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TOPIC: How Can ADHD students be supported in Educational setting

Task:

Your

goal

is to persuade readers of your own stance or opinion on how to best address the specific problem you had researched. Your argument may focus on discussing possible solutions and/or addressing root causes in order to prevent the problem from occurring in the first place.

Audience:

Members of our college campus community (fellow students, professors, administrators). They have *not* read your research paper, and, while they may be familiar with your topic, their awareness level will vary and most have not read extensively or conducted research as you have. So, before presenting your analysis or argument about possible solutions, for instance, be sure to first explain the problems/underlying causes as well as any other relevant background information.

Requirements:

Be focused on one central issue

Include a thesis statement, which presents a clear argument (your own opinion about the issue, based on research)

Include plenty of evidence, examples, and details to develop and support your argument/opinion

Address key counterarguments or differing views

Include an introduction, body and conclusion and be organized in a coherent and logical manner

Provide relevant background information and details for readers unfamiliar with the issue

Adhere to MLA

I

have attached samples (2) that will guide your writing. Please, meet every aspect of the sample (such as thesis, counterarguments, citations)

Argument Paper, MLA Style (Zhang)
Zhang 1
Amy Zhang
Professor Swain
English 101
23 October XXXX
Slow Down and Eat Better
If you drive on any highway in the United States, you’ll
find fast-food restaurants at every exit and service area. If you
walk through any supermarket, you’ll see prepared foods that
Zhang opens with
general observa­
tions to attract
readers’ interest.
say “make it in minutes” and “ready to serve.” According to an
article by James Bone on the TimesOnline Web site, only onethird of Americans cook meals from scratch, meaning with fresh
ingredients. Bone also writes that Americans spend only thirty
minutes cooking dinner, compared with 2½ hours in the 1960s.
And in his book Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser claims that
one-quarter of Americans eat in a fast-food restaurant each day
(3). Why are Americans eating so much fast food? The answer is
simple: speed is more important than quality. While Americans
may be attracted to food that is fast and easy, they are missing
the benefits of slowing down. In fact, Americans’ obsession with
fast food is hurting not only their health but also the quality of
their lives.
Zhang states a
clear thesis at the
end of the opening
paragraph.
The main reason that Americans are getting takeout food
and heating prepared meals is obvious: they don’t have enough
time. In more than two-thirds of families in the United States,
two people are working (Bone). People with demanding work
schedules have little time for food shopping and cooking.
Marginal annotations indicate MLA-style formatting and effective writing.
Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2010, 2007).
This paper follows the style guidelines in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. (2009).
10/10_A
Zhang 2
A clear topic
sentence helps
guide readers.
Another reason that mealtime has become so short is that
many younger adults grew up in a fast-food culture. In the past
fifteen years, cell phones, the Internet, and e-mail have increased
the speed of everyday communication. At the same time,
microwave ovens, drive-through restaurants, and frozen dinners
have changed the way Americans eat. Many people now like to eat
quickly, even in their cars or in front of the television, instead of
taking time to cook a meal and sit at the table. In this culture of
instant gratification, people don’t think food is important enough
to spend much time on.
An effective
transition links
the ideas in this
paragraph to those
in the previous
paragraph.
Even though Americans think that they are saving time and
improving their lives by eating precooked and prepackaged food,
their obsession with fast food is causing the quality of their lives
to go down. First, their health is suffering. As most people know,
fast foods and frozen meals are generally less healthy than foods
made at home. They have lots of preservatives, fat, sugar, and
salt to hide the fact that they are not fresh. If people do not eat
fresh foods that provide vitamins and minerals, they may become
tired and sick, and they may miss out on opportunities to enjoy
their lives.
Another serious health problem is obesity. There is an
obesity epidemic in the United States today, especially with
young people, and it is related to the way people are eating.
Zhang uses a
signal phrase and a
parenthetical
citation for facts
that support her
thesis.
According to Schlosser, “The rate of obesity among American
children is twice as high as it was in the late 1970s” (240).
Obesity can lead to many health problems, including diabetes,
heart disease, and cancer. The United States Department of
Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2010, 2007).
Zhang 3
Health and Human Services notes that “deaths due to poor diet
and physical inactivity increased 33 percent” in the 1990s, and it
cites a study that concluded that “poor diet and physical inactivity
may soon overtake tobacco as the leading cause of death” in the
United States. If fast food causes people to become obese, and
No page number is
available for this
online source.
then obesity causes them to get sick or die, fast food cannot be
considered an “improvement” in Americans’ lives.
In addition to causing health problems, fast food hurts
people’s relationships with their friends and families. In an online
