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Choose two countries from the following list of countries studied in this class, or alternatively, choose one of these countries and gain

instructor approval

for a second country to study:

Vietnam

India For your final paper, write a 7 to 10 page

comparative

essay that includes the following:

An introduction with a distinct thesis that serves as the main idea of your paper

A well-organized argument that does the following:

Compares and contrasts the imperial history of the two nations, including circumstances leading to independence. For Cuba and Algeria, please make sure to note their “special” circumstances as discussed in the course.

Assesses the development of domestic independence movements and the political and economic ideologies that predominated these independence movements. Did these movements effectively meet the needs of their people?

Analyzes the challenges and opportunities for these nations after independence. What was the role of the Cold War? What impact has globalization had on each?

Evaluates the lasting impact of Western imperialism on each country

A conclusion which sums your argument and restates your thesis

1
THE EUROPEAN EMPIRE
Louis Jauregui
HIS355: Decolonization in Asia Africa and the Americas
Instructor: Victoria Pasley
11 July 2022
2
Introduction
During the colonial period, the rise and spread of nationalism caused people to have a
strong sense of unity and identity. This ultimately increased competition among nation-states.
Nationalism essentially gave rise to the ‘us versus them’ mentality, meaning that people from
similar ethnicities came together against other ethnicities. Nationalism brought a great sense of
unity among colonial rulers as well as their colonies.
European leaders believed that they had the right and the authority to rule over other
peoples and lands. They wanted to create the strongest military, Many European people believed
that their nation was better than other European nations. They also developed a strong sense of
pride in their culture, which they believed to be superior to those of their colonies and less
developed nations. These feelings of superiority led to more conquests and competitions within
the empire. The justifications for empire were rooted in the thought that European culture and
way of life were better than the others. The main justifications include evangelization (spread of
Christianity), racial superiority, the pursuit of the mission for civilization, as well as for
economic enrichment. These factors are largely categorized into three – God, gold, and glory.
Here, God symbolizes the European culture, gold symbolizes the economic gains of
colonialization, and glory represents political superiority (Alcock 2009, 179).
Besides giving rise to colonies, nationalization also contributed to arguments for
independence in India and Indochina (Vietnam).
India
During that time, India was made up of several princely states, most of which were rivals.
This is something the British took to their advantage, making use of long-standing rivalries in an
effort to divide and rule. As they become more powerful and exploitative, states that were
3
formerly rivals began to unite and fight against the British. In 1857, there was a rebellion that led
to the elimination of the East India Company as well as the establishment of the Raj. This was
one of the results of the Nationalism ideals, which began to raise from under the surface and was
seen in terms of bombings, assassination attempts, and attempts to provoke violence and
rebellion. In 1905, when the Viceroy of India announced that Bengal would be divided from the
greater India, the news was received with outrage by united nationalists who wanted to fight
Britain’s ‘divide and rule’ policy. The Indians were greatly angered by the way the British
disrespected public opinion.
During World War One, Indians contributed greatly to the war efforts, and nationalist
leaders had a renewed urgency to agitate for independence. They argued that their contributions
to the war proved that they were capable of governing themselves. These sentiments, together
with the acts of rebellion, pressured the British to pass the Government of India Act in 1919
which led to the creation of a diarchy, which essentially meant that Britain and Indian
administrators would share power (Sengupta 2021).
Besides the violent nature of the anti-imperial movement in India, some efforts were nonviolent. After British troops opened fire on masses of Indians in 1919, the massacre ignited great
fury among Indians across the country. However, Mohandas Gandhi urged Indians to stop
complying with British laws that were unjust. He added that Indians should do this without using
violence of any kind. His end goal was to highlight the injustice of British rule against Indians,
and this strategy was called civil disobedience – the non-violent pushback against unjust laws.
