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Description

A

bibliography

is a list of sources (books, journals, Web sites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for researching a topic. Bibliographies are sometimes called “References” or “Works Cited” depending on the style format you are using. A bibliography usually just includes the bibliographic information (i.e., the author, title, publisher, etc.).

An

annotation

is a summary and/or evaluation. Therefore, an

annotated bibliography

includes a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources. Depending on your project or the assignment, your annotations may do one or more of the following (

https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/common_writing_assignments/annotated_bibliographies/index.html

(Links to an external site.)

).

Summarize

: Some annotations merely summarize the source. What are the main arguments? What is the point of this book or article? What topics are covered? If someone asked what this article/book is about, what would you say? The length of your annotations will determine how detailed your summary is. For more help, see our handout on

paraphrasing

(Links to an external site.)

sources.

Assess

: After summarizing a source, it may be helpful to evaluate it. Is it a useful source? How does it compare with other sources in your bibliography? Is the information reliable? Is this source biased or objective? What is the goal of this source? For more help, see our handouts on

evaluating resources

(Links to an external site.)

.

Reflect

: Once you’ve summarized and assessed a source, you need to ask how it fits into your research. Was this source helpful to you? How does it help you shape your argument? How can you use this source in your research project? Has it changed how you think about your topic?

Requirements for Step 2:

Identify at least

five sources of information

about your research topic from academic articles, newspapers, or approved websites (

at least 1 from peer reviewed sources

).

After identifying and researching your five sources, you are required to annotate the sources (see above). The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the

relevance, accuracy, and quality

of the sources cited.

The annotation for each source should be 1-2 paragraphs (typed, double spaced, 12pt font), and the sources need to be presented in

APA style

bibliographic form and annotated.

In your Annotated Bibliography and your final Exploratory Essay assignments that you turn in on Canvas,

BE SURE TO CITE YOUR REFERENCES

, both

IN

the body of your paper and in a

reference list at the end

,

and use APA style of citation

. Your essay should include a minimum of five academic and/or official sources in addition to the course text. No more than 10% of direct quotations in the essay.

Please note: Wikipedia, “some person”(s) websites, and magazine and newspaper articles are not academic sources. You should be using journal articles, books, and websites from .edu and .gov sites, written by academics who are well recognized within their fields.

Rubric

SOCI 102: Annotated Bibliography

SOCI 102: Annotated Bibliography

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Apply strategies of inquiry and exploration in finding information about social problems.

20

to >

16.0

pts

Exceeds Objective

The annotated bibliography contains at least five sources that are appropriate to advancing an understanding of the topic.

16

to >

13.0

pts

Meets Objective

The annotated bibliography contains at least five sources that are appropriate to advancing an understanding of the topic.

13

to >

9.0

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective

The annotated bibliography contains at least five sources that may be appropriate to the topic but they are not from approved academic, newspaper, or .gov sources.

9

to >

0

pts

Does Not Meet Objective

The annotated bibliography lacks five sources or the sources are not appropriate to advancing an understanding of the topic.

20

pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Evaluate the authority, credibility, and purpose of sources used.

20

to >

16.0

pts

Exceeds Objective

Annotations thoroughly evaluate sources by discussing their relevance, accuracy, and quality.

16

to >

13.0

pts

Meets Objective

Annotations evaluate sources by discussing their relevance, accuracy, and quality.

13

to >

9.0

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective

Annotations inadequately evaluate sources by minimally discussing their relevance, accuracy, and quality.

9

to >

0

pts

Does Not Meet Objective

Annotations poorly evaluate or fail to evaluate sources.

20

pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Demonstrate the ethical and discipline specific use of information

10

to >

8.0

pts

Exceeds Objective

Proper citations using APA style.

8

to >

6.0

pts

Meets Objective

Proper citations using APA style although there are some errors.

6

to >

4.0

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective

There are significant errors with the citations.

4

to >

0

pts

Does Not Meet Objective

Paper does not use APA style of citation.

10

pts

Total Points:

50

Organizing an Exploratory Essay

An exploratory paper is, in essence, a retrospective of your writing and thinking process as you work through a social problem. It describes when, how, and why you completed certain types of research. This kind of writing is about how you work through problems that require writing and research. You will have to be introspective and think about your thinking process in order for your essay to turn out well.

Very roughly, then, your exploratory paper may follow this sort of structure:

Introduction

The introduction should outline the problem you explored and why it’s important. In addition, you should briefly discuss 1) some of the problem’s possible causes; 2) the institutions and people involved with the problem; 3) some of the possible solutions to the problem. A brief overview of the types of sources your researched during your inquiry.

