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short answer questions

Chapter 9 (1 question @ 4 points)

Chapter 10 (1 question @ 4 points)

Chapter 11 (1 question @ 6 points)

Chapter 12 (1 question at 4 points)

questions 41:Describe the challenge biological psychologists have demonstrating that personality is genetic. What would a biological psychologist hope to find (in terms of the correlation of personality traits) for monozygotic and dizygotic twins (be sure to provide an example of a trait and hypothetical correlation coefficients for both sets of twins). (4 pointsquestion 42:You are on a park bench enjoying your lunch and a stranger comes up and sits on the bench. The stranger starts to talk and tells you his/her life story. You sit silent eating your lunch. After 30 minutes of non-stop story telling he/she gets up and says “have a great day” and leaves. Using two concepts we discussed in class about self-disclosure tell me your thoughts about the encounter you had with the stranger. (4 points)question 43:Describe the ideal therapeutic climate of a humanistic psychologist (e.g., Carl Rogers). What role does Rogers play in therapy? What is the Q-sort technique and how would you expect the Q-sort correlation to change from day 1 of therapy to day 60 of therapy? (6 points)questions 44:Besides Activity (we went over this example in the class) pick one of Buss-Plomin’s other two temperaments and describe how you would measure it using the 3 ways to measure temperaments we discussed in class.question 45:What are you two favorite foods to eat on Thanksgiving? (2 points)

Ch. 12 Humanistic Psychology Research
Self-disclosure
ï‚— Loneliness
ï‚—
Self-disclosure
ï‚—
Revealing intimate information about self
to others
â—¦ Discloser considers information personal
â—¦ Choice of who to disclose to is selective
ï‚—
Important step in our personal growth &
happiness
Sidney Jourard
Responsible for promoting self-disclosure
as a key concept n Humanistic Psychology
ï‚— Self disclosure – – – – well being
ï‚—
â—¦ Does self-disclosure lead to well being OR do
psychologically healthy people self-disclose?
Jourard
Key to becoming fully functioning is to
make ourselves transparent
ï‚— Transparent = free/open
ï‚— Most people = not transparent
ï‚—
â—¦ Why?
ï‚—
Study – applied to therapeutic setting
Self-disclosure
Rules of social interaction
ï‚— Disclosure reciprocity – conversation partners
tend to match each other’s intimacy level
ï‚— One person discloses, the other person almost
always reciprocates
ï‚— Disclosure reciprocity study
ï‚—
â—¦ Students selected increasingly more intimate topics
◦ Students tended to match partner’s intimacy level
Self-disclosure – men versus
women
ï‚—
Women disclose more intimately & to
more people than men
â—¦ Why?
ï‚—
Study
Self-disclosure
Do you disclose differently to your male
and female friends?
ï‚— Why differences?
ï‚—
Self-disclosing Traumatic
Experiences
ï‚—
Study (book)
â—¦ Ss asked to write anonymously about a
traumatic experience
â—¦ Nearly every Ss able to
â—¦ Come clean or keep inside?
â—¦ Not disclosing associated with health
problems
â—¦ Disclosing associated with health benefits
Loneliness
Not same as isolation
ï‚— Can be surrounded by people & be lonely
ï‚— Can be by self & not lonely
ï‚— Perception of how much social interaction
we have & the quality of that interaction
ï‚— Prevalent on college campuses
ï‚—
Loneliness
High scores on loneliness scales related to
high scores on social anxiety & self
consciousness
ï‚— Characteristics of lonely people
ï‚—
ï‚– Tend to approach social interactions with overly
pessimistic expectations – study example
ï‚– Lack basic social skills
Ch. 11 Humanistic Approach





Basics – Important aspects
Rogers
Maslow
Application
Weaknesses/strengths



1. “I have to….”
2. “I must….”
3. “I should….”
1. “I choose to….”
2. “I may….”
3. “I might….”

