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After reading the following chapters, answer the questions below. Please, give your answers in your own words, do not copy and paste from the textbook or another source.

Chapter 10: Leadership

1. In what way does a first-level supervisor play an important leadership role in the organization? Give two examples.

2. Which of the influence tactics described in this chapter do you think is the least ethical? Explain your reasoning.

3. Research Report Instructions:

1)Go to www.bloomberg.com. (2) Type “leadership” in the “Search box” at the top. Find three interesting articles to you and summarize (3 pages) their content based on how the subject explained in each article is seen in your current company, or a company of your choice. This research report must be sent in APA style (Cover page, abstract, Main body (question 1, 2 and research report findings), Conclusions, References), and it should be part of the same assignment’s document.

Please, check carefully the originality of your submission. If there are similarities with external sources your work will be graded only based on the original portions of your responses, the portions taken from external sources will not be considered for grading.

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
LETTER TO INSTRUCTORS
Essentials of Management, 9e
Dear Colleague,
Whether you are a previous adopter, a new adopter, or a professor considering this text for adoption, I wish to thank you for your interest in Essentials of
Management 9e. Essentials was the first relatively brief management text
that was not simply an abbreviated version of a longer text. We created the
path for a more concise, more understandable, and practical approach to the
vast body of knowledge referred to as “management.” We assume that the
study of management is not exclusively geared toward C-level executives,
and that our readers will not be directing large enterprises or divisions of
large enterprises in their first job. Instead, the vast majority of our readers will
first be engaged in work that will require some managerial skill and knowledge, even though they are not working as executives.
Virtually all texts in management and related fields claim to be practical,
although many single sentences within them make six sweeping recommendations for CEOs or list ten companies that use a particular technique. We
contend that Essentials of Management, unlike much of the competition, is
and always has been a text that enables the student to apply much of the
information. We support our conclusions with relevant research studies wherever possible, but our intent is not to review most of the research on a given
topic. A case in point is our presentation of transformational and charismatic
leadership. We present some relevant research findings but also offer the students concrete suggestions for becoming more charismatic, including developing a more effective handshake.
My writing has always emphasized application both in textbooks and
trade books, and most of this writing has been about management, organizational behavior, human relations, leadership, and career management. Even
the articles I have published in professional journals would be understandable
to readers who were not specialists in the subject under investigation. For
example, I have published articles about influence tactics and self-discipline.
My full-time work experience as a management consultant was designed
to be a prelude to a career as a college professor and author. Throughout my
career I have stayed in contact with organizations and employees through
consulting, talks and seminars, media contacts, and career counseling.
The time you invested in reading this message is most appreciated.
Sincerely,
Andrew J. DuBrin
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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ESSENTIALS OF
MANAGEMENT
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
ESSENTIALS OF
MANAGEMENT
NINTH EDITION
Andrew J. DuBrin
Professor Emeritus of Management
College of Business
Rochester Institute of Technology
Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States
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This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions,
some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed
content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right
to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For
valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate
formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for
materials in your areas of interest.
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Essentials of Management, Ninth Edition
Andrew J. DuBrin
VP/Editorial Director: Jack W. Calhoun
Editor-in-Chief: Melissa Acuña
Executive Editor: Scott Person
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© 2012, 2009, 2006 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
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Preface
Essentials of Management is written for newcomers to the field of management and for experienced managers seeking updated information and a
review of the fundamentals. It is also written for the many professionals
and technical people who work closely with managers and who take their
turn at performing some management work. An example would be the member of a cross-functional team who is expected to have the perspective of a
general manager.
Based on extensive research about curriculum needs, the design of Essentials of Management addresses itself to the needs of introductory management courses and supervision courses offered in educational and work
settings. Previous editions of the text were used in the study of management
in colleges and universities, as well as in career schools in such diverse programs as hospitality and tourism management and nursing. The book can
also be used as a basic resource for management courses that rely heavily
on lecture notes, PowerPoint presentations, and videos rather than an
encyclopedia-like text.
Comments made by Jack and Suzy Welch support the intent and relevance of this text in both the present and previous editions. (Jack Welch
was the long-time chairman and CEO of GE and Suzy Welch is a former
Harvard Business Review editor.) Jack and Suzy Welch write,
In the past two years, we’ve visited 35 B-schools around the world and have
been repeatedly surprised by how little classroom attention is paid to hiring, motivating, team-building, and firing. Instead B-schools seem far more
invested in teaching brainiac-concepts—disruptive technologies, complexity
modeling, and the like. Those may be useful, particularly if you join a consulting firm, but real managers need to know how to get the most out of
people.
(Business Week, December 11, 2006, p. 112.)
ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING THE BOOK
The approach to synthesizing knowledge for this book is based on the
following five assumptions:
1. A strong demand exists for practical and valid information about
solutions to managerial problems. The information found in this text
reflects the author’s orientation toward translating research findings,
theory, and experience into a form useful to both the student and the
practitioner.
v
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
vi
Preface
2. Managers and professionals need both interpersonal and analytical skills
to meet their day-to-day responsibilities. Although this book concentrates on managing people, it also provides ample information about
such topics as decision making, job design, organization structure, information technology, cost cutting, and inventory management.
3. The study of management should emphasize a variety of large, medium,
and small work settings, as well as profit and not-for-profit organizations. Many students of management, for example, intend to become
small business owners. Examples and cases in this book therefore reflect
diverse work settings, including retail and service firms.
4. Introductory management textbooks tend to be unrealistically comprehensive. Many introductory texts today are more than 800 pages long.
Such texts overwhelm students who attempt to assimilate this knowledge
in a single quarter or semester. The goal with Essentials of Management
was to develop a text that realistically—in terms of time and amount of
information—introduces the study of management. This text is not
merely a condensation of a larger text, but a concise and comprehensive
treatment of management since the first edition.
FRAMEWORK OF THE BOOK
The first three chapters present an introduction to management. Chapter 1,
“The Manager’s Job,” explains the nature of managerial work with a particular emphasis on managerial roles and tasks. Chapter 2, “International Management and Cultural Diversity,” describes how managers and professionals
work in a multicultural environment. Chapter 3, “Ethics and Corporate
Social Responsibility,” examines the moral aspects of management.
The next three chapters address the subject of planning. Chapter 4,
“Essentials of Planning,” presents a general framework for planning—the
activity underlying almost any purposeful action taken by a manager.
Chapter 5, “Problem Solving and Decision Making,” explores the basics of
decision making with an emphasis on creativity and other behavioral aspects.
Chapter 6, “Quantitative Techniques for Planning and Decision Making,”
describes several adjuncts to planning and decision making such as breakeven analysis, PERT, and production-scheduling methods used for both
manufacturing and services.
Chapters 7–9 focus on organizing, culture, and staffing. Chapter 7, “Job
Design and Work Schedules,” explains how jobs are laid out and work
schedules arranged to enhance productivity and customer satisfaction.
Chapter 8, “Organization Structure, Culture, and Change,” explains how
work is organized from the standpoint of the organization, how culture profoundly influences an organization, and how to cope with and capitalize on
change. Chapter 9, “Human Resource and Talent Management,” explains
the methods by which people are brought into the organization, trained, and
evaluated.
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Preface
vii
The next three chapters, on leading, deal directly with the manager’s role in
influencing group members. Chapter 10, “Leadership,” focuses on different
approaches to leadership available to a manager and on the personal characteristics associated with leadership effectiveness. Chapter 11, “Motivation,”
describes what managers can do to increase or sustain employee effort toward
achieving work goals. Chapter 12, “Communication,” deals with the complex
problems of accurately sending and receiving messages. Chapter 13, “Teams,
Groups, and Teamwork,” explains the nature of teams and how managers can
foster group members’ working together cooperatively. Chapter 14, “Information Technology and e-Commerce,” describes how information technology,
including the Internet and e-commerce, influences the manager’s job,
The next two chapters, on controlling, deal with an important part of
keeping performance in line with expectations. Chapter 15, “Essentials of
Control,” presents an overview of measuring and controlling performance
and describes how managers work with a variety of financial measures to
monitor performance. Chapter 16, “Managing Ineffective Performers,”
describes current approaches to dealing with substandard performers, with
an emphasis on elevating performance.