Body Paragraphs

Body paragraphs should discuss the inquiry process you followed to research your problem. These paragraphs should include the following:

Introduction of sources (title, author, type of media, publisher, publication date, etc.) and why you chose to use each in your exploration;

Important information you found in the sources regarding your problem;

Why the information is important and dependable in relation to the problem;

Some personal introspection on how the sources helped you, allowed you to think differently about the problem, or even fell short of your expectations and led you in a new direction in your research.

Conclusion

The conclusion should restate the problem you explored, outline some of its possible causes, review the institutions and people involved, and highlight some possible solutions. If you still have any questions about the problem (and it’s ok to have some), you will discuss them here. Talk about why you think you still have questions regarding the problem you explored, where you might look to answer these questions, and what other forms of research you would have to do.

Requirements for Step 3:

Building on the previous parts of the assignment, write a 5 page research paper, 12 pt., typed, and double spaced.

The paper should address these central questions:

What is the social problem?

Who claims it is a problem, what are their claims, and why are they claiming the issue as a social problem? Are there competing claims about the nature and extent of the social problem?

How well does existing empirical evidence support these claims?

What does the evidence tell us about who is affected by the problem? What are the causes and/or consequences of the problem?

What solutions are being proposed to address the problem?

You need to have a work cited page. The paper will be graded for both content and writing quality. Please re-read, proofread, and revise your work before turning it in.

Rubric

SOCI-102 Social Problems Exploratory Paper STEP 3: Final Paper rubrics

SOCI-102 Social Problems Exploratory Paper STEP 3: Final Paper rubrics

Criteria

Ratings

Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Clear definition and explanation of the problem

20

to >

16.0

pts

Exceeds Objective

Clearly defines explains problem.

16

to >

13.0

pts

Meets Objective

Adequately defines and explains the problem.

13

to >

9.0

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective

Poorly defines explains the problem.

9

to >

0

pts

Does Not Meet Objective

Fails to define and/or explain the problem.

20

pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Generate ideas, and/or, explore possibilities about the causes and consequences of a social problem, and considers alternative approaches to solving a social problem

20

to >

16.0

pts

Exceeds Objective

Demonstrates the ability to generate and explore a wide range of ideas about the causes and consequences of a social problem and considers a range of alternatives approaches to solving a social problem.

16

to >

13.0

pts

Meets Objective

Demonstrates the ability to explore a reasonably wide range of ideas about the causes and consequences of a social problem and considers some alternative approaches to solving a social problem.

13

to >

9.0

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective

Demonstrates minimal ability to explore, and consider a range of ideas about the causes and consequences of a social problem and considers few alternative approaches to solving a social problem.

9

to >

0

pts

Does Not Meet Objective

Unable to demonstrate the ability to explore and consider a range and number of ideas about the causes and consequences of a social problem and fails to consider alternative approaches to solving a social problem.

20

pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

GE.CCT.2

Generating ideas, exploring possibilities, and considering alternatives

threshold:

3.0

pts

4

pts

Exceeds Objective | Demonstrates ability to generate, explore, and consider a wide range and number of ideas, possibilities, and alternatives.

3

pts

Meets Objective | Demonstrates ability to generate, explore, and consider a reasonably wide range and number of ideas, possibilities, and alternatives.

2

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective | Demonstrates minimal ability to generate, explore, and consider a range and number of ideas, possibilities, and alternatives.

1

pts

Does Not Meet Objective | Unable to demonstrate the ability to generate, explore, and consider a range and number of ideas, possibilities, and alternatives.

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Analyze and evaluate ideas about the causes and consequences of social problems

20

to >

16.0

pts

Exceeds Objective

Thoroughly analyzes and evaluates ideas about the causes and consequences of social problems.

16

to >

13.0

pts

Meets Objective

Analyzes and evaluates ideas about the causes and consequences of social problems.

13

to >

9.0

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective

Inadequately analyzes and evaluates ideas about the causes and consequences of social problems.

9

to >

0

pts

Does Not Meet Objective

Fails to analyze and evaluate ideas about the causes and consequences of social problems.