Taking Personal Responsibility


Do not “have to” go to college but “choose to”
Not the case that you “must” get good grades
 You

Not accurate to say “I should” buy a present for a
friend’s birthday
 “I


“may” do so
might” buy a present if I choose to
By rephrasing the “I have to’s” that we say to
ourselves to “I choose to’s” can better understand
the Humanistic approach
We have more control & choice in our daily lives
than we might otherwise acknowledge
Basic Ideas – Important Aspects


Optimistic Approach to understanding people
Third Force
Freud’s approach
 Behaviorist approach


Important aspects
Personal responsibility
 The Here & Now
 You know yourself best
 Personal Growth

Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987)

Fully functioning
 Open
to new experience
 Here & now
 Trust own feelings
 Creative
 Clear picture of reality
 Less likely to conform
 Live life
The Self

Self-concept – beliefs about self





“Who am I?”
Incongruence – discrepancy between self concept &
actual experience
Subception – perception at a lower level
Distortion
Positive Regard
Assessing Real & Ideal SelfCongruence


Quick assessment to determine level of real & ideal
self-congruence
Rate yourself on the list of adjectives (next 2 slides)
on a scale from 1 to 7 the extent to which each of
the adjectives typically describes you
1
= indicating not at all
 7 = indicating a great deal


Rate Real and Ideal Self
Determine difference
Assessing Real & Ideal SelfCongruence
Real
1. Talkative
2. Self-confident
3. Independent
4. Sophisticated
5. Generous
6. Sensitive to Others
7. Energetic
8. Friendly
9. Aggressive
10. Thoughtful
Ideal
Difference
Assessing Real & Ideal SelfCongruence
Real
11. Even-tempered
12. Conscientious
13. Dependable
14. Moody
15. Genuine
16. Neat
17. Manipulative
18. Concerned about what
others think of you
19. Assertive
20. Reliable
Ideal
Difference
Assessing Real & Ideal SelfCongruence


Identify items that generate the highest difference
scores
These represent aspects of yourself that you would
most like to change
Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970)

Hierarchy of needs
 Physiological
Needs
 Safety
Needs
 Love & Belongingness Needs
 Esteem Needs
 Self-actualization
â—¼ Characteristics
of
Application of Humanistic Ideas


Rogers – client centered (person centered) therapy
Therapeutic climate
 Genuineness
 Unconditional
 Empathy


Active listening
Q-sort
positive regard
Q-sort




Assessment technique used to measure progress
of therapy
Designed to measure a person’s self-concept
Self-concept should change over the course of
therapy
Initial visit – Q-sort on actual self & ideal self
Q-sort












Q-sort – 100 cards
Each card has a statement (e.g., I am confident)
5 8 12 16 18 16 12 8 5
5 cards that have statements that are “most uncharacteristic”
of
you
8 cards that are “quite uncharacteristic”
12 cards that are “fairly uncharacteristic”
16 cards that are “somewhat uncharacteristic”
18 cards that are “neutral”
16 cards that are “somewhat characteristic”
12 cards that are “fairly characteristic”
8 cards that are “quite characteristic”
5 cards that are “most characteristic”
Q-sort




Correlate scores between actual and ideal self
1st visit – low correlation
As therapy progresses – higher correlation between
actual and ideal self
E.g., .26 on initial visit & .58 as therapy progresses
Weaknesses & Strengths



Poorly defined
concepts
Limited applicability of
psychotherapy
techniques
Overly naïve
assumptions



