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As we learned in Week 1, it is hard to think of examples in life in which microbes do not play an important but silent or hidden role. Many of these roles are positive. However, most students enter a microbiology class only hearing about how there is “this epidemic”, or “this infection going around”, or “stay out of the water” or “don’t eat this food”. We hear about this based on a problem in our lives, the lives of someone we love, where we work, or on the news when reading a paper, watching TV or browsing the internet. But is this information correct or complete? It is this aspect of learning about microbiology that we want to illustrate this week.

This week, you will discuss a


Feel free to download the

Week Two Discussion

Week Two Discussion – Alternative Formats

assignment instructions and

Grading Rubric

Grading Rubric – Alternative Formats


For your main discussion post (first post),

You must choose from among the microorganisms listed below. This microbe has been in the news in the past 12 months.

It is required of all students to reserve their discussion topic using the following procedure:


Week 2 Discussion

, above, to enter the Discussion.

Click Create Thread

and type the number and scientific name of the organism you will discuss in the subject line to reserve your topic on a first come/first serve basis according to the classroom date/time stamp.

Click Submit.

Repeat main posts on the same organism are not permitted.

To post your main discussion you will  Reply to your topic intent post


Note: Please reserve your main discussion topic by Tuesday, thank you.

Note: Your posts must be added directly to the discussion box by Copy & Paste from your word document or by directly typing the post into the discussion box, thank you.

Please choose one of the following microbes for your main discussion:

Batrachochytrium salamandivorus

Bordetella pertussis

Borrelia burgdorferi


B. mayoni


Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus

Cryptosporidium parvum

Enterococcus faecium, E. faecalis, E. gallinarium

, Vancomycin Resistant (VRE)

Influenza Virus, Strain H1N1 (Swine Flu)

Influenza Virus, Strains H7N9 and H5N1 (Bird Flu)

Karenia brevis

Klebsiella pneumoniae

, Carbapenem Resistant (CRE, KPC)

Legionella pneumophila

Leptospira interrogans

Listeria monocytogenes

Microcystis aeruginosa

Mycobacterium chimaera



Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Rubeola Virus (Measles)

Rubulavirus (Mumps)

Salmonella enteritidis

Staphylococcus aureus

, Methicillin Resistant (MRSA)

Vibrio vulnificus

West Nile Virus

Xylella fastidiosa

Yersinia pestis

D.  You must  find a news article on your chosen microbe

published in the last 12 months in a main stream, media-outlet based, mass-distributed news source where the general public (even Grandma or Aunt Sally) gets their daily news.

This news article will be your main reference.  You must read for understanding, then tell us about the news report in your discussion.   You must write a review of the news article contents, discuss what type of microorganism it is, and if the organism is in nature or is used in industry or research or causes disease. If it causes disease you must discuss transmission, increasing incidence, factors contributing to the spread of the organism, lab culturing, etc

E.  You may use government-based or other scholarly references



secondary information, to explain details missing

from your news article above, such as, what kind of organism it is, the gram reaction, how the organism affects us, or follow -up information not known at the time of the news release but has been provided since that time .

F.  Your  discussion should be well-written, in your own words, paraphrasing from only credible academic sources. You may not directly quote from your sources; minimum elaboration on the topic of a

minimum of 300 words


maximum of 400 words


G.  You must also cite your credible academic reference sources with parenthetical in text citations (in parentheses), and provide full end ref information in

APA 7th Edition



Due by 11:59PM ET Friday,

on any day of the week other than the days you post your two comments, to meet the minimum three day posting requirement.

Comment Post Guidelines:

Two Comment Posts Required:

Note: A comment post can only be made in response to a student’s completed main post. Please do not post a comment until the student has already posted on their completed main post topic, thank you. You will have points deducted if you add a comment to a main topic reservation that has no completed main post. Many students can comment on the same main topic.

For your second post:

You will respond to another classmate with a substantive comment to move the science discussion forward in


100, maximum 150 words

in an area you are interested in after reading the main discussion.

Again, you should provide student original writing, paraphrasing from credible sources, cite your source for this post in text in parentheses, and provide full end ref information in APA 7th Edition format.

Due by

11:59PM ET Saturday,

on any day of the week other than the day you posted your main discussion and second comment, to meet the minimum three day posting requirement.

For your third post:

You will respond to another classmate with a substantive comment to move the science discussion forward in


100, maximum 150 words

in an area you are interested in after reading the main discussion .