20

pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

GE.CCT.3

Analyzing and evaluating ideas or outcomes

threshold:

3.0

pts

4

pts

Exceeds Objective | Examines ideas or outcomes in significant depth and makes distinguished judgments

3

pts

Meets Objective | Examines ideas or outcomes in some depth and makes reasonable judgments

2

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective | Examines ideas or outcomes with insufficient depth, or makes barely reasonable judgments

1

pts

Does Not Meet Objective | Unable to examine ideas or outcomes with any depth, or makes unreasonable judgments

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Applies the sociological imagination to a critical analysis of social problems

20

to >

16.0

pts

Exceeds Objective

Demonstrates considerable intellectual agility in connecting social and historical forces with social problems.

16

to >

13.0

pts

Meets Objective

Demonstrates some intellectual agility in connecting social and historical forces with social problems.

13

to >

9.0

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective

Demonstrates minimal intellectual agility in connecting social and historical forces to with social problems.

9

to >

0

pts

Does Not Meet Objective

Unable to demonstrate minimal intellectual agility in connecting social and historical forces with social problem.

20

pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

GE.CCT.4

Applying information and ideas to other contexts

threshold:

3.0

pts

4

pts

Exceeds Objective | Demonstrates considerable intellectual agility in transferring knowledge or connecting disparate ideas

3

pts

Meets Objective | Demonstrates some intellectual agility in transferring knowledge or connecting disparate ideas

2

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective | Demonstrates minimal intellectual agility in transferring knowledge or connecting disparate ideas

1

pts

Does Not Meet Objective | Unable to demonstrate any intellectual agility in transferring knowledge or connecting disparate ideas

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Bibliography and Citations

10

to >

8.0

pts

Exceeds Objective

Well organized bibliography and proper citations using APA style of citation.

8

to >

6.0

pts

Meets Objective

Well organized bibliography and proper citations although there are some errors.

6

to >

4.0

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective

Bibliography is not well organized and/or there are significant errors with the citations.

4

to >

0

pts

Does Not Meet Objective

Paper lacks a proper bibliography or in text citations.

10

pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome

Writing Quality

10

to >

8.0

pts

Exceeds Objective

A properly structured essay with no grammatical errors in the writing.

8

to >

6.0

pts

Meets Objective

A properly structured essay with few grammatical errors in the writing.

6

to >

4.0

pts

Does Not Fully Meet Objective

A properly structured essay with some grammatical errors in the writing.

4

to >

0

pts

Does Not Meet Objective

The essay has some structural errors and/or contains many grammatical errors in the writing.

10

pts

Total Points:

100

Previous

Next

Dawodu 1
Olusola Dawodu
Professor Lensa
SOCI 102
2/14/2021
Basic Needs Budgeting for A Working Single-Parent Family
Family
I am a single mother of two girls, Yakini, one-year-old and Zahra, six years old, in first
grade. My partner and father of my children died from a car accident in 2020. I have a daytime
shift job as a restaurant waiter at Jeannie’s, inside a Nordstrom in Manhattan. When working, my
young daughters go to a daycare near our residence in Bushwick, Brooklyn. On weekends, with
my friends, we have arranged playdates for the kids.
Budget
I have experience as a restaurant waiter for four years, allowing me to earn $29,600
annually. It is $14.80 an hour for a simple salary calculator, which is equivalent to $592 per week
or $2368 per month.
Housing
Due to my job location, my family’s best place to live is Chauncey Street Bushwick,
Brooklyn. Within this neighborhood, a one-bed rental apartment is affordable for $749 a month,
including gas and water. Traveling from Bushwick to Manhattan is only 37 minutes away by bus.
Childcare and Education
Dawodu 2
After looking up affordable childcare, I landed Jarvis Academy Wee Care Daycare found
along Bushwick Avenue less than a mile from our residence. The one-year-old child goes to
daycare, which costs $417 per week. The rating and reviews about the daycare are excellent, and
our housing agent referred us to it. For my 6-year-old, there is Urban Strategies Universal Pre-K
1405 Bushwick Avenue Brooklyn NY 11233 that is government-funded – free for those who
attend.
Food
Due to children, the family meal must be kid-friendly and healthy. I do my meal plans
using the idea of a rotation where you use general categories every other week to reduce decision
fatigue. A day meal plan list entail:
1. Breakfast – fortified breakfast cereal, milk, strawberries, or banana slices
2. Snack: Quark or whole wheat muffin with milk
3. Lunch – spinach quesadillas or hard cooked eggs with diced avocado or crackers, cooked
green vegetable, milk, or pita bread.
4. Dinner: Healthy meatballs with pasta or 30-minute lentil soup or milk, rice, or potato
In preparing this daily meal plan, there is a weekly list of fortified breakfast cereal, milk,
strawberries, banana, quark, whole-wheat muffin, spinach quesadillas, eggs, avocado, crackers,
green vegetable, pita bread, meatballs, lentil, rice, potatoes. The monthly cost of these food items
is $300.
Utilities and Phone
Apart from gas and water included in the rent, electricity, garbage, cable, internet, and
phone bill are charged separately, costing $264 per month.
Dawodu 3
Transportation
I do not own a car; thus, no monthly payments are made. The alternative is using the bus
for transportation from Bushwick to Manhattan for $75 per month.
Others
Other necessities include diapers, wipes, clothes, toilet paper and toiletries. These items
expenditure is $350 per month.
Miscellaneous
I have had to cut all spending to the bare bones. Thus, any miscellaneous expense does not
go beyond $50 per month.
Analysis
In completing this exercise, the understanding is that being a single parent does not get
better. Surprisingly, it is also more challenging to make ends meet with one parent even when
household prices are a little lower. This is because only one person handles the cost. Millions of
Americans tend to fulfill their daily needs less than they need. Parents can feel that they care for
their children cheaper but less effective and of less quality. They can live with people in
overcrowded households or dangerous places – or be rented or billed for services. There are
complicated decisions that place the health of children and families in our country at risk.
America’s family desires opportunities for modest incomes and benefits to high-quality jobs. We
will need a full job support structure to solve the difficulties individuals face while working fulltime and are struggling to have essential needs. In addition, it only increases as the cost of
Dawodu 4
necessities like food and childcare is rising. I do not believe it is fair to work off the American
minimum wage for these reasons.
The most burdensome cost is childcare, which is the most significant expense faced by
households. In this instance, the cost of daycare for one child will be $417 a week. It implies that
a household with a preschooler requires about 80 percent of the standard family necessities. Family
relationships are essential both for the growth and for overall fulfillment of children’s well-being.
In the last century, the structure of the family has experienced significant changes; ‘family’ is
becoming more complex. Per the exercise activity, the effort was to figure out living standards
while earning a minimum wage in a single parent family structure in New York. The second main
principle directly associated with the exercise is the place or region in which the family lives. This
study stands for variations in a geographical area and parental composition within the basic family
budget.
To combat poverty, the government can take a range of economic steps. One-step is
encouraging economic prosperity, which raises aggregate social incomes, generating more
employment and redistributive revenue. Unemployment could be minimized by all measures on
the supply side, such as structurally unemployed citizens’ free training. Geographical poverty
reduction strategies could supply incentives by the government for businesses in distressed areas.
Another way to fight poverty is to include means-tested incentives involving enhanced social
benefits for low-income people. The universal tax credit, food aid, and child tax credits, for
instance. The government could as well lift the national minimum wage. In this way, the wages
with low pay are raised efficiently, and wage disparity is minimized. Universal basic income or
resident income to ensure an assured income provision is available to all. Finally, increased taxes
would attract more money from high income as with the higher income tax levels. This cuts
Dawodu 5
regressive tax, such as sales tax, and instead enhances welfare, which serves to raise disadvantaged
people’s incomes. This can be a valuable means of minimizing relative poverty (Pettinger, 2019).
Dawodu 6
References
Pettinger, T. (2019). Policies to reduce poverty – Economics Help. Economics Help.
https://www.economicshelp.org/macroeconomics/inequality/policies_reduce_poverty/.
Dawodu 1
