+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

QUESTION 11

The Union had many strengths over the Confederacy. Which of the following was not considered a strength of the Union?

A large population, allowing for it to call on a reserve of manpower.

A substantial industry allowing for the North to produce war materials.

An extensive railroad that allowed for the North to move supplies more rapidly than the South.

Union soldiers were fighting on familiar ground, giving them a clear advantage over the South.

4 points

QUESTION 12

Lincoln’s status among voters was on the decline in late 1863 and throughout 1864. Which of the following is not a reason why many people opposed Lincoln’s reelection in 1864?

He appeared to have overstepped his authority by suspending the writ of habeas corpus in March 1863.

He issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863.

He had replaced General George B. McClellan with General Ambrose Burnside.

He was seen as an uncaring dictator who was too focused on sending men into battle.

4 points

QUESTION 13

While, nursing had been a position previously considered only suitable for disreputable women, during the American Civil War it developed into a major service industry, employing more than 3,000 in the Union alone and opening a new role for women after the war. Who was the trailblazer that was in charge of the Union army’s nurses?

Dorothea Dix

Dolly Sumner Lunt

Clara Barton

Mary Todd Lincoln

4 points

QUESTION 14

After what major military engagement did Lincoln issue the Emancipation Proclamation?

Battle of Antietam

First Battle of Bull Run

Battle of Gettysburg

Battle of Vicksburg

4 points

QUESTION 15

Both the Union and the Confederacy had advantages and disadvantages when they engaged in the American Civil War. What was considered the Union’s primary advantage?

The Union’s great industrial capabilities and extensive railroad grid

The Union had a tremendous slave population which they relied on to serve as soldiers

The Union had the advantage of engaging in the majority of the battles on their territory, so they were familiar with the terrain

The Union had short supply lines, thus getting the needed resources to their soldiers immediately

4 points

QUESTION 16

Match the description given to the most appropriate individual.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Union general during the American Civil War

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Vice president of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

President of the United States during the American Civil War

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

Union colonel who led the 54th Massachusetts unit of African American solders

A.

Abraham Lincoln

B.

Alexander Stephens

C.

Ulysses S. Grant

D.

Robert Gould Shaw

E.

Jefferson Davis

10 points

QUESTION 17

Match the following terms with the most appropriate description.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

J.

Under the leadership of General George B. McClellan, this Union fighting force mainly operated outside of Washington, DC

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

J.

Under the leadership of General Ulysses S. Grant, this Union fighting force mainly operated in Kentucky, Tennessee, and the Mississippi River Valley

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

J.

In May 1861, Union general Benjamin Butler identified slaves who had escaped to the Union army lines. Escaped enslaved people who made it to the Union lines were not returned to slavery and considered a valuable resource to the Union forces

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

J.

A compromise suggested by a Kentucky senator that would restore the 36°30′ line from the Missouri Compromise and extend it to the Pacific Ocean, allowing slavery to expand into the southwestern territories. The compromise was ultimately rejected by Republicans that elected Lincoln and representatives from the southern states.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

J.

This document transformed the American Civil War from a struggle to unify the Union into a struggle to end the institution of slavery.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

J.

Located in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, this Union garrison came under siege by Confederate forces in the bombardment on April 12, 1861, igniting the American Civil War.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

J.

This two-to-three-minute speech was given by Abraham Lincoln at the dedication of a national cemetery on November 19, 1863.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

J.

The right of those arrested to be brought before a judge or court to determine whether there is cause to hold the prisoner

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

J.

This successful campaign of annihilation that stretched from Tennessee to Georgia was employed by Union General William Tecumseh Sherman.

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

J.

In late 1862, the course of the American Civil War changed to take on the characteristics in which the government makes no distinction between military and civilian targets, and mobilizes all resources, extending its reach to all areas of citizens’ lives

A.

The Gettysburg Address

B.

Habeas corpus

C.

March to the Sea

D.

Fort Sumter

E.

Crittenden Compromise

F.

Army of the Potomac

G.

Army of the West

H.

Total War

I.

Emancipation Proclamation

J.

contrabands

20 points

QUESTION 18

Place the events listed below in correct chronological order.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Fort Sumter, a federal fort located in the harbor of the Confederate city Charleston, South Carolina, is bombarded

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Abraham Lincoln is elected the 16th president of the United States

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

South Carolina becomes the first state to secede from the Union

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, George, and Louisiana secede from the Union during the same month

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Texas becomes the last of the Deep South (or Lower South) states to secede from the Union

UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE
American Civil War
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
5. Discuss the evolution of American perspectives.
5.1 Recognize events that influenced the political environment during the era of the American Civil
War.
7. Summarize the factors leading to the American Civil War.
7.1 Identify major events that took place during the American Civil War.
7.2 Characterize influential figures of the American Civil War era.
Course/Unit
Learning Outcomes
5.1, 7.1, 7.2
Learning Activity
Unit Lesson
Chapter 15 (5 sections)
Webpage: Transcript of the Proclamation
Webpage: The Emancipation Proclamation
Webpage: Transcript of The Gettysburg Address
Video Segment: “Gettysburg Address”
Video Segment: “Civil War Erupts”
Video Segment: “Lincoln’s Assassination”
Unit VIII Assessment
Required Unit Resources
In order to access the following resources, click the links below.
Corbett, P. S., Janssen, V., Lund, J. M., Pfannestiel, T., Waskiewicz, S., & Vickery, P. (2014). U.S. history.
OpenStax. https://openstax.org/details/books/us-history
Chapter 15: The Civil War, 1860–1865, Sections Introduction–15.4
National Archives. (n.d.). The Emancipation Proclamation. https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featureddocuments/emancipationproclamation#:~:text=President%20Abraham%20Lincoln%20issued%20the,and%20henceforward%2
0shall%20be%20free.%22
National Archives. (2017). Transcript of the proclamation. https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featureddocuments/emancipation-proclamation/transcript.html
Library of Congress. (n.d.). Transcript of the Gettysburg Address. https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/gettysburgaddress/ext/trans-nicolay-inscribed.html
Videos:
The transcripts for these videos can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the
Films on Demand database.
HIS 1301, American History I
1
History Education (Producer). (2006). Gettysburg Address (Segment 32 of 39)UNIT
[Video].
In Lincoln.
Films on
x STUDY
GUIDE
Demand.
Title
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=43087&loid=112158
BBC Worldwide Learning (Producer). (2019). Civil War erupts (Segment 4 of 13) [Video]. In American
history’s biggest fibs: The American Civil War. Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=187465&loid=560530
BBC Worldwide Learning (Producer). (2019). Lincoln’s assassination (Segment 7 of 13) [Video]. In American
history’s biggest fibs: The American Civil War. Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=187465&loid=560533
Unit Lesson
The Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, and the caning of Charles Sumner were
examples of the rising political discourse emerging in the significant changes to the American population.
What is often an overlooked fact is that the idea of the United States as a melting pot was perhaps never truer
than in the Northern cities along the Atlantic Coast. This was especially true in terms of New York, which, with
its room to sprawl and natural access to miles of coastline perfect for shipping, was a natural starting point for
many Europeans.
European Migrations
Advertisement for a nanny in 1868 Boston requiring that “Positively no Irish need apply.”
(Boston Transcript 1868)
Among the most desperate were the Irish, suffering from a potato crop famine and blatant subjugation by
wealthy English landlords. The Potato Famine (1845–1849), coupled with limited opportunities on the
European mainland, made the United States the most likely chance for a better life. Unfortunately, for many,
this was not found. Many Irish ended up in cheaply built and over-occupied shacks called tenements. With
poor to no sewage systems and rampant malnutrition, the region was a cesspool of disease. Those healthy
enough to work often could not find employment, as many established businesses displayed “No Irish” signs,
fearing that the expected cheaper labor would still not make up for the lost business to be expected. On top of
everything, the Protestant nation still held grave bias against loyal Catholics, which included the Irish and
used this as motivation against supporting them.
The Irish, however, were not the only group to migrate, and not all experiences were equal. Another of the
largest migrations at this time were the Germans. Fueled by political unrest in their homeland, many German
families came to the United States. Unlike the poverty-stricken Irish, however, they often had the collateral or
capital to settle west of the coast. In fact, one could say that these Germans were among the first to truly take
advantage of the expansion fever in the United States, eventually settling much of what is now the Midwest,
including cities like Chicago. Still, religion was a factor for many, and as most of the German migrants were
Catholic, this, too, caused rampant segregation in these early settlements.
HIS 1301, American History I
2
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title
Joseph Becker’s sketch “Across the Continent” 1870 (Becker, 1870)
Just as the East and Midwest were growing, so was the quickly developing West, but for different reasons.
The Gold Rush of 1849 drew more than just prospectors from the East. It caught the eye of another major
migration group seeking fortune: the Chinese.
Like most prospectors, very few Chinese migrants would find the treasures they came for, but with expansion
came opportunity. The railroad was quickly carving up the Western landscape, and this demand required
cheap, unskilled labor. The Chinese became a major labor force with this process, and this led to the deaths
of many from explosives, dangerous airborne particles, or workplace accidents. They were willing to work for
near nothing to survive, which undercut many non-Chinese family men, making them unable to obtain work,
causing much friction throughout the communities.
Abolition
This fear of job loss was not unique to the European and Asian migrations. There was one additional group
that perhaps caused the most concern, even to immigrants: freed enslaved people.
While slavery was felt by many to be an unnecessary, racist institution, many of those same people feared
what would happen if all the enslaved people were suddenly free and equal. For persons who knew nothing of
ownership or possession, and who had, for generations, lived in and on the absolute bare minimum, an influx
of new labor into the northern market was a legitimate fear.
For generations, new immigrants had fulfilled the unskilled labor need in factories and ports. Successive
generations were able to improve their situations or move. But, would this still be possible with the sudden
release of millions of workers desperate to get away from their abusive owners?
The American Civil War
If you were to look at the situation in 1861, having only the quotes of leaders from both the Union and
Confederacy, it might be impossible to think that either side could possibly be the aggressor. Both considered