The final chapter in the text, Chapter 17, “Enhancing Personal Productivity and Managing Stress,” describes how personal effectiveness can be
increased by developing better work habits and time management skills and
keeping stress under control. A major theme of the chapter is that good work
habits help prevent and manage stress.
PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES
Essentials of Management is designed to aid both students and instructors in
expanding their interest in and knowledge of management. The book contains the following features:
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Learning objectives coordinate the contents of each chapter. They preview the major topics and are integrated into the text by indicating
which major topics relate to the objectives. The end-of-chapter Summary
of Key Points, based on the chapter learning objectives, pulls together
the central ideas in each chapter.
An opening case example illustrates a major topic to be covered in the
chapter.
The Management in Action feature presents a portrait of how specific
individuals or organizations practice an aspect of management covered
in the chapter.
Concrete, real-world examples with which the reader can readily identify
are found throughout the text. Some examples are original, while others
relate research information from magazines, newspapers, journals, and
Internet sources.
Exhibits, which include figures, tables, and self-assessment quizzes, aid in
the comprehension of information in the text.
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
viii
Preface
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Key terms and phrases highlight the management vocabulary introduced
in each chapter with definitions that appear in the margin.
Questions at the end of each chapter assist learning by encouraging the
reader to review and reflect on the chapter objectives.
Skill-building exercises, including Internet activities, appear at the end of
each chapter.
Self-assessment quizzes appear throughout the text, designed to help students think through their standing on important dimensions of behavior
that influence managerial and professional work.
Case problems, also located at the end of each chapter, can be used to
synthesize the chapter concepts and simulate the practice of
management.
Video selections are cued to places in the text where they have particular
applicability.
NEW TO THE NINTH EDITION
A number of significant changes and additions have been incorporated into
this edition. A brief listing of these changes here is followed by a more
detailed look.
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All 17 chapters contain new information where appropriate; many older
research findings and several topics of lesser interest today have been
deleted.
Twenty-three of the 34 end-of-chapter cases are new, and the Chapter 4
case about Dell has been updated.
Fifteen of the chapter-opening cases are new.
Nearly all of the many Management in Action boxes are new. The previous Management in Action stories about Wal-Mart and Hypertherm
have been updated.
There is a new end-of-chapter exercise called Management Now: Online
Skill-Building Activities. These exercises will encourage students to use
the Internet to obtain up-to-the-minute information, ideas, and applications directly related to each chapter’s topic.
Three of the skill-building exercises are new.
New Topics Added to the Text
• Coping with dangerous and defective products as a challenge for the
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manager involved in international trade (Chapter 2)
Analysis of sources of unethical decisions in terms of characteristics of
the individual, moral issues facing the person, and the organizational
environment (Chapter 3)
Extracting extraordinary compensation from the organization as a type
of ethical temptation (Chapter 3)
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Preface
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The preparation of fraudulent financial documents to deceive investors
as a type of unethical behavior, with Bernard L. Madoff as an example
(Chapter 3)
The three components of corporate social responsibility: cognitive,
linguistic, and conative (behavior) (Chapter 3)
Expanded coverage of environmental protection as a form of social
responsibility (Chapter 3)
How decision making is influenced by emotional tagging, or the process by which emotional information attaches itself to our memories
(Chapter 5)
Engaging in physical exercise to enhance creativity (Chapter 5)
Scenario planning for making good use of forecasts (Chapter 6)
The Delphi technique for increasing the accuracy of forecasts (Chapter 6)
Job design to help decrease back problems (Chapter 7)
Social network analysis to understand the informal organization structure (Chapter 8)
Resistance to change as a form of feedback (Chapter 8)
Emphasis on concept of talent management instead of organizational
staffing (Chapter 9)
Situational judgment tests as a type of psychological test in employment
(Chapter 9)
Exhibit 10-2 about the measurement of three organizational influence
tactics (Chapter 10)
New section on leadership during adversity and crisis (Chapter 10)
Four drives or needs hardwired into our brains (Chapter 11)
The use of social media as a communication channel within the organization (Chapter 12)
Reducing cross-cultural communication barriers by correctly pronouncing the names of people you interact with from other countries
(Chapter 12)
Ostracism of unwanted group member as a potential disadvantage of a
group (Chapter 13)
Section on social media and customer relationships (Chapter 14)
Section on how cloud computing affects the internal operations of an
organization (Chapter 14)
Ethical problems associated with maintaining high cash flow by delaying
payment of bills (Chapter 15)
Section on potential hazards of cost reductions (Chapter 15)
Relative standing against competition as a measure of a company’s
financial success (Chapter 15)
The problem with controls limiting innovation (Chapter 15)
Workplace harassment in general as a contributor to ineffective performance (Chapter 16)
Avoiding surprises when terminating an employee (Chapter 16)
Exhibit on causes of stress among the general population (Chapter 17)
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
x
Preface
New Skill-Building Exercises
Every chapter contains two skill-building exercises, with three new exercises
added to the ninth edition, as follows:
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Conducting an Environmental Audit (Chapter 3)
Stretching Your Imagination (Chapter 5)
Learning from Failed Leadership (Chapter 10)
New Management Now: Online Skill-Building Exercises
Every chapter contains an Internet-based skill-building exercise designed to
connect students to Web sites that will boost their knowledge of up-to-theminute management topics and issues. Four new skill builders are:
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Finding the Best Jobs (Chapter 7)
Analyzing a Motivational Program (Chapter 11)
Sizing up an Executive on YouTube (Chapter 14)
Finding a C-Level Manager Worthy of Being Terminated (Chapter 16)
Self-Quizzes
Not only will students enjoy taking the self-quizzes, they will also learn
about their strengths and areas for improvement in the process. Your students will benefit from taking the following quizzes:
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My Managerial Role Analysis (Chapter 1)
Cross-Cultural Skills and Attitudes (Chapter 2)
The Ethical Reasoning Inventory (Chapter 3)
How Involved Are You? (Chapter 7)
Understanding Your Bureaucratic Orientation (Chapter 8)
Behaviors and Attitudes of a Trustworthy Leader (Chapter 10)
What Style of Leader Are You? (Chapter 10)
My Approach to Motivating Others (Chapter 11)
The Positive Organizational Politics Questionnaire (Chapter 12)
Team Skills (Chapter 13)
The Self-Sabotage Questionnaire (Chapter 16)
Procrastination Tendencies (Chapter 17)
The Stress Questionnaire (Chapter 17)
Brand-New Action Inserts
Students will find one Management in Action insert in every chapter. Fifteen
inserts are completely new or an update of an insert from the eighth edition.