These included the boycott of goods made by the Brits, refusal to attend lower-class schools, and
refusal to pay unfairly high taxes. These efforts hurt the British economy and it responded by
4
making arrests and beatings protesters. However, these protests continued and British rule
eventually ended in 1947.
Indochina (Vietnam)
Similar to India, Vietnam was under European colonial rule, specifically the French. The
French were interested in Vietnam’s natural resources, rich agricultural lands, and strategic
seaports. Even before the French captured Vietnam, Nationalism was largely popular. The
Vietnamese had strived to fend off the Chinese and regain their independence from them. They
viewed themselves as different people from other Southeast Asian groups. This nationalist
energy was then channeled towards fighting their French colonial rulers. One of the most
influential nationalist leaders was Ho Chi Minh. Although he was a young man, he was able to
garner support to start a resistance against France. He believed that his efforts would be more
effective if he joined forces with communists since they were forthright critics of their colonial
rulers (Nguyá»…n 2016).
During the resistance in the 1940s, Ho Chi Minh and his followers fought the French to
regain the country. Although the French maintained control of the major cities, the resistors were
able to regain control of the countryside. The French attempted to starve the nationalist
movements by appealing to Vietnamese traditional authorities to support the Vietnamese
emperor. Most of the new Nationalist and Communist movements were militant insurgencies
based in the urban regions. Although it took time before Vietnam fully regained its
independence, Ho Chi Minh’s efforts contributed to it (Singh 2015).
In conclusion, it is evident that nationalism inspires a great sense of pride, passion, and
patriotism among people of common ethnicity or country. It made the colonialists go out of their
5
way to forcefully rule over other people, and it gave colonies the brevity to fight against their
oppressors.
6
Bibliography
Alcock, Susan E. 2009. Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Nguyễn, Thị Điểu. 2016. “Ritual, Power, and Pageantry.” French Historical Studies 39 (4): 717–
48. https://doi.org/10.1215/00161071-3602244.
Sengupta, Ritam. 2021. “Keeping the Master Cool, Every Day, All Day: Punkah-Pulling in
Colonial India.” The Indian Economic & Social History Review, December,
001946462110645. https://doi.org/10.1177/00194646211064592.
Singh, Sudhir Kumar. 2015. “Colonialisms, Nationalism and Vietnam’s Struggle for Freedom.”
Proceedings of the Indian History Congress 76 (1): 620–30.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/44156629.
1
The European Empire
Louis Jauregui
HIS355: Decolonization in Asia Africa and the Americas
Instructor: Victoria Pasley
18 July 2022
2
European Empire
Introduction
The rise and fall of empires throughout history have been the defining global experience
of the modern period. Between the years 1600 and 1700, European nations began to leave their
imprint on the Americas. When the older, pre-industrial empires collapsed in the late 18th and
early 19th centuries, it paved the way for the rise of new empires, which flourished as Europe
continued to dominate the rest of the globe economically and militarily. A little more than half of
the land area of the earth was occupied by Europe and her colonies and former colonies in the
year 1800. By the year 1914, this percentage had increased to over 85 percent. China, Ethiopia,
Japan, Mongolia, Persia, Siam, and Tibet were the only major areas where humans resided that
had never been governed by Europeans by the time the Second World War broke out.
Nevertheless, in just more than thirty years, practically all of these vast worldwide empires were
brought to their knees. At the close of the 20th century, there were just a handful of dispersed
colonial holdings still in existence. The European empire will be discussed in the paper.
Annotated Bibliography
John, H. D. (2001). Empires: Perspectives from archaeology and history (Vol. 122). Cambridge
University Press.
The source discusses the concept of the empire including the European tradition and the
Rome Empire. To begin with, the author discusses the various definitions of the empire and
progresses to discussing the comparative dynamics of early empires. Also discussed in the book
includes the analytical interest in empires where he discusses how majority of empires follow an
explicit political agenda. Additionally the book also touches on the empires that were established
3
by the pastoral nomads of the Eurasian steppe and nomadic states. The central argument of the
author is about the formation of empires.
Points the author raises to support the thesis
•
While historians cannot agree what precisely empires are, they can paradoxically
question the kinds of shape empires assume
•
Empires function in an environment that is somewhat interesting and often have a
clear political objective.