Again, you should provide student original writing, paraphrasing from credible sources, cite your source for this post in text, in parentheses, and provide full end ref information in APA 7th Edition format.


Please refer to the

Getting Started

area of the classroom for information on

Credible References


APA 7th Edition format

under course resources.

You may


use Wikipedia or any other Open Source to support your college level work!  All assignments using these will earn zero score.

You must paraphrase from all sources as direct quotation is not acceptable in science writing.

It is highly suggested that you use the Safe Assign tool located in the Keiser Online Writing Laboratory (OWL) to check your writing for effective paraphrasing before submitting to the public discussion.  Please check with your instructor for their specific requirements and course expectations!

Influenza flu or bird flu is a disease caused by infection with in birds with a type A virus. H7N9 and H5N1 Are both influenza virus A, and is considered highly pathogenic meaning they cause severe disease and excessive death rate in infected chickens and other wild bird. The bird flu first emerged in Asia around 1996 first affecting commercial geese then spreading to poultry or chickens amongst Europe and Africa in the beginning of the 2000s. Stated in the article this virus is frequently targeting wild birds in different parts of the world. Wild birds make it hard to contain the virus because of their migration route and patterns that they take during migration season. The virus does affect some birds more critically than others like ducks show no signs of disease while geese and pelicans were all abruptly killed. wildlife researchers still do not have an understanding why the virus effects different birds but they are more concerned on how the virus is impacting certain bird species with a small scale of populations or minimal environment span. this virus does cause disease and thus amongst birds and it is transmitted by large amounts of birds being in contact with each other. Humans can catch the virus it is very uncommon, “But scientists are concerned that the high levels of virus circulating in bird populations mean that there are more opportunities for spillover into people.” (Miller, 2022) Humans who have been infected with the bird flu virus have had no symptoms or mild symptoms like slightly red eyes or mild flu. The more severe symptoms include pneumonia, fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headaches, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. The spread of the virus by infected human and human is by close contact and is considered rare but humans can be infected by the virus. Collaboration between health researchers and animal health groups are very important for keeping the bird flu from infecting humans and more animals.

Word Count:331


Miller, B., 2022. Why unprecedented bird flu outbreaks sweeping the world are concerning scientists. [online] Nature.com. Available at: < https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-01338-2 > [Accessed 12 July 2022].

Centers for disease Control and Prevention. 2022. Influenza (Flu). [online] Available at: < https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/index.htm > [Accessed 12 July 2022].

Danlay Martin Galvez

Influenza Virus, Strain H1N1 (Swine Flu)

On May 10 of 2022, the U.S. News website published an article updating us on new developments in relation to the infamous “swine flu.” The H1N1 flu is a subtype of influenza A virus. This virus is a common infection in pigs (hence the name), but is sometimes infections to humans who are in close proximity to pigs. Its potential to become a communicable viral disease happens when antigenic characteristics of the virus’ RNA structure efficiently change through reassortment. This viral disease causes upper and, occasionally, lower respiratory tract infections in its host and is spread from human-to-human through airborne droplets. The virus may also be contracted from human contact with inanimate objects contaminated with the virus and then transferred to the eyes or nose.

The article’s main goal is to inform the public about a new theory stating that today’s H1N1 flu (i.e. the swine flu) appears to be a direct descenedent of the influenza virus of the 1918 pandemic (Thompson, 2022). This information is helpful in that it exposes one possible motive that the 2009 swine flu outbreak seemed to affect younger people more than older adults, which deviates from the norm of other influenza strains. The overall consensus of the article is the older generation was (mostly) spared from the worse effects of the outbreak because they’ve either had previous experience with the 1918 H1N1 virus of its successors. This new information also helps explain why the worst flu seasons are those in which the H3N2 influenza strain is dominant, as its a newer strain with which we have all aquired less natural and vaccine-developed immunity. (Thompson, 2022).

This article was complied following a study that was conducted by Calvignac-Spencer and his colleagues. The researchers uncovered a rare set of lung tissue specimens dated between 1900 and 1931, which are directly related to the catastrophic 1918 pandemic. The current H1N1 influenza strain “clustered” with the 1918 viruses, which indicates that the initial strain of influenza continued to evolve on its own in humans, birds and mammals rather than combine with other viruses (Thompson, 2022).

Thompson, D. (2022, May 10). Today’s seasonal flu may descend from 1918 pandemic strain. U.S. News. Retrieved July 12, 2022, from


H1N1 influenza – statpearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Library of Medicine. (2022, February 27). Retrieved July 12, 2022, from


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