A complete list follows:
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Brian O’Connor, the Chief Privacy Officer at Eastman Kodak Company
(Chapter 1)
Canadian Banks Open Doors for Employees with Disabilities (Chapter 2)
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Preface
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Updating and Expansion of Wal-Mart Managers Take the High Road
and the Low Road (Chapter 3)
Mike’s Carwash Puts People First (Chapter 4)
Procter & Gamble and Google Swap Workers to Spur Innovation
(Chapter 5)
Data-Driven Decision Making at Hewlett-Packard (updated) (Chapter 6)
Be Our Guest Hires Part-Time CFO (Chapter 7)
Nokia Corp. Reorganizes (Chapter 8)
Goodyear Tire Stretches Compensation Dollars (Chapter 9)
Safety Coordinator Sherry Black Copes with a Tornado at a Caterpillar
Plant (Chapter 10)
Workers at Skyline Construction Choose Own Mix of Salary and Bonus
(Chapter 11)
Victor Gulas Draws a Map of Connections (Chapter 12)
Hypertherm Chief Executive Organizes for Teamwork (Chapter 13)
Companies Combat Online Insults (Chapter 14)
Cash Doesn’t Lie (Chapter 15)
A Counseling Letter Sent to an Underperforming Employee (Chapter 16)
Leading Banker Uses To-Do Lists to Keep Organized (Chapter 17)
New End-of-Chapter Cases
Twenty-three of the cases in the ninth edition are new and one is updated as
follows:
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Big Hopes at Olive Garden, the Red Lobster, and LongHorn (Chapter 1)
The Management Trainee Blues (Chapter 1)
Aquarius Technologies is Caught in a Trade War (Chapter 2)
Flippant Jessica (Chapter 2)
Should We Launch Lightening Bolt? (Chapter 3)
The Blue Ocean Strategy Team (Chapter 4)
What Should Dell Do Next? (updated) (Chapter 4)
What to Do with All these False Emergency Patients? (Chapter 5)
Staple’s Invention Quest (Chapter 5)
Retro is Our Future (Chapter 6)
Just-In-Time Worries at the University of Utah Hospital (Chapter 6)
The Telecommuting Challenge at NewWest.Net (Chapter 7)
Redesigning PepsiCo (Chapter 8)
Performance Rankings at Portland Events Planners (Chapter 9)
Michelle Rhee Makes Waves in D.C. (Chapter 10)
Is Julia Too Empowering? (Chapter 10)
Justin Tries a Little Recognition (Chapter 11)
Networking Megan (Chapter 12)
Team Player Jessica (Chapter 13)
How Far Can MyGofer Go? (Chapter 14)
The Adoring Bloggers (Chapter 14)
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xii
Preface
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Mr. Potato Head Visits Starbucks (Chapter 15)
MySpace is Our Place (Chapter 15)
“It Takes Me a Long Time to Get Here” (Chapter 16)
Sean Struggles to Get Started (Chapter 17)
Brittany Faces Reality (Chapter 17)
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
Essentials of Management is accompanied by comprehensive instructional
support materials.
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Instructor’s Manual. Available on the Instructor’s Resource CD and
online, the instructor’s manual provides resources to increase the teaching and learning value of Essentials of Management. The Manual contains “Chapter Outline and Lecture Notes,” which is of particular value
to instructors whose time budget does not allow for extensive class preparation. For each chapter, the Manual provides a statement of purpose
and scope, outline and lecture notes, lecture topics, comments on the
end-of-chapter questions and activities, responses to case questions, an
experiential activity, and video case notes.
Test Bank. Also available on the IRCD or online, the Test Bank contains
at least 25 multiple-choice questions, 25 true/false questions, and 3 essay
questions. New to this edition are several critical thinking multiple-choice
questions for each chapter.
Examview. The Test Bank questions are also available on the Instructor’s
Resource CD with the test generator program, Examview. This versatile
software package allows instructors to create new questions and edit or
delete existing questions from the Test Bank.
PowerPoint Slides. A set of 425 professionally prepared PowerPoint slides
accompanies the text. This slide package is designed for easy classroom use
and closely follows the Instructor’s Manual to facilitate classroom
presentation.
Management CourseMate. Cengage Learning’s Management CourseMate brings course concepts to life with interactive learning, study, and
exam preparation tools that support the printed textbook. Through this
website, available for an additional fee, students will have access to their
own set of Powerpoint® slides, flashcards, and games, as well as the
Learning Objectives, Opening Cases, and Glossary for quick reviews. A
set of auto-gradable, interactive quizzes will allow students to instantly
gauge their comprehension of the material.
Product Support Website. The flashcards, Learning Objectives, and Glossary are available for quick reference on our complimentary student
product support website.
Webtutor on BlackBoard® and Webtutor on WebCT™. Available on two
different platforms, Essentials of Management Webtutor enhances
students’ understanding of the material by featuring the Opening Cases,
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Preface
xiii
Learning Objectives, key term flashcards, threaded discussion questions,
puzzles and games, and quizzes that delve more deeply into key concepts
presented in the book so that students can excel at all types of
assessment.
A NOTE TO THE STUDENT
The information in the general preface is important for students as well as
instructors. Here I offer additional comments that will enable you to increase
the personal payoffs from studying management. My message can be organized around several key points.
•
•
•
•
Management is not simply common sense. The number one trap for students studying management is to assume that the material is easy to master because many of the terms and ideas are familiar. For example, just
because you have heard the word teamwork many times, it does not
automatically follow that you are familiar with specific field-tested ideas
for enhancing teamwork.
Managerial skills are vital. The information in the course for which you
are studying this text and in the text itself are vital in today’s world. People with formal managerial job titles such as supervisor, team leader,
department head, or vice president are obviously expected to possess managerial skills. But many other people in jobs without managerial titles
also benefit from managerial skills. Among them are people with titles
such as administrative assistant, customer-service representative, and
inventory-control specialist.
The combination of managerial, interpersonal, and technical skills leads to
outstanding career success. A recurring myth is that it is better to study
“technical” or “hard” subjects than management because the pay is better. In reality, the people in business making the higher salaries and other
compensation are those who combine technical skills with managerial
and interpersonal skills. Executives and business owners, for example,
can earn incomes rivaled only by leading professional athletes and entertainment personalities.
Studying management, however, has its biggest payoff in the long run.
Entry-level management positions are in short supply. Management is a
basic life process. To run a major corporation, manage a restaurant or a
hair salon, organize a company picnic, plan a wedding, or run a good
household, management skills are an asset. We all have some knowledge
of management, but formally studying management can multiply one’s
effectiveness.