their cause justified by both political and divine reason, and each considered the actions of the other as
inexcusable actions toward an unpardonable end.
In total, 11 states left the Union to form the Confederate States of America. The issues were at least partially
geographical in nature. The aggressive situations that had separated the two sides stemmed not from a
question of creed, belief, or personal defense, but what was a direct attack on culture. In just over 80 years,
the nation rallied to defeat the most dominant military on earth, more than tripled its size, and held off what
seemed like countless outside pressures. Now, it had started to finally unravel due to an internal struggle.
A civil war is different than any other conflict. In international campaigns, you can quantify your wins and
losses based on casualties and damage statistics. When you are fighting your neighbor, every casualty,
destruction, and theft is your loss. Each loss is just one more example of how separate the two sides of the
HIS 1301, American History I
3
same coin can be, and ultimately serves as one more issue that will have to be
rectified
beforeGUIDE
peace can be
UNIT
x STUDY
made.
Title
As passionate as many were when discussing secession, few truly wanted it to come to that. Southerners
would ultimately blame the election of Abraham Lincoln in November 1860, an outspoken nationalist with
clear abolitionist views, to the nation’s highest office as the catalyst of the war, but that is only the last in a
series of events. Perhaps the more honest reason would be admitting that Lincoln’s election to office was
proof that the South no longer had the ability to defend its values nationally, and that the expanding nation
was headed in a different direction than the tradition-laden South. Lincoln did not capture even 40% of the
popular vote, but the power of the government had swayed so much against slave-holding states in the
preceding years that Southern votes ultimately did not matter (A&E Network, 2020). Perhaps the most
important lesson learned from the Revolutionary era was that when your voice is shunned, it is time to either
speak louder or reconsider the other half of the conversation.
Even for the states that seceded, the choice to take up arms against a neighbor was not an easy one. The
states with the greatest conviction, such as South Carolina, were not going to be the site of the majority of the
destruction. It was the border states’ devotion that was ultimately most strenuously tested.
For states such as Kentucky and Maryland, which had both a nationalist and a slaveholding tradition, this was
a nightmare. Both ultimately remained loyal to the Union, but inside of these border states there was a second
internal conflict, as a literal neighbor-fighting-neighbor scenario erupted in many cases.
In those that would eventually secede, much of the same tension was seen. In Tennessee, for example, the
mountainous east did not share the pro-slavery cause of the central and west. Many who supported
secession also had hoped a peaceful resolution would come before hostilities. Instead, this internal rift was
the cause of some of the most heinous examples of vicious behavior, not unlike the rapport between patriots
and loyalists on the path toward independence. Maryland, which ultimately rejected secession, was first
stripped of its civil liberties and invaded to add pressure on the local government. In the already divided
Missouri, political loyalty to the Union did not stop individuals who took up arms and terrorist tactics in support
of the Confederacy. Kentucky was nearly divided in two between the opposing sides. With Virginia already
wavering toward supporting the South (and ultimately choosing to), this border was an essential acquisition
for the Union, despite its long-standing pro-slavery stance.
Northern Interests
In the North, some would say the war was to combat a continued evil practice, and that liberation of an
oppressed population was a priority. However, it is clear from the ideas of their own splintering parties that
abolition was not the ultimate priority.
In fact, as we have already discussed, abolition’s potential impact on the economy, especially for many lowerclass workers, caused some political platforms to even advocate segregationist policies. More honest reasons
could include how the loss of the Southern states drastically impacted the potential for industrial growth in the
North, and that much of the nation’s military tradition was rooted in the South, so the adoption of new territory
did not mean that separation from old bonds was a positive thing. The nation was fractured and weak after
the Southeastern separation, and while the nation had become astute at the gaining of land through economic
and military means, salvaging lost territory was a foreign concept.
Abraham Lincoln knew the mess he was walking into. He was shrewd in his rhetoric and understood that his
only hope at eventually reuniting the nation required keeping the focus of the war firmly on reunification and
not abolition.
Lincoln’s initial strategy was simple: remind the Southern leaders that his platform did not threaten slavery as
it existed and hope that the pockets of abolition support throughout the nation would fight that battle. Jefferson
Davis, named president of the Confederate States of America, was methodical in his preparations. Not
wanting to be singled out as the chief aggressor, or to aggravate additional support, Davis awaited Lincoln’s
reaction to the secession of the first wave of states.
HIS 1301, American History I
4
Fort Sumter
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title
For the stalemate to end, there had to be a catalyst. Interestingly enough, South Carolina once again led the
way, as a federally manned small fort off the Charleston shore would not change its alliances with the United
States just because of its current situation. The barrage at Fort Sumter had a cataclysmic effect in much the
same way as the “shot heard around the world” at Concord. This seemingly minor skirmish would become
accepted as the first shots of the war.
On April 12, 1861, during an attempted resupply of basic necessities, Davis ordered a two-day bombardment
of Fort Sumter. When the dust cleared, the South took the strategic fort, but for this next generation of
soldiers, who had little to no wartime experience, their world changed overnight—the nation was at war.
Lincoln used Fort Sumter as a rallying cry in his message to Congress. On April 15, 1861, along with the
declaration of war came an overabundance of volunteers for the cause. Even former competitors
strengthened Lincoln’s oratory, lavishing zealous support and nationalistic praise that served to multiply the
production and resources necessary for what was widely assumed and publicized as a short, aggressive
affair.
The Union’s Advantage