Positive approach
Therapy
Application in
disciplines other than
psychology
Ch. 10 Biological Approach –
Relevant Research
â—¼
â—¼
Much research on the role genetics
plays in our personality
Main problem with research
â—¼
â—¼
Studying parents & their children or
siblings – share genetics & also
environment
Difficult to disentangle nature from nurture
Twin Studies
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
Monozygotic = 1 egg = share 100% of
their genetic make-up
Dizygotic = fraternal = 2 eggs = share
50%
To support importance of genetics –
which would you want to be more
similar in personality traits – MZ or DZ?
Twin Studies
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
Give twins various personality measures –
correlate their scores
In general, DZ twins’ scores on personality
measures tend to correlate from .25 to .30
MZ scores tend to correlate about .50
Twins raised together/apart – similar in
personality traits regardless of environment
Also – adopted children
â—¼ More similar to biological parent
(genetics) or adoptive parent
(environment)?
â—¼ More similar to biological parent
Problems with Genetic
Research
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
Separating contribution of genes & environment
Researchers assume that MZ & DZ have equally
similar environments
But – there is evidence that MZ twins share more
of their environment that DZ twins
MZ twins treated like one unit (dress same)
Is the higher correlation between MZ twins due to
greater genetic similarity or greater environmental
similarity?
Eysenck – ExtraversionIntroversion Dimension
â—¼
â—¼
Do you inherit the trait of extraversion or
introversion?
Twin studies
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
MZ twins much more similar to each other on this
dimension than DZ twins
Twins reared apart
MZ
.30
DZ
.04
Twins reared together
MZ
.54
DZ
.06
Extraversion – Introversion
Research
â—¼
â—¼
â—¼
Arousal/stimulation preferred by
extraverts & introverts
Remember – introverts = more inborn
arousal – more sensitive to stimulation –
prefer lower levels
Opposite for Extraverts
Extraversion – Introversion
Study
â—¼
Research on study habits
â—¼ Examined differences in where and how they studied
◼ Completed Eysenck’s personality inventory & then
observed
â—¼ Extraverts = chose to study in library locations that
provided external stimulation (open spaces)
◼ Introverts – individual study carrels
◼ Why? Introverts = inborn arousal – takes less to get them
aroused – more sensitive to stimulation – noisy room =
disturbing = difficult to study
Ch. 9 Biological Approach
•
•
•
•
Basic Ideas
Eysenck’s Theory of Personality
Temperaments
Strengths & Weaknesses
Biological Approach – Basic
Ideas
• Stresses the importance of a biological
influence on personality (nature side of the
debate)
• Years ago – psychologists thought we were
products of our experiences
• Today – product of nature & nurture
• Not all people have identical physiological
functioning (brain wave activity; hormone
levels) = differences in behavior
• Decline of Behaviorism’s influence
Hans Eysenck (1916 – 1997)
Personality Theory
• Humans are Biosocial creatures
– Born with predispositions to respond in particular
ways to the environment (traits)
– Traits can be altered by socialization
– Environment & our genes interact to produce
behavior
– Biological factors (genes) play a stronger role
• Trait theorists = born with no personalities
• Added to trait theory = biological foundation
of each trait (genetic component)
Eysenck
• Relied on factor analysis
• Structural model of personality
• Basic dimensions of personality = types =
supertraits
– Extraversion
– Neuroticism (emotionality)
– Psychoticism
• Top of personality structure – exert the most
influence
• Dimensions on which all persons can be
placed
Structural Model of
Personality
• Supertraits (types) are composed of
traits
• Traits are composed of habitual
responses (habits)
• Habits are composed of specific
responses
• Example (in book)
Example of Eysenck’s Model
• Specific responses – specific behavior
– Watch someone spend the afternoon talking &
laughing with friends
• This person spend many hours/many
afternoons with friends = habitual responses
• Interactions not limited to afternoons with
friends but all kinds of social gatherings =
exhibits the trait of sociability
• People who are sociable tend to be
impulsive, active, lively & excitable = these
traits combine to form the type of extraversion