Take advantage of the many study aids in this text. You will enhance your
learning of management by concentrating on such learning aids as the
chapter objectives, summaries, discussion questions, self-quizzes, skilldevelopment exercises, and the glossary. Carefully studying a glossary is an
effective way of building a vocabulary in a new field. Studying the glossary
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xiv
Preface
will also serve as a reminder of important topics. Activities such as the cases,
discussion questions, and skill-building exercises facilitate learning by creating the opportunity to think through the information. Thinking through
information, in turn, leads to better comprehension and long-term retention
of information.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Any project as complex as this text requires a team of dedicated and talented
people to see that it gets completed effectively. Many reviewers made valuable comments during the development of this new edition as well as the previous seven editions of the text. I appreciate the helpful suggestions of the
following colleagues:
Jackie Armstrong
Hill College
Thelma Anderson
Montana State University–Northern
Zay Lynn Bailey
SUNY—Brockport
Kathy Baughman
Juniata College
Tom Birkenhead
Lane Community College
Genie Black
Arkansas Tech University
Thomas M. Bock
Baruch College
Brenda Britt
Fayetteville Technical Community
College
Murray Brunton
Central Ohio Technical College
Michel Cardinale
Palomar College
Gary Clark
North Harris College
Glenn A. Compton
University of Maryland
Jose L. Curzet
Florida National College
Rex Cutshall
Vincennes University
Robert DeDominic
Montana Tech University
Robert Desman
Kennesaw State College
Kenneth Dreifus
Pace University
Ben Dunn
York Technical College
Karen A. Evans
Herkimer County Community
College
Debra Farley
Ozark College
Thomas Fiock
Southern Illinois University at
Carbondale
Renee T. Garcia
Luna Community College
Dan Geeding
Xavier University
Shirley Gilmore
Iowa State University
Philip C. Grant
Hussen College
Randall Greenwell
John Wood Community College
David R. Grimmett
Austin Peay State University
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Preface
Robert Halliman
Austin Peay State University
Ed Hamer
George Mason University
Paul Hegele
Elgin Community College
Kermelle D. Hensley
Columbus Technical College
Thomas Heslin
Indiana University
Peter Hess
Western New England College
Melanie Hilburn
Lone Star College—North Harris
Nathan Himelstein
Essex County College
Kim T. Hinrichs
Minnesota State University—
Mankato
Brad Hollaway
Ozarka College
Judith A. Horrath
Lehigh Corbon Community College
Margaret Huron
Lone Star College—North Harris
Lawrence H. Jaffe
Rutgers University
Steven Jennings
Highland Community College
B. R. Kirkland
Tarleton State University
Alecia N. Lawrence
Williamsburg Technical College
Donald Lee
Pitt Community College
Margaret S. Maguire
SUNY—Oneonta
Patrician Manninen
North Shore Community College
Noel Matthews
Front Range Community College
xv
Ted Mattingly
George Mason University
Christopher J. Morris
Adirondack Community College
Ilona Motsiff
Trinity College of Vermont
David W. Murphy
University of Kentucky
Robert D. Nale
Coastal Carolina University
Christopher P. Neck
Virginia Tech
Ronald W. Olive
New Hampshire Technical College
George M. Padilla
New Mexico State University—
Almogordo
J. E. Pearson
Dabney S. Lancaster Community
College
Gregory F. Petranek
Eastern Connecticut State
University
Joseph Platts
Miami-Dade Community College
Larry S. Potter
University of Maine—Presque Isle
Thomas Quirk
Webster University
Jane Rada
Western Wisconsin Technical
College
James Riley
Oklahoma Junior College
Robert Scully
Barry University
William Searle
Asnuntuck Community Technical
College
William Shepard
New Hampshire Technical College
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xvi
Preface
Vladimir Simic
Missouri Valley College
Howard R. Stanger
Canisius College
Lynn Suksdorf
Salt Lake Community College
John J. Sullivan
Montreat College
Martin J. Suydam
George Mason University
Gary Tilley
Surry Community College
Bernard Weinrich
St. Louis Community College
Blaine Weller
Baker College
Mara Winick
University of Redlands
Alex Wittig
North Metro Technical College
Marybeth Kardatzke Zipperer
Montgomery College
Thanks also to the members of the Cengage Learning South-Western
Team who worked with me on this edition: Editor-in-Chief Melissa Acuña;
Executive Editor Scott Person; Developmental Editor Jennifer King; Senior
Editorial Assistant Ruth Belanger; Senior Art Director Tippy McIntosh;
Marketing Manager Jon Monahan; and Marketing Coordinator Julia
Tucker. Writing without loved ones would be a lonely task. My thanks therefore go to my family: Drew, Rosie, Clare, Douglas, Gizella, Camila, Sofia,
Eliana, Julian, Melanie, Will, and Carson. My thanks are also expressed to
Stefanie, the woman in my life.
Andrew J. DuBrin
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About the Author
Andrew J. DuBrin is Professor Emeritus of Management in the College of
Business at the Rochester Institute of Technology, where he has taught
courses and conducted research in management, organizational behavior,
leadership, and career management. He also gives presentations at other
colleges, career schools, and universities. He has served as department chairman and team leader in previous years. He received his Ph.D. in Industrial
Psychology from Michigan State University. DuBrin has business experience in human resource management and consults with organizations
and individuals. His specialties include career management leadership and
management development. DuBrin is an established author of both textbooks and trade books, and he contributes to professional journals, magazines, newspapers, and online media. He has written textbooks on
management, leadership, organizational behavior, human relations, and
impression management. His trade books cover many management issues,
including charisma, team play, office politics, overcoming career selfsabotage, and coaching and mentoring.
xvii
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Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Brief Contents
PART 1 Introduction to Management
1 The Manager’s Job 1
l International Management and Cultural Diversity
l Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility 74
l
2
35
3
PART 2 Planning
4 Essentials of Planning 116
l Problem Solving and Decision Making
l Quantitative Techniques for Planning
l and Decision Making 191
5
151
6
PART 3 Organizing
7 Job Design and Work Schedules 224
l Organization Structure, Culture, and Change 262
l Human Resource and Talent Management 305
l
8
9
PART 4 Leading
10 Leadership 345
l Motivation 388
l Communication 427
l Teams, Groups, and Teamwork
l
11
12
13
469
PART 5 Controlling
14 Information Technology and e-Commerce 506
l Essentials of Control 539
l Managing Ineffective Performers
l
15
16
583
xix
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xx Brief Contents
PART 6
l
17
Managing for Personal
Effectiveness
Enhancing Personal Productivity and Managing
Stress 621
Glossary 659
Index 669
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Contents
PART 1
l
1
l
2
l
3
The Manager’s Job
4
1
Who Is a Manager? 2
Types of Managers 5
The Process of Management 7
The Four Managerial Functions 9
The Seventeen Managerial Roles 11
Five Key Managerial Skills 17
Development of Managerial Skills 19
The Evolution of Management Thought
20
International Management and Cultural Diversity 35
International Management 36
Challenges Facing the Global Managerial Worker 45
Methods of Entry into World Markets 52
Success Factors in the Global Marketplace 54
The Scope, Competitive Advantage, and
Potential Problems of Managing Diversity 59
Organizational Practices to Encourage Diversity 64
Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility
74
Business Ethics 75
Corporate Social Responsibility 91
Environmental Protection 101
Creating an Ethical and Socially Responsible Workplace
PART 2
l
Introduction to Management
104
Planning
Essentials of Planning 116
A General Framework for Planning 118
The Nature of Business Strategy 123
The Development of Business Strategy 126
xxi
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xxii
Contents
Operating Plans, Policies, Procedures, and Rules 140
Management by Objectives: A System of Planning
and Review 142
l
5
l
6
Problem Solving and Decision Making
151
Nonprogrammed versus Programmed Decisions 152
Steps in Problem Solving and Decision Making 155
Bounded Rationality and Influences on Decision Making
Group Problem Solving and Decision Making 168
Creativity and Innovation in Managerial Work 173
158
Quantitative Techniques for Planning
and Decision Making 191
Data-Based Decision Making 193
Forecasting Methods 194
Gantt Charts and Milestone Charts 201
Program Evaluation and Review Technique 202
Break-Even Analysis 208
Decision Trees 210
Inventory Control Techniques 211
Pareto Diagrams for Problem Identification 216
PART 3
l
7
l
8
Organizing
Job Design and Work Schedules 224
Four Major Dimensions of Job Design Plus Job Specialization
and Job Description 226
Job Enrichment and the Job Characteristics Model 232
Job Involvement, Enlargement, and Rotation 236
Job Crafting and Job Design 239
Ergonomics and Job Design 241
Modified Work Schedules and Job Design 244
Job Design and High-Performance Work Systems 254
Organization Structure, Culture, and Change 262
Bureaucracy as an Organization Structure 263
Departmentalization 268
Modifications of the Bureaucratic Organization 272
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Contents xxiii
Delegation, Empowerment, and Decentralization
Organizational Culture 287
Managing Change 293
l
9
Human Resource and Talent Management
10
l
11
305
Human Resource Management and Business Strategy 306
The Talent Management Model and Strategic Human
Resource Planning 307
Recruitment 313
Selection 316
Orientation, Training, and Development 325
Performance Evaluation (or Appraisal) 330
Compensation 333
The Role of Labor Unions in Human Resource
Management 337
PART 4
l
284
Leading
Leadership
345
The Link between Leadership and Management 347
The Leadership use of Power and Authority 348
Characteristics, Traits, and Behaviors of Effective Leaders
Leadership Styles 362
Transformational and Charismatic Leadership 370
The Leader as a Mentor and Coach 374
Leadership during Adversity and Crisis 376
Leadership Skills 379
Motivation
355
388
The Relationship between Motivation, Performance,
and Engagement 389
Motivation through Need Satisfaction 391
Motivation through Goal Setting 400
Positive Reinforcement and Recognition Programs 402
Expectancy Theory of Motivation 410
Motivation through Financial Incentives 413
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xxiv
Contents
l
12
l
13
Communication 427
The Communication Process 429
Nonverbal Communication in Organizations 431
Organizational Channels and Directions of Communication 434
Barriers to Communication 443
Overcoming Barriers to Communication 447
How to Conduct an Effective Meeting 454
Organizational Politics and Interpersonal Communication 456
Teams, Groups, and Teamwork
Types of Teams and Groups 470
Characteristics of Effective Work Groups 479
Stages of Group Development 483
Managerial Actions for Building Teamwork 485
Being an Effective Team Player 488
Potential Contributions and Problems of Teams
and Groups 491
Resolving Conflict within Teams and Groups 494
PART 5
l
14
l
15
469
Controlling
Information Technology and e-Commerce 506
Information Technology and the Manager’s Job 508
The Positive and Negative Consequences of Information
Technology 510
The Impact of the Internet on Customers and Other
External Relationships 520
The Effects of the Internet on Internal Operations 527
Success Factors in E-Commerce 531
Essentials of Control
539
Controlling and the Other Management Functions
Types and Strategies of Control 541
Steps in the Control Process 544
Nonbudgetary Control Techniques 548
Budgets and Budgetary Control Techniques 550
Managing Cash Flow and Cost Cutting 557
541
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Contents
Nontraditional Measures of Financial Performance
Information Systems and Control 570
Characteristics of Effective Controls 574
l
16
Managing Ineffective Performers
l
17
564
583
Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance 584
The Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performers
Coaching and Constructive Criticism 600
Employee Discipline 603
Dealing with Difficult People, Including Cynics 608
Termination 613
PART 6
xxv
593
Managing for Personal Effectiveness
Enhancing Personal Productivity and Managing
Stress 621
Improving Your Work Habits and Time Management
Understanding and Reducing Procrastination 636
The Nature of Stress and Burnout 639
Stress-Management Techniques 648
622
Glossary 659
Index 669
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ESSENTIALS OF
MANAGEMENT
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CHAPTER
1
The Manager’s Job
OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter and
doing the exercises, you should
be able to:
l
l
l
l
l
1 Explain the term manager,
and identify different types
of managers.