With the battle lines drawn, the war could begin in earnest, but even with the pickup of four additional states,
the Union should still have been the clear victor of a short conflict. In preparing for war, the North was the
clear superior on paper. In terms of population, industry, transportation, and production, the North dwarfed the
South. The South’s chief export, cotton, was the best-case scenario for the South to compete, at least for a
while, but the North’s naval power far exceeded that of the South. This allowed it to blockade major ports
along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, to which the South did not have a response.
This same blockade even threatened aggression toward European buyers, such as Britain and France, to
keep them from interfering. A new trade developed between these European powers and the Union—grains
for weapons—and dependence moved cotton production to the British-controlled regions of Egypt and India.
The final blow was the association of the war with slavery, which had already been outlawed in Europe. This
link was unmistakable after President Lincoln delivered his most famous address on abolitionism, announcing
the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862 at the hallowed battlefield at Antietam.
The Union’s economy and infrastructure were also in much greater condition than those of the South. Just as
discussed with the Articles of Confederation, the Confederate States of America was a collection of
independent governments more than a strong central power over multiple local governments. This meant that
economics, leadership, and even the military were regulated by the individual state, not by Confederate
President Jefferson Davis from the capital in Richmond, Virginia.
Southern Strengths
What the South did have was a series of intangible strengths that would be the reason why the war lasted
four years instead of four months: leadership, tradition, and geography. Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee,
rather than Lincoln, were arguably the two superior leaders for their sides. Davis had a military education,
wartime experience, and was previously the Secretary of War; Lincoln’s political career had only seen a few
brief weeks in the executive branch, and he had previously only served a short time as a congressman.
The Union ranks were at a crossroads—many of its greatest leaders were either too old or too young to lead
the army successfully, and until 1863, Lincoln had to continue to look for leadership during the war’s
progression. Robert E. Lee, on the other hand, had been at the top of his class at West Point and an officer in
the Mexican-American War. In addition, with the secession of Virginia, he had refused the commission to lead
the Union forces. Lee, however, was ultimately devoted to his home and the culture of the Old South.
Regarding tradition, with the exception of the U.S. Military Academy in West Point, New York, the nation’s
foremost military schools were in the South. Though each taught the importance of service to their country,
most graduates would have to decide for themselves who their loyalties truly belonged to, just as Lee had. In
total, one third of the enlisted officers followed Lee into the Confederate service. Many of the leaders in this
war knew their opposing commanders. Some had served together, like Lee and Scott, during the Mexican-
HIS 1301, American History I
5
American War, while others may have attended the same academy, or even represented
the academy
UNIT x STUDY
GUIDE in the
same clubs or sports. This was just one more aspect that made the proximity of
the war so devastating.
Title
Last, with regard to geography, the majority of the fighting took place in the South. Because the geography
and climate were greatly different than those of the North, this was a great advantage to the Southern cause.
Southern men knew the trails and terrain—where to hide and fight, and how to escape. Even those in the
South who did not choose sides found themselves compelled to join the Confederate cause.
A man needed to defend his family, possessions, and community because the invading force was not going to
ask for proof of Union loyalty when setting fire to a town. Also, as an added measure of pressure, many
Southern women made it clear that to fight was a show of bravery and manliness, and that it was better to be
injured in battle than unscathed and afraid to fight for them.
The Unlisted Soldier
A leader of this women’s movement, Mary Ann Bickerdyke’s contributions to nursing and women’s roles
would continue to influence the service well after the war.
(Ritchie, 1867)
Women, who were unable to enlist, still had a role to play in the war effort (Roark et al., 2013). Many of those
who did not have to take on the roles vacated by husbands, fathers, brothers, or sons served for the first time
as camp followers, servants to the cause, support for troops, and even nurses. Nursing had been a position
previously considered only suitable for disreputable women. However, it developed into a major service
industry during the war years, employing more than 3,000 in the Union alone and opening a new role for
women after the war. This was not an immediate progression; however, it was only possible through the
efforts of trailblazing women on both sides, including Mary Ann Bickerdyke, Clara Barton, and Dorothea Dix,
who refused to allow the armies to ignore such an important resource. Without any doubt, the work of these
women saved the lives of countless thousands from untimely ends because of wounds, disease, and brutal
conditions.
African Americans, too, had a role in the war, starting with the 1861 Confiscation Act, which legalized the
seizure of any slave associated with the Confederacy. Though it would take until 1863 to organize, possibly
because of a clear need, the Union Army eventually began to enlist African American soldiers. Though not the
only unit, probably the most famous example was the 54th Massachusetts led by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw
of Boston. Sadly, their most significant engagement was a battle at Fort Wagner, South Carolina, on July 18,
1863, that killed about 250 members of their unit, but the regiment itself was a great success.
HIS 1301, American History I
6
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title
The Gallant Charge of the Fifth Fourth Massachusetts (Colored) Regiment
(Currier & Ives, 1863)
Showing valor and sacrifice in the face of insurmountable odds, this regiment did a lot to change the views
about African Americans in the U.S. military. The 1989 movie Glory is based on this regiment, and except for
some key omissions and Hollywood magic, the film is a good introduction to many of the basic attitudes,
prejudices, and problems that emerged during the training of the regiment. Its ending is strategically staged to
be powerful; however, the 54th and its struggles did not completely end at Fort Wagner. Near the end of the
