Substantive answers/posts to demonstrate quality and critical thinking as noted per the syllabus must be no less than 150 words (not including references). Failure to meet the criteria will result in 0 points being awarded.
Per APA and graduate studies standards, all references must be 5 years or newer and posts are required to have in-text citations and references (1 point will be deducted from each post that do not meet the standards).
Instructions for each DB responses:
Substantive answers/posts to demonstrate quality and critical thinking as noted per the syllabus
must be no less than 150 words (not including references). Failure to meet the criteria will result
in 0 points being awarded.
Per APA and graduate studies standards, all references must be 5 years or newer and posts are
required to have in-text citations and references (1 point will be deducted from each post that do
not meet the standards).
The Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a tool that is utilized to
identify individuals who engage in alcohol and substance abuse behaviors at increased levels
(SAMHSA, 2017). As these type of behaviors can often go undetected in individuals, the SBIRT
is a validated, evidence-based tool that provides treatment teams and ability to identify clients
with substance abuse problems or may be at risk for developing a substance use disorder. The
SBIRT also provides feedback that can be utilized to address unique aspects of the clientÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s
substance use and aids in developing a treatment plan that can be utilized in influencing change
in the individual (SAMHSA, 2017).
As a clinician, I have had multiple encounters with clients that I have worked with for a period of
time with no reference to substance abuse issues. For various reasons, I have been requested to
obtain a urine toxicology screen that has resulted in unexpected results. With a simple pre-screen
of clients utilizing this tool as in intake screening survey, behaviors can be identified and
treatment can be implemented sooner that aids in reducing and preventing negative health
consequences, diseases associated with substance use, accidents, injuries, or overdoses (Babor et
Babor, T. F., Del Boca, F., & Bray, J. W. (2017, January 10). Screening, Brief Intervention and
Referral to Treatment: Implications of SAMHSA’s SBIRT initiative for substance abuse policy
and practice. Retrieved January 25, 2021, from
Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT). (2017, September 15).
Retrieved January 25, 2021, from https://www.samhsa.gov/sbirt
The Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is used in health care as
an early intervention and treatment for individuals with substance use disorders and those who
are at risk of developing these disorders. Screening can help to assess the severity of the
individualÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s substance use issues and provide adequate treatment options. Brief intervention
focuses on bringing about awareness of substance use and motivating behavioral changes.
Referral to treatment helps individuals obtain specialty care (SAMHSA, 2020). The SBIRT has
been shown to reduce mortality rates, substance use, and healthcare and societal costs. The
SBIRT for adolescents (SBIRT-A) has been proven to be beneficial during this developmental
stage (Ellington, 2019). Some of the major benefits of SBIRT are: reduced healthcare costs,
decreased severity of substance use, reduced risk of trauma, and reduced number of individuals
who go without specialized care. It is important to note that it is not for those who have severe
substance use or Ã¢â‚¬Å“those who meet criteria for a substance use disorderÃ¢â‚¬Â (CMS, 2020). A PMHNP
is able to use the SBIRT assessment along with screening tools to evaluate the type of care a
client may need. Two of the common screening tools used with SBIRT are the Alcohol Use
Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) (Kerrins and
Hemphill, 2019). These screening tools help determine whether a patient is abusing any
CMS. (2020, March). SCREENING, BRIEF INTERVENTION, AND REFERRAL TO
TREATMENT (SBIRT) SERVICES. Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/Outreach-andEducation/Medicare-Learning-NetworkMLN/MLNProducts/downloads/sbirt_factsheet_icn904084.pdf
Ellington, E. (2019). Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment for Adolescents
(SBIRT-A) Use in a PsychiatricÃ¢â‚¬â€œMental Health Nurse Practitioner Program. Journal of
psychosocial nursing and mental health services, 57(2), 12-14.
Kerrins, R., & Hemphill, J. (2019). Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment
(SBIRT): Process Improvement in a Nurse-Managed Clinic Serving the Homeless.
SAMHSA. (2020, April 16). About Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment
(SBIRT). Retrieved January 26, 2021, from https://www.samhsa.gov/sbirt/about
The Behavior Assessment for Children (BASC) is an assessment tool for children aged 2-15 for the
evaluation of emotional and behavioral problems, personality, and adaptive functioning (Aiena & Gross,
2017). It is a broader band screening of ADHD, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder,
depression, and anxiety. The BASC-2 is a newer version of this rating scale and it is multidimensional
allowing for teacher, parent, or child to use to rate behaviors. The BASC-2 uses a Likert scale and asked a
series of questions and with ratings from 0=never and 3=often or almost always (Aiena & Gross, 2017).
The Vanderbilt scale is very similar to the BASC-2 but is narrower to symptoms of ADHD in children.
Like the BASC, the Vanderbilt scale uses a Likert scale to rate the frequency of symptoms. It is important
that these tests are given to children, parents, and teachers because the environment can often change
behavior. Kids with ADHD will often have more trouble with a structured environment like a classroom.
Gaining information from different environments and perspectives improves understanding of symptoms.
The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS) is a semi-structured interview
to assess children ages 6-18 for current or past symptoms of mood disorder, anxiety, disruptive behavior,
and psychotic disorders (Tsuji et al., 2019). The child and parent serve as separate informants during the
KSADS. When a symptom of psychiatric disorder is suspected, further questioning is required to assess if
DSM-V criteria is met. KSADS is an assessment tool used to screen and diagnosis children for common
disorders found in the DSM (Tsuji et al., 2019).