2 Describe the process of
management, including the
functions of management.
3 Describe the various
managerial roles.
4 Identify the basic managerial
skills and understand how
they can be developed.
5 Identify the major develop-
ments in the evolution of
management thought.
I
n November a few years ago, Nancy Jackson was able
to hire a new full-time salesperson for the company she
co-owns, Architectural Systems Inc. in New York, but
found herself facing an angry 19-person staff. “I couldn’t
believe their reaction,” she says. Just a few months earlier,
some had seen their workweeks reduced or salaries scaled
back; two colleagues had been laid off.
To mitigate the situation, Jackson quickly called a meeting to explain that beefing up the firm’s sales force was a
necessary first step for making a companywide recovery.
Meanwhile, she has since gone about hiring differently, she
says, bringing on a new marketing associate as a temporary
part-time employee, rather than a full-time staff member, so
as not to rile her team. “There’s been a lot of emotional
hand-holding here that we’ve never had to do before.”1
The story about the manager and owner of the architectural firm illustrates, among other ideas, that a manager
makes things happen, such as enabling the growth of the
firm. Also illustrated is that managers often must deal with
upset employees and resolve conflict. As will be described
Sarah E. Needleman, “Business Owners Try to Motivate Employees,” The
Wall Street Journal, January 14, 2010, p. B5.
1
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
2
CHAPTER 1
The Manager’s Job
in this chapter, and throughout the book, the manager carries out a large
number of demanding activities.
LEARNING
OBJECTIVE
1
l
Explain the term
manager, and
identify different
types of managers.
manager
A person responsible
for the work
performance of group
members.
management
The process of using
organizational
resources to achieve
organizational
objectives through
planning, organizing
and staffing, leading,
and controlling.
PLAY VIDEO
Go to www.cengage.
com/management/
dubrin and view the
video for Chapter 1. As
you watch, think about
the various types of
managers shown in
the video. What are
some of the skills
exhibited by the
company founder?
What are some of the
skills exhibited by the
other managers?
top-level managers
Managers at the top
one or two levels in an
organization.
WHO IS A MANAGER?
A manager is a person responsible for the work performance of group members. Approximately 10 percent of the U.S. workforce holds a managerial
position of one type or another. A manager holds the formal authority to
commit organizational resources, even if the approval of others is required.
For example, the manager of a Jackson-Hewitt income tax and financial service outlet has the authority to order the repainting of the reception area.
The income tax and financial services specialists reporting to that manager,
however, do not have that authority.
The concepts of manager and managing are intertwined. The term management in this book refers to the process of using organizational resources
to achieve organizational objectives through the functions of planning, organizing and staffing, leading, and controlling. These functions represent the
broad framework for this book and will be described later. In addition to
being a process, the term management is also used as a label for a specific
discipline, for the people who manage, and for a career choice.
Levels of Management
Another way of understanding the nature of a manager’s job is to examine
the three levels of management shown in Exhibit 1-1. The pyramid in this
figure illustrates progressively fewer employees at each higher managerial
level. The largest number of people is at the bottom organizational level.
(Note that the term organizational level is sometimes more precise than the
term managerial level, particularly at the bottom organizational level, which
has no managers.)
Top-Level Managers
Most people who enter the field of management aspire to become top-level
managers—managers at the top one or two levels in an organization.
C-level manager is a recent term used to describe a top-level manager; these
managers usually have the word chief in their title, such as chief operating
officer. Top-level managers are empowered to make major decisions affecting the present and future of the firm. Only a top-level manager, for example, would have the authority to purchase another company, initiate a new
product line, or hire hundreds of employees. Top-level managers are the people who give the organization its general direction; they decide where it is
going and how it will get there. The terms executive, top-level manager, and
c-level manager can be used interchangeably.
Because management is an evolving field, new job titles for c-level managers continue to surface. Often these titles reflect a new emphasis on what
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Who Is a Manager?
EXHIBIT 1-1
3
Managerial Levels and Sample Job Titles
Many job titles
can be found at
each level of
management.
TopLevel
Managers
Chairman of the board, CEO,
president, vice president,
COO (chief operating officer),
CFO (chief financial officer),
CIO (chief information officer)
Middle-Level
Managers
Director, branch manager,
department chairperson,
chief of surgery, team leader
First-Level Managers
Supervisor, office manager,
crew chief
Individual Contributors
(Operatives and Specialists)
Tool-and-die maker, cook,
word-processing technician,
assembler
Note: Some individual contributors, such as financial analysts and administrative assistants, report directly to top-level managers or middle managers.
C-level manager
A recent term to
describe top-level
managers because
they usually have chief
in their title.
must be accomplished for an organization to run successfully. Here are a few
of the recent c-level positions often found in large organizations:
•
•
Chief of staff. High-level executives in politics and the military have
long relied on the services of a chief of staff; this role has recently
become a part of the executive suite in business. The chief of staff is a
top level advisor who serves as a confidant, gatekeeper, and all-around
strategic consultant. Three financial services firms with a chief of staff
in the executive suite are Goldman Sachs, Aflac, and the global insurance business ING.2
Chief commercial officer. A growing number of large business firms are
designating a chief commercial officer who oversees growth and commercial success. The person in this position has major responsibility for customer relationships and for managing the company interface with the
customer. The chief commercial officer position has been created because
the many different sales channels, especially digital sales, has forced companies to think differently about their customers and how they interact
with them. In some instances the CCO supplements the work of the
head of marketing, and at other times replaces him or her. The biotech
firm Cellular Dynamics International is one firm that employs a chief
commercial officer.3
“Latest CEO Accessory: A Chief of Staff,” Fortune, January 18, 2010, p. 18.
Ed Frauenheim, “‘CCO’ Becomes Hot Exec Title Amid Recession,” Workforce Management, September 14, 2009, p. 4.