interview, John Robbins, author of Diet for a New America and The
Food Revolution, comments on the importance of mealtime:
Throughout history, eating has been a way of bringing
people together. It’s how parents stay in touch with
what’s going on in their kids’ lives. When people break
bread together, it’s an act of peacemaking, an act of
good will. . . . Dining together can be a deep biological
and sacred experience. When we eat, we are connected
A long quotation
(more than four
lines) is indented;
quotation marks
are omitted. An
ellipsis mark
indicates that some
words from the
source have been
left out.
to all of life. It’s a phenomenon found in every culture
in the world, except ours. I see the McDonaldization
of our food supply as the annihilation of our true
relationship to life. (qtd. in Lee)
While most Americans will not be able to cook full, fresh
meals every day, they can begin to improve the quality of their
lives by buying fresh foods when they can and by cooking fresh
Zhang notes
the limitations
of her argument
but maintains
her position.
food at least sometimes. For example, people can shop at the
farmers’ market for fresh local produce instead of buying canned
or frozen vegetables. They will have a chance to buy foods with
Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2010, 2007).
Zhang offers
readers some
suggestions for
better eating.
Zhang 4
more nutrients at the same time that they get to know people in
their community.
Also, if people slow down to make food with their friends or
family, they can enjoy the benefits of good nutrition while they
are building stronger relationships. An organization called Slow
Food, which describes itself as “an international organization
whose aim is to protect the pleasures of the table from the
homogenization of modern fast food and life,” encourages readers
of its Web site to make pasta from scratch once in a while. Friends
and family can cook meals together so one person isn’t doing all
the work. And people can try to cook family recipes from their
parents or grandparents.
The conclusion
reminds readers of
the essay’s main
point.
Even though Americans may think they are saving time and
improving their lives by eating fast food, they will actually have
healthier and more enjoyable lives if they change the way they
cook and eat. Making dinner from scratch is much healthier than
getting burgers and fries from a fast-food restaurant. And people
get more than just a full stomach—they get more time with
family and friends and a good feeling from creating something
healthy.
Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2010, 2007).
Zhang 5
Works Cited
Bone, James. “Good Home Cooking—Right off the Assembly
Line.” TimesOnline. Times Newspapers, 27 Mar. 2006. Web.
9 Oct. 2008.
Lee, Virginia. “The Common Ground Interview with John Robbins.”
The Food Revolution. John Robbins, 2002. Web. 18 Oct. 2008.
Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American
Meal. Boston: Houghton, 2001. Print.
Slow Food. Slowfood.com. Slow Food, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2008.
United States. Dept. of Health and Human Services. “Citing
‘Dangerous Increase’ in Deaths, HHS Launches New Strategies
against Overweight Epidemic.” HHS.gov. US Dept. of Health
and Human Services, 10 Mar. 2004. Web. 9 Oct. 2008.
Source: Hacker Handbooks (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2010, 2007).
The works cited list
provides references
for all the sources
Zhang uses in her
paper.
MLA Argument Paper (Lund)
Lund 1
Aaron Lund
Professor Dorn
English 102
15 November XXXX
Preserving Yellowstone’s Winter Wilderness
Although a few recreational snowmobilers destroy fragile
ecosystems and harass animals as they ride through the wilderness, most love and respect this country’s natural heritage. That’s
why they brave the cold to explore what is left of wild America—
Lund builds common ground with
readers who may
disagree with him.
including Yellowstone National Park. Unfortunately, however, even
respectful snowmobilers are unwittingly damaging what they love.
Because snowmobiles create both air and noise pollution and
because their use in the park strains the already lean budget of
Thesis states the
main point.
the park service, recreational snowmobiles should be banned from
Yellowstone National Park.
In 2002, the Bush administration, under pressure from the
snowmobile industry, proposed to reverse the National Park Ser-
Background information puts the
thesis in context.
vice’s 2000 plan that would have phased out recreational snowmobile use in Yellowstone. In addition to reversing the earlier
plan, the new policy would increase the number of snowmobiles
allowed into the park per day. This policy is a step in the wrong
direction.
It may be hard to imagine that 1,100 snowmobiles a day
(the proposed limit) could cause an air pollution problem in a park
Lund introduces
his first line of
argument.
half the size of Connecticut, but in fact they can. The air pollution
at park entrances has already become so bad in winter, according
to environmental reporter Julie Cart, that fresh air has to be
Marginal annotations indicate MLA-style formatting and effective writing.
Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006).
This paper has been updated to follow the style guidelines in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers,
7th ed. (2009).
Lund 2
pumped into the kiosks where snowmobiles line up and park
Sources are
documented with
MLA citations.
rangers have been forced to wear respirators (A12). Park visitors,
including the snowmobilers themselves, have no such protection.
The Bluewater Network, an environmental group, reports that
the most common snowmobiles, those with two-stroke engines,
“discharge up to one-third of their fuel unburned into the environment and are one of the largest unchecked sources of hydrocarbon