The source was written for historians with the aim of educating historians on the
formation of empires in the nineteenth century. The source will be essential in my writing in that
it provides information on the justifications for the development of the European empire. The
source is a book.
About the author
Susan Ellen Alcock is a well-known name in the field of archaeology in the United States. She is
an expert in the fields of survey archaeology and the archaeology of memory, particularly as they
pertain to the provinces of the Roman Empire. Alcock was born and reared in Massachusetts,
and he received his education at both Yale University and Cambridge University.
Nguyễn, T. Đ. (2016). Ritual, Power, and Pageantry: French Ritual Politics in Monarchical
Vietnam. French Historical Studies, 39(4), 717-748. https://doi.org/10.1215/00161071-3602244.
The article covers topics such as ritual, power, and ritual politics under the monarchical
system that exists in Vietnam. It examines how the imposition of French republican rituals had a
significant effect on Vietnam. These ceremonies had the effect of de-sacralizing the son of
4
heaven and reducing him to the status of a mere puppet, neither of which were deserving of
devotion. However, the Vietnamese state and people did not simply accept the changes that the
French imposed; rather, they welcomed just a select few parts of the new system while rejecting
its ideological foundations. That was done in order to maintain their independence from the
French. They internalized the rituals that had been brought with them from the West, and these
practices would eventually evolve into newly established customs that would assist them in their
battle for freedom and independence.
The central argument of the article is on French ritual politics in monarchial Vietnam. Some of
the main points that the author mentions include:
•
Colonization is not a one-way process in which the colonizer subjugates the colonized,
but a fluid phenomenon in which the colonized embrace and adapt selectively those
components that best fit their sociocultural traditions.
•
The Vietnamese government and people did not simply accept the French reforms; they
selectively adopted specific features while rejecting their political implications. They
absorbed imported Western ceremonies into new customs to aid them in the battle for
independence and nationhood.
The source is a scholarly paper about French ritual politics in Vietnam. The purpose of this 2016
essay is to enlighten readers on French ritual politics in Vietnam. The study is intended for
historians and anybody else who may be interested in learning about the impact of French
colonies on Vietnam and other nations. The source will be useful in my research in that it
provides information on the European colonial rule on the people of Vietnam.
About the Author
5
Madame Nguyn Th NH (15 March 1920 – 26 August 1992) was the first female commander and
Vice President of Vietnam during the Vietnam War. As NLF deputy commander, she was called
“the most important southern women revolutionary throughout the war.” She also headed the
Long-Haired Army, all-female espionage and warfare organization. In 1967, she was given the
Lenin Peace Prize and granted the title Hero of the People’s Armed Forces posthumously in
1995.
Sengupta, Ritam. 2021. “Keeping the Master Cool, Every Day, All Day: Punkah-Pulling in
Colonial India.” The Indian Economic & Social History Review, December, 001946462110645.
https://doi.org/10.1177/00194646211064592.
The study investigates how the distribution of punkah-pulling labor in colonial Indian residences
and barracks resulted in European masters making ever greater demands on the working hours of
their servants, as well as how these expectations played out in practice. Native personnel at these
institutions sometimes rejected the arduous task of plucking punkah due to caste, custom, or
simple exhaustion. The study seeks to understand how the colonial state, with its legal and
regulatory responsibilities, mediated the contentious area of domestic and service work during
the nineteenth century in the context of such disagreements. Some of the ideas discussed by the
author to support the thesis include:
•
How Native employees sometimes opposed the difficult chore of punkah-pulling due to
caste, habit, or simply tiredness.
•
How domestic and service work’s contentious landscape was mediated by the colonial
state’s legal and regulatory powers during the nineteenth century.
6
The peer-reviewed article published in 2021 discusses how European masters steadily increased
their expectations on the labor time of their employees while punkah-pulling employment was
distributed across colonial India’s houses and barracks. The source will be vital to my essay since
it examines the economic and social history of India, therefore offering material I will utilize to
explore World War I and the British effect on Indian history. The intended audience for the