2
3
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4
CHAPTER 1
The Manager’s Job
MANAGEMENT IN ACTION
As Rochester, New York-based Eastman Kodak
struggles to transform from a film dinosaur to a
digital powerhouse, it falls to Chief Privacy Officer Brian O’Connor to keep identity thieves
away from EasyShare, Kodak’s photo-sharing
Web site. It’s also his job to ensure that HR
(human resources) and line managers don’t
put the company at risk by overzealously investigating job applicants. Welcome to the world of
chief privacy officer (CPO), a young profession
with a complicated mandate: protecting the privacy of consumer and employment data.
At Kodak, where O’Connor has served as
CPO since 2005, safeguarding customer
information—including the millions of digital
photos shutterbugs add to EasyShare each
day—is key to survival. But it is also at the
heart of a complex tangle of federal, state, and
•
international rules governing how organizations
handle personal information.
Questions
1. After studying the section about managerial
roles later in this chapter, identify which roles
O’Connor is carrying out.
2. Explain whether you think a company really
needs a “chief privacy officer.”
3. Assuming you had the necessary knowledge
and skills, to what extent would the position
of chief privacy officer appeal to you?
4. Do you worry about identity theft when you
post photos on the Internet?
Source: Rita Zeidner, “New Face in the C-Suite,” HR
Magazine, January 2010, p. 39.
Chief privacy officer. As illustrated in the accompanying Management in
Action, the chief privacy officer works on such problems as safeguarding
customer information in the digital world.
Middle-Level Managers
middle-level
managers
Managers who are
neither executives nor
first-level supervisors,
but who serve as a link
between the two
groups.
Middle-level managers are managers who are neither executives nor first-level
supervisors, but who serve as a link between the two groups. Middle-level
managers conduct most of the coordination activities within the firm, and
they are responsible for implementing programs and policies formulated by
top-level management. The jobs of middle-level managers vary substantially
in terms of responsibility and income. A branch manager in a large firm
might be responsible for more than 100 workers. In contrast, a general supervisor in a small manufacturing firm might have 20 people reporting to him
or her. Other important tasks for many middle-level managers include helping the company undertake profitable new ventures and finding creative
ways to reach goals. A major part of a middle manager’s job is working
with teams to accomplish work. Middle-level managers play a major role in
operating an organization, and therefore continue to be in demand.
Although advances in information technology have reduced the communication requirement of the middle manager positions, the need for middle
managers is still strong. Paul Osterman, a management scholar at the MIT
Sloan School of Management, conducted an interview and survey study of a
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Types of Managers
5
group of middle managers. One of the conclusions he reached was as follows:
“They are responsible for making many of the judgment calls and trade-offs
that shape the firm’s success. They are also the key communication channel
from senior management down through the ranks.”4
First-Level Managers
first-level managers
Managers who
supervise operatives
(also known as firstline managers or
supervisors).
Managers who supervise operatives are referred to as first-level managers,
first-line managers, or supervisors. Historically, first-level managers were
promoted from production or clerical (now called staff support) positions
into supervisory positions. Rarely did they have formal education beyond
high school. A dramatic shift has taken place in recent years, however.
Many of today’s first-level managers are career school graduates and fouryear college graduates who are familiar with modern management techniques. The current emphasis on productivity and cost control has elevated
the status of many supervisors.
To understand the work performed by first-level managers, reflect back
on your first job. Like most employees in entry-level positions, you probably
reported to a first-level manager. Such a manager might be supervisor of
newspaper carriers, dining room manager, service station manager, maintenance supervisor, or department manager in a retail store. Supervisors help
shape the attitudes of new employees toward the firm. Newcomers who like
and respect their first-level manager tend to stay with the firm longer. Conversely, new workers who dislike and disrespect their first supervisor tend to
leave the firm early.
TYPES OF MANAGERS
The functions performed by managers can also be understood by describing
different types of management jobs. The management jobs discussed here are
functional and general managers, administrators, entrepreneurs and smallbusiness owners, and team leaders. (The distinction between line and staff
managers will be described in Chapter 8 about organization structure.)
Functional and General Managers
Another way of classifying managers is to distinguish between those who
manage people who do one type of specialized work and those who manage
people who engage in different specialties. Functional managers supervise the
work of employees engaged in specialized activities such as accounting, engineering, information systems, food preparation, marketing, and sales.
A functional manager is a manager of specialists and of their support team,
such as office assistants.
4
Paul Osterman, The Truth About Middle Managers: Who They Are, How They Work,
Why They Matter (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2009). Quoted in Dean Foust,
“Speaking Up for the Organization Man,” Business Week, March 9, 2009, p. 78.
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6
CHAPTER 1
The Manager’s Job
General managers are responsible for the work of several different groups
that perform a variety of functions. The job title “plant general manager”
offers insight into the meaning of general management. Reporting to the
plant general manager are various departments engaged in both specialized
and generalized work such as manufacturing, engineering, labor relations,
quality control, safety, and information systems. Company presidents are
general managers. Branch managers also are general managers if employees
from different disciplines report to them. The responsibilities and tasks of a
general manager highlight many of the topics contained in the study of management. These tasks will be introduced at various places in this book.
Administrators
An administrator is typically a manager who works in a public (government)
or nonprofit organization, including educational institutions, rather than in a
business firm. Among these managerial positions are hospital administrator
and housing administrator. Managers in all types of educational institutions
are referred to as administrators. The fact that individual contributors in
nonprofit organizations are sometimes referred to as administrators often
causes confusion. An employee is not an administrator in the managerial
sense unless he or she supervises others.
Entrepreneurs and Small-Business Owners
entrepreneur
A person who founds
and operates an
innovative business.
small-business
owner
An individual who
owns and operates a
small business.
Millions of students and employees dream of turning an exciting idea into a
successful business. Many people think, “If Michael Dell started Dell computers from his dormitory room and he is the wealthiest man in Texas today,
why can’t I do something similar?” Success stories such as Dell’s kindle the
entrepreneurial spirit. By a strict definition, an entrepreneur is a person who
founds and operates an innovative business. After the entrepreneur develops
the business into something bigger than he or she can handle alone or with
the help of only a few people, that person becomes a general manager.
Similar to an entrepreneur, the owner and operator of a small business
becomes a manager when the firm grows to include several employees.
Small-business owners typically invest considerable emotional and physical
energy into their firms. Note that entrepreneurs are (or start as) smallbusiness owners, but that the reverse is not necessarily true. You need an
innovative idea to fit the strict definition of an entrepreneur. Simply running
a franchise that sells sub sandwiches does not make a person an entrepreneur, according to the definition presented here. Also, an entrepreneur may
found a business that becomes so big it is no longer a small business.
A major characteristic of both entrepreneurs and small-business owners
is their passion for the work. These types of managers will usually have a
single-minded drive to solve a problem. Recent research has identified three
roles, or activities, within entrepreneurial work that arouse passion. The first
is opportunity recognition, the inventor role. Second is venture creation, the
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The Process of Management
7
founder role. Third is venture growth, the developer role.5 A person might
invent a small turbine the size of a garbage can to replace the large turbines
(or wind mills) used to generate renewable energy. The person becomes
exited about creating a business to manufacture and market these small turbines. Passion would then be invested in growing the business. If being an
inventor fits the person’s self-image best, he or she is likely to be the most
passionate about the first role and then lose some passion in the second and
third roles.
Team Leaders
team leader
A manager who
coordinates the work
of a small group of
people, while acting as
a facilitator and
catalyst.
LEARNING
OBJECTIVE
2
l
Describe the
process of
management
including the
functions of
management.
A major development in types of managerial positions during the last 25
years is the emergence of the team leader. A manager in such a position coordinates the work of a small group of people while acting as a facilitator or
catalyst. Team leaders are found at several organizational levels and are
sometimes referred to as project managers, program managers, process managers, and task force leaders. Note that the term team could also refer to an
executive team, yet a top executive almost never carries the title team leader.
You will be reading about team leaders throughout this text.