war, Sherman’s Special Field Order 15 also helped to spark Reconstruction efforts in the South. In total, it is
estimated that upwards of 200,000 African American soldiers fought in some capacity for the Union by the
end of the war.
First Bull Run / Manassas
This was a war that took place in stages, the first of which belonged to the South. General Robert E. Lee
commanded, from Virginia, an army that was the soul of the Southern attack. The military leaders, business
experts, and politicians knew that the North’s resources put them above the Southern threat, but it did not
take long for the nation to realize this would not end quickly.
On July 21, 1861, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, two armies, dressed to the nines, formed lines in
textbook form. Seemingly appropriate to the fanfare of the occasion, off in the distance was a crowd of
onlookers, some from the press, others just anticipating what was to happen. Any gamblers would have put
their money on the ones dressed in blue, numbering 35,000, over the ones attired in gray, only 20,000 strong
and trying to defend a railroad depot from falling into enemy hands. After the first few volleys, however,
something unexpected happened. It was the soldiers in blue who were being shown up, and to make matters
worse, an additional 25,000 men in gray uniforms came charging into the fray. Brigadier General Irvin
McDowell, commanding from the back and now looking more green than navy blue, ordered a hasty retreat,
much to the surprise of the crowd. The South successfully defended Manassas (Bull Run) in the first major
battle since the war began. The headlines the next day confirmed the defeat.
Fort Sumter was not a fluke; the rebels were serious about their cause, and already looked better-trained and
more prepared for what was to come. Future engagements would make the casualties at Bull Run look
minuscule and insignificant. However, it was the victory that mattered. All the strategies, tactics, and
resources would not guarantee a swift victory, and the Union spent the first year and a half revising and
surviving. The first move was a change in leadership—General George B. McClellan took the helm as the
general in chief of the Union land forces.
HIS 1301, American History I
7
The Early War
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title
.
The Battle of Hampton Roads, March 9, 1862.
(McCaffrey’s Elite Photo, 1862)
Through the first years of the war, there were two major fronts; the first, in what is currently Northern Virginia,
would see much of the primary headline action. This was not only for the early major battles, but for the
populations that were in potential risk of engagement, including Washington, D.C., and Richmond, Virginia,
the two capitol cities. The second front followed the Mississippi River, and the most noted outcome of that
campaign happened in 1862.
What may have been the most unlikely, yet intriguing, battlefield took place near the harbor at Norfolk,
Virginia, between two experimental ironclad ships. Prior to this time, most water-based war vessels were
heavy, wooden, and fought with either a precise ram to a strategic point from the front, or a volley of cannon
fire from the side. The ironclads were among the first vessels to cause a change in naval strategy.
The Merrimack was a converted warship outfitted with iron plating and rechristened the CSS Virginia. It was
practically impenetrable and served as the only offensive weapon of consequence against the Union
blockade. Not to be outdone, the Union was working on a similar project. Barely visible from above water, with
guns on a turret and placed at a strategic level to do maximum damage to wooden vessels, the USS Monitor
engaged the CSS Virginia on March 9, 1862. Though this battle ended up a stalemate, it was arguably a
successful test and was an inspiration for the future of the U.S. Navy.
In May1862, Lee took his first major field command just outside of Richmond. The boisterous McClellan
became a nervous mouse in combat, and the Southern veteran war hero riding opposite of him only made
things worse. Flanking Lee was the hero of Manassas, General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, as well as
E.B. “Jeb” Stuart, who was one of the most talented young officers to grace the field of battle. The superior
leadership under Lee removed McClellan within a week of taking command, and with him the threat against
Richmond. Lincoln, who the delusional McClellan considered a “dunce,” was in a poor situation. Frustrated
with McClellan, he tried substituting in yet another new commander, General John Pope, but Pope’s
laughable defeat at Second Manassas forced Lincoln to reinstate McClellan yet again.
Antietam
Lee, now taking the offensive to the Union, again engaged McClellan on September 17, 1862 at Antietam in
Maryland in what became the single bloodiest day of the Civil War. Lee was pushed back south, but once
again McClellan proved his lack of talent in commanding the superior force, and Lincoln replaced him with
General Ambrose Burnside. Burnside had no greater luck. On December 13, 1862, outside of Fredericksburg,
Lee proved his superior strategy, causing 13,000 casualties to Burnside’s 5,000. Lincoln witnessed a conflict
that had been expected to be only a few months but had now had lasted 2 full years. The outmanned,
outmaneuvered, and out-resourced Confederacy showed few weaknesses, at least in the East.
HIS 1301, American History I
8
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title
Lincoln with the Emancipation Proclamation
(Perine & Giles, 1865)
Despite the foolhardy attitude of McClellan and the vast casualties, President Lincoln used the news of this
substantial victory as motivation for one of the most famous and influential speeches of his career: the
Emancipation Proclamation. Signed on September 22, 1862, but issued on January 1, 1863, Lincoln
promised that all enslaved people associated in any way with the Confederate cause “are, and henceforward
shall be free (Lincoln, 1862).” Though subject to scrutiny over its limitations, such as only impacting seceded
states, and purposely omitting Union-controlled regions in the South (like Kentucky), this landmark document
would serve a dual role as an order for acceptance of African American soldiers and sailors into the Union
cause. Lincoln knew that ending slavery in the Confederacy would help to end the war, but he also knew that
his words were only as powerful as those willing to hear them. While for Americans this was a direct
challenge to the perceived sovereignty of the Confederate States of America, on a wider scale, it also
attacked potential international Confederate sympathies by demonstrating that this war was addressing an
abolitionist cause. Lincoln in 1862 explained his position the following way.
If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing
all of the enslaved people I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others