article includes historians and other individuals interested in learning about Indian history as well
as the British effect in Indian history.
About the author
Ritam Sengupta is completing his doctorate in social sciences at the Centre for Studies in Social
Sciences in Kolkata. His graduate education was in Cultural Studies at EFL-U Hyderabad and in
Social Anthropology at SOAS in London.
Singh, Sudhir Kumar. 2015. “Colonialism, Nationalism and Vietnam’s Struggle for Freedom.”
Proceedings of the Indian History Congress 76 (1): 620–30.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/44156629.
The peer-reviewed journal article discusses nationalism and Vietnam’s struggle for freedom.
Vietnam has been the subject of foreign aggression throughout its history. Vietnam was forced
into the Chinese empire in 1111 BC and stayed until 939 AD. The Chinese constantly expanded
their influence in Vietnam. Vietnamese resisted Chinese political dominance. With the collapse
of the Tang dynasty in 939 A.D., they were able to establish themselves as a separate country in
Asia and exile the Chinese. European powers like the French and Portuguese arrived in Vietnam
in the 19th century seeking economic and religious privileges. French wanted to reach Vietnam
before the British to make up for territorial and economic losses in India. As the country
7
regressed, the French taxed the people heavily. A mandarin-led armed insurrection ended
opposition to French control. Failure spurred revolutionary factions, who led the independence
drive following WWI.
The peer-reviewed journal written in 2015 discusses Vietnam’s struggle for freedom. Some of
the main points discussed to support the thesis of the journal include:
•
How following the creation of the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930, the freedom
fight in Vietnam gained pace and public support.
•
How the Vietnamese people pushed southward over several centuries in order to occupy
the entire eastern seacoast of Indochina.
The audience for the article includes historians and other individuals interested in understanding
Vietnam’s struggle for freedom. The source will be essential in my writing because it discusses
Vietnam’s struggle for independence and the French influence in the country.
Information of the Author
Sudhir Kumar Singh oversees India’s strategy, operations, safety, commercial growth, and
delivery.
Outline
Topic: European Empire
Main sentence: European leaders believed that they had the right and the power to govern other
peoples and regions.
•
A strongest military was what the Europeans sought to build. A great feeling of pride in
their culture, which they saw as superior to that of their colonies and less advanced
countries, also arose among them.
8
•
Evangelization, racial supremacy, the pursuit of the mission for civilization, and
economic wealth were the primary motivations (Alcock 2009, 179).
Main sentence: During World War I, Indians made significant contributions to the war
effort, and nationalist leaders redoubled their efforts to advocate for independence.
•
Indians argued that their participation in the conflict demonstrated their ability to rule
themselves.
•
These feelings and acts of resistance compelled the British to adopt the Government of
India Act in 1919, which effectively meant that British and Indian authorities would share
authority (Sengupta 2021).
Main sentence: Vietnam, like India, was subject to European colonial control, notably
French domination. The French were interested in the natural riches, fertile agricultural
plains, and strategic seaports of Vietnam.
•
Even before to the French conquest of Vietnam, nationalism had widespread support.
Vietnamese had tried to repel the Chinese and reclaim their freedom.
•
Ho Chi Minh was one of the most significant nationalist leaders. Despite his youth, he
was able to mobilize support for a resistance movement against France. He believed
his efforts would be more successful if he joined forces with communists, who were
outspoken critics of their colonial masters (Nguyn, 2016).
9
References
Alcock, Susan E. 2009. Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Nguyễn, Thị Điểu. 2016. “Ritual, Power, and Pageantry.” French Historical Studies 39 (4): 717–
48. https://doi.org/10.1215/00161071-3602244.
Sengupta, Ritam. 2021. “Keeping the Master Cool, Every Day, All Day: Punkah-Pulling in
Colonial India.” The Indian Economic & Social History Review, December,
001946462110645. https://doi.org/10.1177/00194646211064592.
Singh, Sudhir Kumar. 2015. “Colonialisms, Nationalism and Vietnam’s Struggle for Freedom.”
Proceedings of the Indian History Congress 76 (1): 620–30.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/44156629.
THE COLD WAR
1
United States’ Relationship with Vietnam During the Cold War
Louis Jauregui
Instructor: Victoria Palsey
HIS 355 Decolonization in Asia, Africa, and the Americas
26 Jul 22
THE COLD WAR
2
United States’ Relationship with Vietnam During the Cold War