All of the managerial jobs described above vary considerably as to the
demands placed on the job holder. All workers carrying the job title chief
executive officer may perform similar work, yet the position may be much
more demanding and stressful in a particular organization.6 Imagine being
the CEO of an American auto parts manufacturer that is facing extinction
because of overseas competition. His or her job is more demanding than
that of the CEO of a company like Binney & Smith, the subsidiary of Hallmark Cards, which produces Crayola crayons among other popular products. With more than three billion crayons produced each year, and a fan
base in the millions, Binney & Smith is not threatened with extinction. The
CEO can enjoy his or her golf outings while the auto parts CEO worries
about losing customers and laying off employees.
THE PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT
A helpful approach to understanding what managers do is to regard their
work as a process. A process is a series of actions that achieves something—
making a profit or providing a service, for example. To achieve an objective,
the manager uses resources and carries out four major managerial functions.
These functions are planning, organizing and staffing, leading, and controlling. Exhibit 1-2 illustrates the process of management.
Melissa S. Cardon, Joakim Wincent, Jagdip Singh, and Mateja Drnovsek, “The Nature and
Experience of Entrepreneurial Passion,” Academy of Management Review, July 2009,
pp. 511–532.
6
Donald C. Hambrick, Sydney Finkelstein, and Ann C. Mooney, “Executive Job Demands:
New Insights for Explaining Strategic Decisions and Leader Behavior,” Academy of
Management Review, July 2005, pp. 472–491.
5
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
8
CHAPTER 1
EXHIBIT 1-2
The Manager’s Job
The Process of Management
The manager
uses resources
and carries out
functions to
achieve goals.
Planning
Organizing
and Staffing
Leading
Controlling
Human
Resources
Financial
Resources
Goals
Manager
Physical
Resources
Information
Resources
Managerial Functions
Source: Ricky W. Griffin, Management, 4e, Copyright © 1993 South-Western, p. 6. Reproduced by permission. www.cengage.com/permissions.
Resources Used by Managers
Managers use resources to accomplish their purposes, just as a carpenter uses
resources to build a terrace. A manager’s resources can be divided into four
types: human, financial, physical, and informational.
Human resources are the people needed to get the job done. Managers’
goals influence which employees they choose. A manager might set the goal
of delivering automotive supplies and tools to auto and truck manufacturers.
Among the human resources he or she chooses are manufacturing technicians, sales representatives, information technology specialists, and a network of dealers.
Financial resources are the money the manager and the organization use
to reach organizational goals. The financial resources of a business organization are profits and investments from stockholders. A business must occasionally borrow cash to meet payroll or to pay for supplies. The financial
resources of community agencies come from tax revenues, charitable contributions, and government grants.
Physical resources are a firm’s tangible goods and real estate, including
raw materials, office space, production facilities, office equipment, and vehicles. Vendors supply many of the physical resources needed to achieve organizational goals.
Information resources are the data that the manager and the organization
use to get the job done. For example, to supply leads to the firm’s sales
representatives, the sales manager of an office-supply company reads local
business newspapers and Internet postings to learn about new firms in
town. These newspapers and Web sites are information resources.
Jeffrey R. Immelt, the chairman and CEO of General Electric Corp., surfs
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The Four Managerial Functions
9
the Internet regularly to learn about developments in the industry, thus using
the Internet as an information resource.
As originally designated by the famous management thinker Peter
Drucker, managers are knowledge workers. As knowledge workers, managers
rely heavily on information resources. Drucker also observed that managers
are quite skilled at obtaining data, but less skilled at converting these data
into useful information. According to Drucker, few executives will ask,
“What new tasks can I tackle, now that I have all these data? Which old
tasks should I abandon?”7 Imagine that a middle manager is wondering
about how to best motivate workers. She inserts into Ask.com the question,
“How do you motivate workers?” She receives close to two million entries.
She must then understand how to sort out the most useful of these entries.
(Or, she could study the motivational chapter of a management textbook.)
THE FOUR MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS
Exhibit 1-2 shows the four major resources in the context of the management
process. To accomplish goals, the manager performs four managerial functions. These functions are planning, organizing and staffing, leading, and
controlling.
Planning
Planning involves setting goals and figuring out ways of reaching them. Planning, considered the central function of management, pervades everything a
manager does. In planning, a manager looks to the future, saying, “Here is
what we want to achieve, and here is how we are going to do it.” Decision
making is usually a component of planning, because choices must be made in
the process of finalizing plans. The importance of planning expands as it
contributes heavily to performing the other management functions. For
example, managers must make plans to do an effective job of staffing the
organization. Planning is also part of marketing. For example, cereal maker
Kellogg Corp. established plans to diversify further into the snack-food business to reach its goal of expanding market share.
Organizing and Staffing
Organizing is the process of making sure the necessary human and physical
resources are available to carry out a plan and achieve organizational goals.
Organizing also involves assigning activities, dividing work into specific jobs
and tasks, and specifying who has the authority to accomplish certain tasks.
Another major aspect of organizing is grouping activities into departments
or some other logical subdivision. The staffing function ensures the availability of necessary human resources to achieve organizational goals. Hiring people for jobs is a typical staffing activity. Staffing is such a major activity that
it is sometimes classified as a function separate from organizing.
7
“An American Sage,” The Wall Street Journal, November 14, 2005, p. A22.
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
10
CHAPTER 1
The Manager’s Job
Leading
Leading means influencing others to achieve organizational objectives. As a
consequence, it involves energizing, directing, persuading others, and creating a vision. Leadership involves dozens of interpersonal processes: motivating, communicating, coaching, and showing group members how they can
reach their goals. Leadership is such a key component of managerial work
that management is sometimes seen as accomplishing results through people.
The leadership aspect of management focuses on inspiring people and bringing about change, whereas the other three functions focus more on maintaining a stable system. According to management guru Henry Mintzberg,
effective leaders develop the sense of community or shared purpose that is
essential for cooperative effort in all organizations.8
Although leadership deals heavily with persuasion and inspiration, the
leader also executes the visions and other ideas for change he or she formulates.
As explained by business executive Larry Bossidy and consultant Ram Charan,
visionaries often fail because they do not translate their strategies (master plans)
into results.9 It has been said that execution has become an important new buzzword in business because leaders in the past placed too much emphasis on spinning grand visions without really taking care of business.
Controlling
Controlling generally involves comparing actual performance to a predetermined standard. Any significant difference between actual and desired performance would prompt a manager to take corrective action. He or she might, for
example, increase advertising to boost lower-than-anticipated sales.
A secondary aspect of controlling is determining whether the original
plan needs revision, given the realities of the day. The controlling function
sometimes causes a manager to return to the planning function temporarily
to fine-tune the original plan. For example, many retailers in recent years
have found that the sales volume in stores was not enough to earn the company a profit. They closed the stores, shifted sales to online, and sold their
product in other retailers.
One important way in which the jobs of managers differ is in the relative
amounts of time spent on planning, organizing and staffing, leading, and
controlling. Executives ordinarily spend much more time on strategic (highlevel and long-range) planning than do middle- or first-level managers.
Lower-level managers are more involved with day-by-day and other shortrange planning. Also, lower-level managers spend the most time in faceto-face leadership such as coaching and disciplining workers. This is true
because entry-level workers are likely to need more assistance than those
workers who have advanced higher in the organization.
8
Henry Mintzberg, Managing (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2009), p. 9.
Larry Bossidy and Ram Charan, The Discipline of Getting Things Done (New York: Crown,
2002).
9
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The Seventeen Managerial Roles
LEARNING
OBJECTIVE
3
l
Describe the
various managerial
roles.
role
An expected set of
activities or behaviors
stemming from a job.