alone I would also do that … I have here stated my purpose according to my view of official
duty; and I intend no modification of my oft-expressed personal wish that all men everywhere
could be free.
HIS 1301, American History I
9
The Western Front
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title
Ulysses S. Grant on horseback. (Library of Congress, n.d.)
To the west, a young but experienced General Ulysses S. Grant was an integral cog in the plan to shorten the
war by constriction and destruction of supply lines. Grant was not favored by much of the Union brass.
Considered a wildcard and an alcoholic, a condition that some historians today argue was due to depression
caused by separation from his loved ones, he was dismissed by some as a commander, but he proved to be
perhaps the strongest leader in the entire Union Army. The first break in Davis’ supply line was his planned
Pacific route at Glorieta Pass outside of Santa Fe, New Mexico, where the Union successfully routed a
Confederate and Native American alliance of troops. From there, it was a march to Tennessee and a
campaign to take the Mississippi River.
The Union blockade effectively shut down every major port along the Confederate coast, but that did not take
away the strategic significance of the port cities New Orleans, Mobile, Savannah, and Charleston, all of which
contributed to the still-successful movement of supply and communication lines. Starting from Fort Donelson,
then to Shiloh, and finally into sites along the river itself, this western Union campaign was successful in both
taking and doling out punishment.
Shiloh was perhaps the strongest western parallel to what had been seen in Antietam. Grant was pummeled
on day one, but kept his composure, and on day two he introduced tactics that would permanently remove the
Confederate threat west of the Mississippi River. Roughly 20,000 total casualties over two days, however,
had a major effect. It awoke a fearless, relentless leader in Grant, and word of those successes would catch
the attention of the frustrated Lincoln. Now that Grant controlled the Mississippi River, Vicksburg was the next
target. The second wave of the war began in 1863.
The Later War
Despite the string of victories that the South had earned in the first two years of the war, each loss the South
took stung significantly more than a loss would affect the North, which could more easily replenish reserves,
weapons, and necessities. With the outright threat to the future of slavery, this became an even grimmer
situation. The civic rhetoric that had at first united the Confederate cause, along with the perceived superiority
over enslaved people, was quickly losing its effectiveness as losses clearly took an unequal toll—while the
rich lost more in quantity, the poor nearly starved to death.
The South’s poor economic infrastructure did nothing to help address this loss. Soon it required a draft to
enlist any able-bodied Southern man, as well as a new program of eminent domain to ensure that those
enlisted would have enough to mount a fight. Richmond was making itself into a centralizing government,
exactly what had driven many to abandon the Union originally. In this confusion, and on the heels of the nowvalid Emancipation Proclamation, enslaved people began to dare to flee the plantation—some to freedom,
others to join the Union forces.
HIS 1301, American History I
10
The North had opposite economic effects. The war did wonders for the strong UNIT
industrial
base in
the North. It
x STUDY
GUIDE
provided greater jobs and money to the still-rapid influx of immigrants into Eastern
Titlecities and allowed for
stronger agreement in Congress, resulting in the passing of economic bills. It also provided new opportunities
for women and free African Americans to become more interwoven in society.
Socially, however, it deepened the divides on almost every possible disagreement. The war had not started
with a strong Northern base of support because of fears of abolition and the heavy toll of loss. Now, in year
three of what had been expected to last only months, the losses continued to pile up, and attitudes continued
to strain against the continued conflict.
The North, like the South, also had to institute a draft as voluntary enlistments slowed drastically. The option
to buy one’s way out of the draft ruffled feathers, as now those sent to war would be a random draw from an
overwhelmingly lower-class pool. Northern people wanted an end to the fighting as much as those in the
South, but neither side was willing to surrender. Lincoln took any actions he could to stifle the growing vocal
resentment, including the removal of more civil liberties.
Turning Points
Back on the battlefield, if there is one thing that both sides agreed upon, it was that the war had a very clear
turning point. Ironically, it affected both remaining fronts at the same time.
General George G. Meade would be the next commander of the disappointing eastern campaign; Stonewall
Jackson, with the use of a brilliant flanking strategy at Chancellorsville, embarrassed Lincoln and the
overconfident Union General Joseph Hooker. Lee still had all the momentum despite having a significantly
smaller army at his command. This momentum, however, proved to breed a weakness in Lee. Expecting too
much from his battered troops, he once again took the offensive, marching into Pennsylvania where he
encountered Meade, who had already stationed his forces on the superior high grounds. This left Lee’s forces
in a vulnerable state.
125th New York Infantry Monument, one of many monuments that line the hallowed fields at Gettysburg,
Pennsylvania.
(Severence, n.d.)
For the next three days, July 1–3, 1863, these two generals engaged in the most devastating battle of the
war, Gettysburg. Lee’s biggest mistake probably came in the early afternoon of the third day of fighting, during
a siege known as Pickett’s Charge. In an attempt to make some dent in the Union lines, he sent a sizable
force into an open field where they were slaughtered after inflicting only minor damage. Lee lost a third of his
army at Gettysburg, approximately 28,000 soldiers, and had to retreat, limping from his first major loss of the
war.
HIS 1301, American History I
11
Grant, at the same time, was firmly in charge of the Mississippi River campaign.
He xhad
his sights
on
UNIT
STUDY
GUIDE
Vicksburg, a major post in the South’s supply lines. Grant once again took overly
aggressive tactics to
Title
weaken his opponents and force a conclusion. For six weeks, his army had besieged the city until, on July 4,
30,000 Southerners, starving and weary, gave up their city, officially capping the Confederate States of
America’s western border at the Mississippi River.
Now, in conjunction with the blockade surrounding the entire Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic shoreline, the Union
controlled all Confederate borders. Just as at Vicksburg, with enough relentless artillery, it simply became a