Lund supports
his points with
specific evidence.
pollution nationwide” (1). Bluewater Network cites numerous scientific studies linking carbon monoxide pollutants to snowmobiles.
One of these studies, which was conducted in the mid-1990s after
many rangers complained of dizziness and nausea, found that
carbon monoxide levels at park entrances exceeded those allowed
by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (2). Clearly, such a
level of pollution is a health risk to the park’s employees and to
its visitors.
Transition prepares readers for
the second line of
argument.
In addition to polluting the air, snowmobiles are noisy,
disturbing the peace and quiet that park visitors have a right to
expect. One study cited by Bluewater Network reports that twelve
snowmobiles traveling together could be heard as far as two miles
away (5). Even a travel writer for Yellowstone Journal, a magazine
financed to a great extent by advertising from snowmobile manufacturers and rental services, advises readers about areas in the
park free from “the constant hum of the other snowmobiles”
(Johnson 7). Whether such noise adversely affects the park’s
wildlife remains a debated question, but the possibility exists.
Lund counters an
opposing argument.
Some who favor keeping the park open to snowmobiles argue
that newer, four-stroke machines cause less air and noise pollution
Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006).
Lund 3
than older models. While this is true, the new machines still pollute more than cars, and their decibel level is reduced only slightly
(“Snowmobile” B25). Also, because the newer snowmobiles cost
at least $3,000 more than the older ones, it is unlikely that individuals would choose to buy them or that rental companies could
afford to upgrade. At present there are no strict guarantees that
only the newer models would be allowed into the park.
Like most federal agencies, the National Park Service faces
serious budget constraints. Funds that should be used to preserve
Yellowstone National Park and its wildlife have been diverted to
deal with the snowmobile issue. A single environmental impact
study of the problem cost taxpayers nearly $250,000 in early 2002
(Greater Yellowstone Coalition), and the park service estimates
that implementing the new plan would cost one million dollars
(“Snowmobile” B25). Also, park rangers are spending an increasing
amount of their valuable time policing snowmobilers. In 2002,
park rangers issued 338 citations for illegal snowmobiling activity,
twice as many as in 2001, in addition to hundreds of warnings
(Greater Yellowstone Coalition). Although most snowmobilers remain law-abiding, a disturbing number of joyriders violate speed
limits, stray from marked trails, and pursue animals for the thrill
of the chase. Policing such activities takes away from park rangers’
primary responsibility—preserving this country’s treasured natural
resources.
Opponents of a ban argue that a central mission of the park
service is to provide access to national parks—access not only to
the physically fit (such as snowshoers and cross-country skiers)
Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006).
Lund presents
his third line of
argument.
Lund 4
Lund counters a
possible objection
to his thesis.
but to ordinary people, including those who are handicapped. Admittedly, winter access is important, but ordinary people can enjoy
the park by means other than snowmobiles. Snowcoaches (buses
on skis) already take visitors into the park, and one road into the
park is plowed and open to cars in winter. Also, the park service’s
mission is not just to provide access to the parks; no less important is its mission to preserve the parks’ pristine natural resources
for future generations.
Even with a ban on snowmobiling in the park itself, the Yellowstone area would still earn the title of Snowmobiling Capital of
Lund suggests
a reasonable
alternative for
snowmobilers.
America. Virtually all of the streets of West Yellowstone, the area’s
major town, are open to snowmobilers, and many trails run out of
the town. The Big Sky Trail extends for 110 miles, and the 360-mile
Continental Divide Snowmobile Trail offers sledders “groomed trails,
spectacular mountain scenery, wide-open spaces, and lots of opportunities to view wildlife” (Johnson 7). Because the Yellowstone
area offers so many winter trails, there is no need to allow snowmobiles in the park itself.
Conclusion echoes
the thesis without
dully repeating it.
A ban on snowmobiles would give park visitors a quiet,
pollution-free experience, and it would allow the park service to
devote more of its limited resources to one of its primary missions:
the protection of natural resources. Whether on cross-country skis
or from the heated comfort of a snowcoach, visitors would still be
able to appreciate Yellowstone’s beauty—its geysers, its wildlife,
and its snow-covered vistas—throughout the park’s long winter.
Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006).
Lund 5
Works Cited
Bluewater Network. “Snowmobile Position Paper.” Bluewater
Network. Bluewater Network, Apr. 2002. Web. 12 Nov. 2002.
Cart, Julie. “Plan Backs Snowmobiles at Parks.” Los Angeles
Times 8 Nov. 2002: A12. National Newspaper Index. Web.
11 Nov. 2002.
Greater Yellowstone Coalition. “Yellowstone Experiences Worst
Year Ever for Illegal Snowmobile Activity.” Greater
Yellowstone Coalition. Greater Yellowstone Coalition,
4 Apr. 2002. Web. 6 Nov. 2002.
Johnson, Shelli. “Greater Yellowstone Region Is a Snowmobiling
Mecca.” Yellowstone Journal Winter 2002-03: 6-7. Print.
“Snowmobile Plan All Wet.” Editorial. Denver Post 9 Nov. 2002:
B25. Colorado Newsstand. Web. 10 Nov. 2002.
Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006).
Works cited page
uses MLA style.

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