11
THE SEVENTEEN MANAGERIAL ROLES
To further understand the manager’s job, it is worthwhile to examine the
various roles managers play. A role, in the business context, is an expected
set of activities or behaviors stemming from a job. Mintzberg conducted several landmark studies of managerial roles. Other researchers extended his
findings.10 In the sections that follow, the roles delineated by these researchers are associated with the major managerial functions to which they most
closely pertain. (Roles and functions are closely related. They are both activities carried out by people.) The description of the 17 roles should help you
appreciate the richness and complexity of managerial work, and also serve as
a generic job description for a manager’s position. These roles are described
next and listed in Exhibit 1-3.11
Planning
Two managerial roles—strategic planner and operational planner—relate to
the planning function.
1. Strategic Planner. Top-level managers engage in strategic planning, usu-
ally assisted by input from others throughout the organization. Specific
activities in this role include (a) setting a direction for the organization,
EXHIBIT 1-3
The Seventeen Managerial Roles
Planning
1. Strategic planner
2. Operational planner
Organizing and Staffing
3. Organizer
4. Liaison
5. Staffing coordinator
6. Resource allocator
7. Task delegator
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Negotiator
Motivator and coach
Team builder
Team player
Technical problem solver
Entrepreneur
Controlling
16. Monitor
17. Disturbance handler
Leading
8. Figurehead
9. Spokesperson
10
This research is reported in Henry Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work (New York:
Harper & Row, 1973); Mintzberg, Managing, pp. 44–45.
11
Kenneth Graham Jr. and William L. Mihal, The CMI Managerial Job Analysis Inventory
(Rochester, NY: Rochester Institute of Technology, 1987); Jeffrey S. Shippman, Erich Prien,
and Gary L. Hughes, “The Content of Management Work: Formation of Task and Job Skill
Composite Classifications,” Journal of Business and Psychology, Spring 1991, pp. 325–354.
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12
CHAPTER 1
The Manager’s Job
(b) helping the firm deal with the external environment, and (c) developing corporate policies.
2. Operational Planner. Operational plans relate to the day-to-day operation of a company or unit. Two such activities are (a) formulating operating budgets and (b) developing work schedules for the unit supervised.
Middle-level managers are heavily involved in operational planning;
first-level managers are involved to a lesser extent.
Organizing and Staffing
Five roles that relate to the organizing and staffing function are organizer,
liaison, staffing coordinator, resource allocator, and task delegator.
3. Organizer. As a pure organizer, the manager engages in activities such as
4.
5.
6.
7.
(a) designing the jobs of group members; (b) clarifying group members’
assignments; (c) explaining organizational policies, rules, and procedures;
and (d) establishing policies, rules, and procedures to coordinate the flow
of work and information within the unit.
Liaison. The purpose of the liaison role is to develop and maintain a network of work-related contacts with people. To achieve this end, the manager (a) cultivates relationships with clients or customers; (b) maintains
relationships with suppliers, customers, and other persons or groups
important to the unit or organization; (c) joins boards, organizations, or
public service clubs that might provide useful, work-related contacts; and
(d) cultivates and maintains a personal network of in-house contacts
through visits, telephone calls, e-mail, text messages, and participation in
company-sponsored events.
Staffing Coordinator. In the staffing role, the manager tries to make sure
that competent people fill positions. Specific activities include (a) recruiting and hiring staff; (b) explaining to group members how their work
performance will be evaluated; (c) formally evaluating group members’
overall job performance; (d) compensating group members within the
limits of organizational policy; (e) ensuring that group members are
properly trained; (f) promoting group members or recommending them
for promotion; and (g) terminating or demoting group members.
Resource Allocator. An important part of a manager’s job is to divide
resources in the manner that best helps the organization. Specific activities to this end include (a) authorizing the use of physical resources (facilities, furnishings, and equipment); (b) authorizing the expenditure of
financial resources; and (c) discontinuing the use of unnecessary, inappropriate, or ineffective equipment or services.
Task Delegator. A standard part of any manager’s job is assigning tasks
to group members. Among these task-delegation activities are (a) assigning projects or tasks to group members; (b) clarifying priorities and performance standards for task completion; and (c) ensuring that group
members are properly committed to effective task performance.
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
The Seventeen Managerial Roles
13
Leading
Eight identified managerial roles relate to the leadership function. These
roles are motivator and coach, figurehead, spokesperson, negotiator, team
builder, team player, technical problem solver, and entrepreneur.
8. Motivator and Coach. An effective manager takes time to motivate and
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
coach group members. Specific behaviors in this role include (a) informally recognizing employee achievements; (b) offering encouragement
and reassurance, thereby showing active concern about the professional
growth of group members; (c) providing feedback about both effective
and ineffective performance; and (d) giving group members advice on
steps to improve their performance.
Figurehead. Figurehead managers, particularly high-ranking ones, spend
some of their time engaging in ceremonial activities or acting as a figurehead. Such activities include (a) entertaining clients or customers as an
official representative of the organization, (b) serving as an official representative of the organization at gatherings outside the organization, and
(c) escorting official visitors.
Spokesperson. When a manager acts as a spokesperson, the emphasis is on
answering inquiries and formally reporting to individuals and groups outside the manager’s organizational unit. As a spokesperson, the manager
keeps five groups of people informed about the unit’s activities, plans, and
capabilities. These groups are (a) upper-level management, (b) clients and
customers, (c) other important outsiders (such as labor unions), (d) professional colleagues, and (e) the general public. Usually, top-level managers
take responsibility for keeping outside groups informed.
Negotiator. Part of almost any manager’s job is trying to make deals
with others for needed resources. Three specific negotiating activities are
(a) bargaining with supervisors for funds, facilities, equipment, or other
forms of support; (b) bargaining with other units in the organization for
the use of staff, facilities, and other forms of support; and (c) bargaining
with suppliers and vendors about services, schedules, and delivery times.
Team Builder. A key aspect of a manager’s role is to build an effective
team. Activities contributing to this role include (a) ensuring that group
members are recognized for their accomplishments (by issuing letters of
appreciation, for example); (b) initiating activities that contribute to
group morale, such as giving parties and sponsoring sports teams; and
(c) holding periodic staff meetings to encourage group members to talk
about their accomplishments, problems, and concerns.
Team Player. Three behaviors of the team player are (a) displaying
appropriate personal conduct, (b) cooperating with other units in the
organization, and (c) displaying loyalty to superiors by fully supporting
their plans and decisions.
Technical Problem Solver. It is particularly important for first- and
middle-level managers to help group members solve technical problems.
Two such specific activities related to problem solving are (a) serving as
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14
CHAPTER 1
The Manager’s Job
a technical expert or advisor and (b) performing individual contributor
tasks such as making sales calls or fixing software problems on a regular
basis. The managers most in demand today are those who combine leadership skill with a technical or business specialty.
15. Entrepreneur. Managers who work in large organizations have some
responsibility for suggesting innovative ideas or furthering the business
aspects of the firm. Three entrepreneurial role activities are (a) reading
trade publications and professional journals and searching the Internet
to remain up-to-date; (b) talking with customers or others in the organization to remain abreast of changing needs and requirements; and (c)
becoming involved in activities outside the unit that could result in performance improvements within the manager’s unit. These activities
might include visiting other firms, attending professional meetings or
trade shows, and participating in educational programs.
Controlling
The monitor role mentioned next fits the controlling function precisely, because
the term monitoring is often used as a synonym for controlling. The role of disturbance handler is categorized under controlling because it involves changing
an unacceptable condition to an acceptable stable condition.
16. Monitor. The activities of a monitor are (a) developing systems that mea-
sure or monitor the unit’s overall performance, (b) using information systems to measure productivity and cost, (c) talking with group members
about progress on assigned tasks, and (d) overseeing the use of equipment and facilities (for example, vehicles and office space) to ensure
that they are properly used and maintained.
17. Disturbance Handler. Four typical activities of a disturbance handler are
(a) participating in grievance resolution within the unit (working out a
problem with a labor union, for example); (b) resolving complaints
from customers, other units, and superiors; (c) resolving conflicts among
group members; and (d) resolving problems about work flow and information exchange with other units. Disturbance ha…
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