Olusola Dawodu
Professor Lensa
SOCI 102
2/14/2021
Basic Needs Budgeting for A Working Single-Parent Family
Family
I am a single mother of two girls, Yakini, one-year-old and Zahra, six years old, in first
grade. My partner and father of my children died from a car accident in 2020. I have a daytime
shift job as a restaurant waiter at Jeannie’s, inside a Nordstrom in Manhattan. When working, my
young daughters go to a daycare near our residence in Bushwick, Brooklyn. On weekends, with
my friends, we have arranged playdates for the kids.
Budget
I have experience as a restaurant waiter for four years, allowing me to earn $29,600
annually. It is $14.80 an hour for a simple salary calculator, which is equivalent to $592 per week
or $2368 per month.
Housing
Due to my job location, my family’s best place to live is Chauncey Street Bushwick,
Brooklyn. Within this neighborhood, a one-bed rental apartment is affordable for $749 a month,
including gas and water. Traveling from Bushwick to Manhattan is only 37 minutes away by bus.
Childcare and Education
Dawodu 2
After looking up affordable childcare, I landed Jarvis Academy Wee Care Daycare found
along Bushwick Avenue less than a mile from our residence. The one-year-old child goes to
daycare, which costs $417 per week. The rating and reviews about the daycare are excellent, and
our housing agent referred us to it. For my 6-year-old, there is Urban Strategies Universal Pre-K
1405 Bushwick Avenue Brooklyn NY 11233 that is government-funded – free for those who
attend.
Food
Due to children, the family meal must be kid-friendly and healthy. I do my meal plans
using the idea of a rotation where you use general categories every other week to reduce decision
fatigue. A day meal plan list entail:
1. Breakfast – fortified breakfast cereal, milk, strawberries, or banana slices
2. Snack: Quark or whole wheat muffin with milk
3. Lunch – spinach quesadillas or hard cooked eggs with diced avocado or crackers, cooked
green vegetable, milk, or pita bread.
4. Dinner: Healthy meatballs with pasta or 30-minute lentil soup or milk, rice, or potato
In preparing this daily meal plan, there is a weekly list of fortified breakfast cereal, milk,
strawberries, banana, quark, whole-wheat muffin, spinach quesadillas, eggs, avocado, crackers,
green vegetable, pita bread, meatballs, lentil, rice, potatoes. The monthly cost of these food items
is $300.
Utilities and Phone
Apart from gas and water included in the rent, electricity, garbage, cable, internet, and
phone bill are charged separately, costing $264 per month.
Dawodu 3
Transportation
I do not own a car; thus, no monthly payments are made. The alternative is using the bus
for transportation from Bushwick to Manhattan for $75 per month.
Others
Other necessities include diapers, wipes, clothes, toilet paper and toiletries. These items
expenditure is $350 per month.
Miscellaneous
I have had to cut all spending to the bare bones. Thus, any miscellaneous expense does not
go beyond $50 per month.
Analysis
In completing this exercise, the understanding is that being a single parent does not get
better. Surprisingly, it is also more challenging to make ends meet with one parent even when
household prices are a little lower. This is because only one person handles the cost. Millions of
Americans tend to fulfill their daily needs less than they need. Parents can feel that they care for
their children cheaper but less effective and of less quality. They can live with people in
overcrowded households or dangerous places – or be rented or billed for services. There are
complicated decisions that place the health of children and families in our country at risk.
America’s family desires opportunities for modest incomes and benefits to high-quality jobs. We
will need a full job support structure to solve the difficulties individuals face while working fulltime and are struggling to have essential needs. In addition, it only increases as the cost of
Dawodu 4
necessities like food and childcare is rising. I do not believe it is fair to work off the American
minimum wage for these reasons.
The most burdensome cost is childcare, which is the most significant expense faced by
households. In this instance, the cost of daycare for one child will be $417 a week. It implies that
a household with a preschooler requires about 80 percent of the standard family necessities. Family
relationships are essential both for the growth and for overall fulfillment of children’s well-being.
In the last century, the structure of the family has experienced significant changes; ‘family’ is
becoming more complex. Per the exercise activity, the effort was to figure out living standards
while earning a minimum wage in a single parent family structure in New York. The second main
principle directly associated with the exercise is the place or region in which the family lives. This
study stands for variations in a geographical area and parental composition within the basic family
budget.
To combat poverty, the government can take a range of economic steps. One-step is
encouraging economic prosperity, which raises aggregate social incomes, generating more
employment and redistributive revenue. Unemployment could be minimized by all measures on
the supply side, such as structurally unemployed citizens’ free training. Geographical poverty
reduction strategies could supply incentives by the government for businesses in distressed areas.
Another way to fight poverty is to include means-tested incentives involving enhanced social
benefits for low-income people. The universal tax credit, food aid, and child tax credits, for
instance. The government could as well lift the national minimum wage. In this way, the wages
with low pay are raised efficiently, and wage disparity is minimized. Universal basic income or
resident income to ensure an assured income provision is available to all. Finally, increased taxes
would attract more money from high income as with the higher income tax levels. This cuts
Dawodu 5
regressive tax, such as sales tax, and instead enhances welfare, which serves to raise disadvantaged
people’s incomes. This can be a valuable means of minimizing relative poverty (Pettinger, 2019).
Dawodu 6
References
Pettinger, T. (2019). Policies to reduce poverty – Economics Help. Economics Help.
https://www.economicshelp.org/macroeconomics/inequality/policies_reduce_poverty/.

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