war of attrition. Grant greatly impressed Lincoln despite the concerns of his advisers. Lincoln needed results,
and Grant was the first commander who had proven an ability to consistently deliver. The Confederacy lost
nearly 60,000 soldiers in three days and could never recoup the momentum held at the beginning of the war.
Grant’s Total War Strategy
If hindsight was possible, the war would have ended on July 4, 1863. Instead, the fight continued for almost
another 2 full years, and the losses drove both sides to bitter feelings toward the war and their leadership.
Having already sewn up the western border, Grant remained in Tennessee until March, 1864, when Lincoln
promoted him to general-in-chief of all Union armies. Grant’s style was barbaric but effective. In a twopronged attack, Grant engaged what was left of Lee’s army in Virginia while his most trusted friend, General
William Tecumseh Sherman, was sent to Atlanta to again enact a Western border by cutting the Confederate
States of America in half.
Lee and Grant’s engagements proved to be some of the most devastating of the entire war. The Battle of the
Wilderness resulted in 18,000 Union and 11,000 Confederate casualties, Spotsylvania had 18,000 Union and
10,000 Confederate casualties, and Cold Harbor had 13,000 Union and 5,000 Confederate casualties. All
three were decisive Union victories because the South had no option but to retreat.
General William Tecumseh Sherman
(Brady, ca. 1860)
Grant was brutally aggressive; he knew that his superior resources could not be beaten; while Lee, having
roughly 60,000 left in his army after Gettysburg, could not replenish his losses. Finally, Grant had Lee pinned
at Petersburg outside of Richmond, and a siege reminiscent of Vicksburg began. Grant had Lee where he
wanted him; now it was a matter of how long Lee could hold out without fresh supplies.
To the South, Sherman was just as relentless. With the exception of a brief skirmish at Kennesaw Mountain,
he sliced through Georgia without opposition. Grant’s command was to make war so brutal that the people of
the South would plead for the war to end and never dare secede again.
HIS 1301, American History I
12
Civilians were not to be hurt, but any possessions (e.g., food, money, metals) UNIT
were to
be confiscated
x STUDY
GUIDE or
destroyed, and enslaved people were to be taken in by the army. Sherman could
Titlenot be stopped; he took
Atlanta and moved right on through to Savannah, accomplishing the task given to him by Grant and setting
aside 400,000 acres south of Charleston, which, during the years of Reconstruction after the conclusion of the
Civil War, became known as Sherman Land. While all of this was happening, Lincoln secured his second
term with a resounding victory over familiar rival George McClellan in the 1864 Presidential election.
Surrender and Loss
The McLean House. Appomattox, Virginia, 1865.
(O’Sullivan, 1865)
Lee left Petersburg on April 2, 1865, opening the road to Richmond for Grant. General Robert E. Lee formally
surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865, at the McLean House near Appomattox, Virginia.
Lee and his men were immediately treated with civility; they were fed and given the opportunity to return
home. They were even allowed to keep any army supplies that would help them rebuild. The Confederacy
was dead and the war over. There were 620,000 American casualties—the costliest American war ever.
Lincoln’s successful reelection in 1864 and war victory also came with personal accomplishments, including
the formal end to all slavery on American soil via the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment—an
amendment that the former Confederate states had to agree to prior to rejoining the United States. However,
on April 14, 1865, less than a week after Lee’s unconditional surrender at Appomattox, President Lincoln was
fatally shot by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. In the wake of Lincoln’s assassination, his vice
president, Tennessee’s Andrew Johnson, was sworn into office.
Andrew Johnson, circa 1875 or before.
(Brady, ca. 1875)
HIS 1301, American History I
13
Johnson, like Lincoln, understood that he was walking into a storm, but even though
intentions
UNIT xtheir
STUDY
GUIDEwere
relatively similar, as in the peaceful reintroduction of secessionist states and aTitle
full pardon to any
Confederates who renounced secession, his ties to his native Tennessee led to drastic challenges. It should
be noted, however, that Johnson was from Greensboro, Tennessee, one of several Eastern communities in
the mountains that were vocally anti-slavery. However, that was little consolation for many still angry after
years of fighting. Johnson would see the nation through the first few years of Reconstruction, but in 1868, he
would be replaced as the Republican candidate by none other than Ulysses S. Grant, the hero of the Civil
War.
The first nine decades of the United States tell the story of an unlikely nation, one that, despite its faults,
would become an inspiration to many future nations. It was the first functioning democracy, survived
numerous wars against internal and external pressures, and hashed out issues of moral and social
consequence, all while keeping an oath to serve one’s neighbor while respecting the framework established
by the forefathers. Is there any one specific issue or event that was of greater significance than any other, to
an individual? Perhaps yes, but no matter the trials, the United States continued to evolve.
A Closing Note
We are just getting started with our final unit! As you all know by this time, our study guide material works in
concert with the information from our textbook and the other required videos, so make certain that you
carefully review the required resources list for this unit. For Unit VIII, our sole focus will be on the American
Civil War (Chapter 15: The Civil War, 1860—1865). It will begin with the secession of the seven Lower South
states from the United States, who will later be joined by five additional southern states to form the
Confederate States of America (CSA). While the CSA officially formed in February 1861, after the first seven
states seceded from the Union, the American Civil War did not officially start until April 12, 1861. Throughout
Unit 6 and Unit 7, we focused on catalytic events that gave rise to the war. In Unit VIII, our focus will be on the
military campaigns, tactics, and strategies. We will also look at how some of the campaigns impacted sociopolitical decisions that were made during the war.
In Unit I, we discussed that while history may be in the past, it isn’t “dead,” and it still impacts us all. History is
clearly alive through the ongoing academic research, the books we read, the historical documents that we
cherish, or the rabbit holes of our own research that we willingly dive into. History is alive through the clear
connection between historical and contemporary events that allow us all to recognize, reflect, and apply the