Personality Model – p.224
(Supertrait) Type = Extraversion
Traits =
Sociable
HR-1 HR-2 HR-3
Impulsive
HR-1 HR-2 HR-3
Active
Lively
HR-1 HR-2……………….
SR-1 SR-2 SR-1 SR-2……………….
Depending on where you fall on these dimensions you will
demonstrate different behavior and will also differ in biological
makeup
3 Super traits (Types)
• Extraversion – sociable, impulsive, excitable,
active, lively
– Other end of continuum = introversion
• Quiet, introspective
• Neuroticism – emotionally unstable, high
anxiety level
• Psychoticism – insensitive to others, hostile,
cruel
• Depending on where you fall on these
dimensions you will demonstrate different
behavior & will also differ in biological makeup
Example of biological difference
for extraversion/introversion
• Introverts have higher levels of cortical arousal (base rate – nonstimulating resting state) than extraverts
• As a result, they are likely to be more sensitive to stimulation
• Introverts are quickly overwhelmed by incoming arousal (already
have a natural high internal level)
• Introverts are so easily aroused that they shy away from
stimulation
• Extraverts must seek stimulation to maintain their brain activity
level (arousal level) & avoid boredom
• Extraverts enjoy a noisy party – introverts can’t wait to leave
Assessment Techniques
• Self-report
• Physiological Measures – heart rate,
EEG (brain activity), papillary response
(changes in dilation of pupils associated
with arousal)
-Not much physiological support
Eysenck – why is personality
biologically based?
• Same 3 personality supertraits are
found universally
• Supertraits are stable over time
• Twin studies
– Monozygotic – extraversion
• Raised together = .42
• Raised apart = .61
– Dizygotic = .17
Temperaments
• General behavioral disposition – not as
specific as traits
• Refers to a person’s way of interacting
with the world
– Emotional style/Behavioral style
• Raw ingredients of personality
• Infant studies – active babies; cry
babies; quiet babies; happy babies
Buss-Plomin Model
• 3 temperaments
– Activity – general level of energy output
• Children high = fidgit; squirm
• Adults high = on the go
– Emotionality – intensity of one’s emotional
reactions
• Children high = cry a lot; easily frightened
• Adults high = quick temper
– Sociability – tendency to affiliate & interact with
others
• Children high = seek others to play with; responsive
• Adults high = friends; social activities
Three Ways to Measure
Temperament
• Temperament is inferred from actual
behavior
• Quantify responses in terms of:
– Frequency – how many responses in a
certain amount of time
– Duration – how long each response is
– Amplitude – how intense each response is
Measuring Activity
• Frequency = talking speed; walking
speed
• Duration = time spent engaging in
energetic activities
• Amplitude – active (jumping up and
down) when others are quiet
Buss-Plomin’s Main Point
• Adult personalities are determined by both
inherited temperaments and the environment
– Can have 2 children with identical temperaments
end up to be completely different in terms of their
adult personality
• Temperaments = general behavioral styles
that influence the development of personality
Kagan – Temperament
• Differentiates between inhibited & uninhibited
children
• Inhibited children – controlled; gentle; clingy to
parents; explore new surroundings in a slow way;
anxiety to novelty (10% of Caucasian American
children)
• Uninhibited children – opposite pattern – free;
energetic; spontaneous (25% of Caucasian American
children)
• Pattern (inhibited/uninhibited) seems to persist over
time –but environment determines the degree to
which this biological tendency shapes the
development of adult personality
Other Researchers
• Easy child – approaches new situations;
positive mood; adaptive
– Most preferred
• Difficult child – withdrawn; negative mood; not
very adaptive
• Slow to warm up child – similar to inhibited
• Study – 2/3 of children seem to fit into these
patterns:
– 40% = easy
10% = difficult
15% = slow
Strengths & Weaknesses
• Strengths
– Ties personality to biology
• Personality is a product of biology not just environment
• Better understanding of personality
– Quite a bit of empirical support
• Weaknesses
– Ideas often difficult to test
– Temperament – no agreed upon model
• Buss-Plomin – 3 temperaments
• Kagan – 1 – inhibited/uninhibited
• Others – easy, difficult, slow to warm up

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