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
(WAIS-IV) are measures intellectual ability. The WISC-IV is given to children aged 6-16 and WAIS-IV
is for 17 and up. These tests measure cognitive ability in verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning,
working memory, and processing speed (Gomez, Vance, & Watson, 2016). These areas are then indexed
to give an overall level of intelligence or IQ.
The Youth Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors health related behaviors that contribute to
the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults (CDC, 2020). Data is collected from a
system of surveys from national and local schools and health agencies.
Aiena, B., & Gross, A. (2017). Behavior assessment system for children. In A. Wenzel (Ed.), The sage
encyclopedia of abnormal and clinical psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 424-425). SAGE Publications, Inc.,
https://www-doi-org.ezproxy.uky.edu/10.4135/9781483365817 (Links to an external site.).
Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System
(YRBSS). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from
Gomez, R., Vance, A., & Watson, S. D. (2016). Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
– Fourth Edition in a Group of Children with ADHD. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 737.
Tsuji, T., Phalen, P., Rakhshan Rouhakhtar, P., Millman, Z., Bussell, K., Thompson, E., Demro, C.,
Roemer, C., Reeves, G., & Schiffman, J. (2019). Using the K-SADS psychosis screen to identify people
with early psychosis or psychosis risk syndromes. Clinical child psychology and psychiatry, 24(4), 809Ã¢â‚¬â€œ
What is YRBSS?
The Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) is a scale that is used to evaluate a childÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s change
in behavior or emotional status. The BASC is given to both the parents, and the school as the teachers
rate the childÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s behavior in a school setting, with evaluation by teachers, psychologists, and other
education staff, for observing and monitoring a childÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s behavior in the class. The BASC is utilized by the
parents to rate the childÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s behavior that they witness at home as well as to gather developmental and
medical history of the child. With the information obtained by the parent and school, the clinician is able
to have a more correct assessment of the childÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s behavior or emotional status.
The Vanderbilt Scale is a scale used to predict a childÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s ADHD diagnosis. The Vanderbilt Scale is given
to both the parents and the school as this is considered to be the foundation for an accurate ADHD
diagnosis (Rapposelli, 2016). DSM-V diagnosis criteria for ADHD requires the assessment of the child
in 2 settings, one being home with parent-based reports, and the other being teacher/school generated
reports (Rapposelli, 2016). The 2 settings are thought to provide the clinician with a more exact diagnosis
The (KSADS) Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia is a screening tool for
indicators suggestive of psychosis (Rapposelli, 2016). This screening tool uses both the child and parent
reports for the assessment of psychosis.
The WAIS-IV is a test that is self-administered and used to assess a personÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s different areas of intellectual
abilities, which allows the clinician to evaluate the overall full IQ score. The WAIS-IV IQ assessment is
based on verbal, perception, memory, and processing of memory (Bulzacka et al., 2016). These
components make up the evaluation of the full IQ score.
The (WISC-IV) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Edition measures intelligence in children
from the age of 6 to 16 years. This test measures general cognitive ability and intellectual functioning
based on verbal, perception, memory, and processing (Gomez, Vance, & Watson, 2016). This screening
also measures the child age 6-16 of his/her full IQ score.
The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is a health project in the United States that watches many
health-related behaviors of high school students (Underwood et al., 2020). Information included consist of
behaviors due to accidental and intentional injury, drug, alcohol and tobacco use, sexual behaviors,
subsequent pregnancies, as well as STD/HIV infection, diet, and exercise use. The YRBSS surveys the
health conditions, behaviors, and situations of high school students in the United States.
Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2021, from
https://www.rand.org/education-and-labor/projects/assessments/tool/1992/behavior-assessment-systemfor-children-basc.html (Links to an external site.)
Bulzacka, E., Meyers, J., Boyer, L., Le Gloahec, T., Fond, G., SzÃƒÂ¶ke, A., . . . SchÃƒÂ¼rhoff, F. (2016,
November 24). WAIS-IV Seven-Subtest Short Form: Validity and Clinical Use in Schizophrenia.
Retrieved January 22, 2021, from https://academic.oup.com/acn/article/31/8/915/2447471 (Links to an
Gomez, R., Vance, A., & Watson, S. (2016, May 30). Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
Children – Fourth Edition in a Group of Children with ADHD. Retrieved January 22, 2021, from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884732/ (Links to an external site.)
Rapposelli, D. (2016, May 4). Accurate Diagnosis of ADHD in the Absence of Teacher Reports.
Retrieved January 22, 2021, from https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/view/accurate-diagnosis-adhdabsence-teacher-reports (Links to an external site.)
Tsuji, T., Phalen, P., Rakhshan Rouhakhtar, P., Millman, Z., Bussell, K., Thompson, E., . . . Schiffman, J.
(2019, October). Using the K-SADS psychosis screen to identify people with early psychosis or psychosis
risk syndromes. Retrieved January 22, 2021, from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263389/ (Links to an external site.)
Underwood, J., Brener, N., Thornton, J., Harris, W., Bryan, L., Shanklin, S., . . . Dittus, P. (2020, August
21). Overview and Methods for the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System – United States, 2019.
Retrieved January 22, 2021, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7440204/ (Links to an
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