJ
NewYork NY
RhodeIsland
RI
Vermont VT
Alabama AL
Arkansas AR
Florida
FL
Georgia GA
Louisiana LA
Mississippi MS
Oklahoma OK
Tennessee TN
Texas
TX
Utah
UT
Colorado CO
Arizona
AZ
California CA
Hawaii
HI
Nevada
NV
NewMexicoNM
Minnesota MN
NorthDakota
ND
SouthDakota
SD
FoodHardshipRate ObesityRate
0.163
0.163
0.15
0.166
0.225
0.211
0.219
0.195
0.154
0.144
0.137
0.175
0.203
0.155
0.149
0.181
0.198
0.223
0.14
0.21
0.167
0.145
0.152
0.158
0.176
0.181
0.16
0.234
0.211
0.216
0.217
0.213
0.245
0.213
0.217
0.216
0.177
0.16
0.205
0.193
0.118
0.2
0.181
0.126
0.1
0.152
0.237
0.283
0.286
0.292
0.324
0.291
0.308
0.303
0.246
0.284
0.277
0.271
0.308
0.29
0.296
0.313
0.296
0.304
0.245
0.288
0.278
0.227
0.262
0.237
0.245
0.254
0.254
0.32
0.309
0.266
0.28
0.334
0.349
0.311
0.292
0.304
0.244
0.207
0.247
0.238
0.218
0.245
0.263
0.257
0.278
0.281
AdultCigaretteUseYouthCigaretteUse
153
207
152
119
202
184
190
243
256
218
203
177
204
205
231
189
168
187
167
183
188
169
186
181
231
235
172
200
178
169
196
188
203
167
256
261
154
178
183
190
173
181
150
160
158
208
158
170
180
148
151
133
171
176
225
208
215
203
171
161
177
169
221
176
233
196
255
226
220
209
179
212
98
85
171
177
161
197
129
145
154
152
220
170
179
240
168
187
186
224
175
232
Wyoming WY
Idaho
ID
Alaska
AK
Oregon
OR
WashingtonWA
0.147
0.189
0.182
0.18
0.164
0.25
0.27
0.274
0.267
0.265
199
163
206
179
149
221
145
157
171
125
TaxCentsPerPack Location
250 Mid-Atlantic
200 Mid-Atlantic
160 Mid-Atlantic
30 Mid-Atlantic
55 Mid-Atlantic
45 Mid-Atlantic
7 Mid-Atlantic
17 Midwest
170 Midwest
64 Midwest
252 Midwest
98 Midwest
99.5 Midwest
136 Midwest
79 Midwest
200 Midwest
125 Midwest
60 Midwest
300 Northeast
160 Northeast
200 Northeast
251 Northeast
178 Northeast
270 Northeast
275 Northeast
346 Northeast
224 Northeast
42.5 South
115 South
133.9 South
37 South
36 South
68 South
103 South
62 South
141 South
69.5 Southwest
84 Southwest
200 Southwest
87 Southwest
260 Southwest
80 Southwest
91 Southwest
156 West
44 West
153 West
Mean Smoking
180
60 West
57 West
200 West
118 West
302.5 West
HAP 602 Statistics for Health Services Management
Assignment Overview: Case Study 2
Health surveys are commonly conducted to evaluate the overall state of affairs in terms of health decisions and
trends. Often, the data collected are paired with other extant data in order to see if relationships exist that were
not specifically studied or around which data were not specifically collected.
The Centers for Disease Control, of course, collect thousands of data elements from a variety of health settings
and surveys. The data set attached, “Case Study 3 – States.csv” includes 6 variables:
• Food hardship rate – the reported rate of persons that experience the inability to purchase the
food they need at least once in the last 12 months;
• Obesity rate – the rate of obese persons, which is defined as having a BMI of 30 or greater;
• Adult cigarette use – the number of persons 16 or older per 1000 residents smoking more than 100
cigarettes in their lifetime and who continue to smoke;
• Child cigarette use – the number of persons under 16 per 1000 residents smoking more than 100
cigarettes in their lifetime and who continue to smoke;
• Tax – the number of cents of state tax levied on a pack of 20 cigarettes; and
• Location – the geographical location in the US to which each state and US is a member.
1. Create a scatterplot of the data for Food Hardship Rate and Obesity Rate. Copy the scatterplot
into this document with axes and chart titles and interpret what the scatterplot tells us about the relationship
between the two variables.
2. For the food hardship and obesity variables, determine the strength of any correlation, and
determine whether it is significant at 0.05. Interpret the meaning of the correlation coefficient. A quick p-value
calculator for Pearson correlation can be found on Social Science Statistics website
(https://www.socscistatistics.com/pvalues/pearsondistribution.aspx). Write a journal entry for the results.
3. For the adult smoking and child smoking variables, determine the strength of any correlation,
and determine whether it is significant at 0.05. Interpret the meaning of the correlation coefficient. A quick pvalue calculator for Pearson correlation can be found at
https://www.socscistatistics.com/pvalues/pearsondistribution.aspx. Write a journal entry for the results.
1
HAP 602 Statistics for Health Services Management
Assignment Overview: Case Study 2
4. One method of decreasing the smoking rate is to increase the tax rate on a pack of cigarettes.
Using the mean of the adult and child rate for each state and DC, consider predicting the smoking rate
from the tax rate.
a) Calculate the mean of the adult and child smoking rates for each state and DC – insert this in an Excel
column.
b) With tax rate as the predictor variable, conduct a simple linear regression analysis on the data for
mean adult and child smoking rate (using the column you created in 4a). In the analysis, you would
typically report:
•
•
•
•
•
A regression plot analysis
A statement and interpretation of the significance
The regression equation and its meaning
A statement and interpretation of R2
Practical statement of meaningfulness
5) Construct a bar chart of the mean value of smokers per 1000 residents (both adult and youth) in each region.
6) Calculate the descriptive statistics of the tax rate.
a) Discuss what the standard deviation tells you about the tax rates across the 50 states.
b) Generally indicate what you see about the distribution of tax rates if you were to draw a distribution of
the data. Think about the shape, the spread, the tails, etc as we have in other assignments.
2

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