opportunities or the challenges that arise. We hope that you have enjoyed taking this journey and hope that
you continue your own research into America’s history!
References
A&E Networks. (2020). Election of 1860. The History Channel. https://www.history.com/topics/american-civilwar/election-of-1860
Becker, J. (1870). Chinese railroad workers Sierra Nevada [Illustration]. Wikimedia Commons.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinese_railroad_workers_sierra_nevada.jpg
Boston Transcript. (1868). No Irish need apply [Image]. Wikimedia Commons.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:No_Irish_Need_Apply.jpg
Brady, M. (ca. 1865). Tecumseh Sherman [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tecumseh_sherman.jpg
Brady, M. (ca. 1875). Andrew Johnson photo portrait head and shoulders [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Andrew_Johnson_photo_portrait_head_and_shoulders,_c18
70-1880-Edit1.jpg
Currier & Ives. (1863). The gallant charge of the Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts (colored) regiment [Image].
Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Gallant_Charge_of_the_FiftyFourth_Massachusetts_Colored_Regiment_(1863),_Currier_and_Ives.jpg
HIS 1301, American History I
14
Library of Congress. (n.d.). Ulysses S. Grant on horseback [Photograph]. Wikimedia
UNIT x Commons.
STUDY GUIDE
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ulysses_S_Grant_on_horseback.jpg
Title
McCaffrey’s Elite Photo. (1862, March 9). Battle of Hampton roads [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Battle_of_Hampton_Roads.jpg
O’Sullivan, T. (1865). Appomattox Court House, Va. McLean House [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Appomattox_Court_House,_Va._McLean_house_LOC_cwpb
.03957.jpg
Perine & Giles. (1865). Abraham Lincoln with the Emancipation Proclamation [Portrait]. Wikimedia Commons.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Abraham_Lincoln_with_the_Emancipation_Proclamation.jpg
Ritchie, A. H. (1867). Mary Ann Bickerdyke [Steel engraving]. Wikimedia Commons.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mary_Ann_Bickerdyke.jpg
Severence, F. J. (2009) 125th New York infantry monument Gettysburg [Photograph].
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:125th_new_york_inf_monument_gettysburg.jpg
Suggested Unit Resources
In order to access the following resources, click the links below.
Abraham Lincoln was the second speaker on that fateful day on November 19. 1863, and what he said in the
2 minutes that he was present on the stage has penetrated the American ethos for decades after. “Four score
and seven years ago….[a] government of the people, by the people, and for the people.” Powerful. Take a
look at the Library of Congress’ exhibition on the Gettysburg Address.
Library of Congress. (n.d.). Gettysburg Address. https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/gettysburgaddress/exhibititems.html
Watch the following video to view a photo montage of some of the 3 million men who fought in the American
Civil War in more than 10,000 places within 4 years.
Burns, K. (Producer). (2009). America transformed: A photo-montage (Segment 2 of 45) [Video]. In The Civil
War: Episode 1—The cause (1861). Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=40977&loid=67514
The following video provides a snapshot of what America was like in 1861.
Burns, K. (Producer). (1990). 1861: America the beautiful? (Segment 9 of 45) [Video]. In The Civil War:
Episode 1—The cause (1861). Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=40977&loid=67521
Following the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln issues the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation to varied
reactions. Watch the following video to learn more.
Burns, K. (Producer). (1990). The Emancipation Proclamation (Segment 25 of 26) [Video]. In The Civil War:
Episode 3—Forever free. Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=40979&loid=68880
Discover the defeat of the Union forces at the Battle of Fredericksburg in this video segment.
HIS 1301, American History I
15
Burns, K. (Producer). (1990). Union suicide: The battle of Fredericksburg (Segment
of 24) [Video].
UNIT x5 STUDY
GUIDEIn The
Civil War: Episode 4—Simply murder (1863). Films on Demand.
Title
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=40980&loid=68055
The three-day battle at Gettysburg began over shoes; discover the events of the first day of the battle.
Continue watching The Civil War: Episode 5 for the full story of the Battle of Gettysburg.
Burns, K. (Producer). (1990). A clash over shoes: Gettysburg (Segment 7 of 31) [Video]. In The Civil War:
Episode 5—The universe of battle (1863). Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=40981&loid=68081
After 3 1/2 years of war, both the Union and the Confederacy are worn but fear that the war is only beginning.
Burns, K. (Producer). (1990). Election of 1864: Referendum on the war (Segment 3 of 25) [Video]. In The Civil
War: Episode 6—Valley of the shadow of death. Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=40982&loid=68108
Discover the conditions of the prisoner of war camp, Andersonville, located in Georgia. Today, Andersonville
is a National Historic Site. Review the next two videos to learn more.
Burns, K. (Producer). (1990). Prisoners of war (Segment 24 of 32) [Video]. In The Civil War: Episode 7—Most
hallowed ground (1864). Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=40983&loid=68669
Burns, K. (Producer). (1990). Mass graves: Living dead (Segment 25 of 32) [Video]. In The Civil War: Episode
7-Most hallowed ground (1864). Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=40983&loid=68670
After one final engagement, Confederate General Robert E. Lee notified Union General Ulysses Grant that he
would surrender.
Burns, K. (Producer). (1990). Lee surrenders (Segment 21 of 25) [Video]. In The Civil war: Episode 8-War is
all hell (1865). Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=40984&loid=68698
Confederate General Robert E. Lee and Union General Ulysses Grant meet at the McLean house in
Appomattox Court House, Virginia, to discuss the terns of surrender.
Burns, K. (Producer). (1990) Appomattox (Segment 22 of 25) [Video]. In The Civil war: Episode 8-War is all
hell (1865). films on demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=40984&loid=68699
The considerable terms of surrender offered by Union General Ulysses Grant to Confederate General Robert
E. Lee are presented in the following video segment.
Burns, K. (Producer). (1990). Terms of surrender (Segment 23 of 25) [Video]. In The Civil war: Episode 8—
War is all hell (1865). Films on Demand.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl
aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=40984&loid=68700
HIS 1301, American History I
16

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

  
error: Content is protected !!