The bipolarity of the Cold War had a global scope and influenced the United States and
USSR’s relations with foreign societies, including shaping the identities and economic systems
of newly emerging states. The communist-capitalist rivalries inspired anti-imperial,
revolutionary movements in countries, such as Vietnam and Cuba (Suri, 2006). While the
Vietnam War, just like many other decolonization movements elsewhere, was a reflection of the
local dynamics preceding the Cold War, it was also a creation of the Cold War. This essay
argues that America’s involvement in the Vietnam War was an extension of the communistcapitalist rivalry in Southern Asia, a region that the United States considered key to its efforts to
curtail the USSR’s global influence.
At the beginning of the conflict in Vietnam, the prevailing view in Washington was that
the independence, anti-imperial, and affiliated movements in Vietnam were not only encouraged
but also financed by the USSR and its subalterns. According to Dedominicis (2021),
Washington’s support for Ho Chi Mingh’s burgeoning anti-colonial movement was a product of
the United States liberation tradition as well as objection to colonialism. America’s view of
colonialism explains President Roosevelt’s anti-colonial rhetoric in which he repeatedly
expressed his disapproval of the French’s efforts to recolonize Indochina (Matsuoka, 2000).
Having emerged from the Second World War with unprecedented economic and military power,
Washington was more concerned about communist expansion than anti-imperialism, which
forced the United States to reluctantly forge alliances with British and French soldiers in
Vietnam, mainly due to the fear of the dominos falling in the communists’ favor if left to their
own devices. Similarly, as Guan (2000) explains, Washington felt that if it left Laos (which
THE COLD WAR
3
shared a common border with communist China and North Vietnam) to fall, South Vietnam,
Burma, Thailand, and Cambodia could soon follow suit.
With Russia and China formally recognizing the Vietnamese forces based in Hanoi in
1950, America, the UK and Vietnam’s former colonial power France recognized the Saigonbased government, laying the foundations for future relationships between the U.S and Vietnam.
Washington’s relations with the Saigon-based government, led by President Ngo Dinh Diem,
who was the leader of the anti-communist forces, deepened with America providing military
assistance to the forces (Matsuoka, 2000). Alarmed by the fact that the north-south division in
Vietnam would be used by communist China and the USSR to further spread communism in
Southern Asia, America deployed its troops in 1964. However, after the 1973 Paris Peace
Accord was signed following years of intense fighting, the U.S withdrew its forces three years
later. The impact of the Cold War on Vietnam can be analyzed based on the country’s position as
a ground for the capitalist-communist rivalry to play out. North Vietnam’s invasion of the South
led to over two million deaths of Vietnam citizens, over a million deaths of soldiers, and longlasting environmental impacts from unexploded ordnance and the use of herbicides.
In conclusion, America’s involvement in the Vietnam War was an extension of the
communist-capitalist rivalry in Southern Asia, a region that the United States considered key to
its efforts to curtail the USSR’s global influence. Washington abandoned its neutrality approach
to international conflicts after the Second World War and took a much more proactive approach
to stem the spread of communism across the world. After Vietnam became independent after
years of French colonial rule in 1945, the First Indochina War broke out a year later. While
America’s initial involvement in the war was limited to providing military assistance to anticommunist forces led by Ngo Dinh Diem, the country deployed troops to Vietnam in 164 to curb
THE COLD WAR
4
the spread of communism. The impact of the war was massive, not only resulting in the deaths of
many Vietnamese citizens and U.S troops but also destroying the Vietnam economy.
THE COLD WAR
5
References
Dedominicis, B. (2021). The Vietnam War and American Nationalism: The Institutionalization
of Stereotypes in the Postwar U.S Foreign Policymaking Process. International Journal
of Interdisciplinary Civic and Political Studies, 16(1), 65-88.
http://dx.doi.org/10.18848/2327-0071/CGP/v16i01/65-88.
Guan, A. (2000). The Vietnam War, 1962-64: The Vietnamese Communist Perspective. Journal
of Contemporary History, 35(4), 601-618.
https://doi.org/10.1177%2F002200940003500405.
Matsuoka, H. (2000). Cold War Perspectives on U.S Commitment in Vietnam. The Japanese
Journal of American Studies, 11:49-69. http://www.jaas.gr.jp/jjas/PDF/2000/No.11049.pdf.
Suri, J. (2006). The Cold War, Decolonization, and Global Social Awakenings: Historical
Intersections. Cold War History, 6(3), 353-363.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14682740600795519.

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