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In Modules/Week 2 you will be required to post a substantive reply of at least 300 words each to a minimum of TWO classmates’ threads.

You must use at least 1 peer-reviewed reference published within the past 4 yeras (and not used in the original posting) in your response. The reference must be from the library (see guidelines above)

Do not simply revisit what was discussed in the thread, but add information from the unique article you researched on the concept and compare the findings. Did the findings of the article you found and the articles used in the original thread agree, disagree, address different aspects of the concept?

Only the substantive part of the response will be counted toward the word count.

Use APA format and write in 3

rd

person.

Definition
Human relation is an approach to management focused on how psychological and social
interactions influence an employee’s work performance (Bateman, 2020, p. 34).
Summary
In the chosen article, Brenda Lloyd-Jones describes her experience as a college professor
in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. She and her students experience the major shift from
in-person to online learning as social-distancing guidelines are placed in March of 2020. The
notice was sent to faculty on March 12th notifying them that all in-person classes would become
virtual starting the next week (Lloyd-Jones, 2021). Professor Lloyd-Jones describes how she
prepared her students for this drastic change occurring mid semester. There were several
obstacles within her classes with her students’ wide range of ages, between 25-79 years old
(Lloyd-Jones, 2021). She could not assume they would all jump aboard the online train easily, so
she spent the first week preparing and communicating with them effectively. Professor LloydJones demonstrated her care of her students in serval ways throughout the transitional period.
She initiated “check-ins” with her students to make sure their needs and concerns were being
made aware (Lloyd-Jones, 2021). She also used that time to make herself more aware of their
present circumstances and what each student was dealing with at the time.
Discussion. In this article Professor Lloyd-Jones (2021) notes the transdisciplinary
relationship between human relations (HRL) and human resources development (HRD). The
main point she emphasizes throughout her experience as a professor during the pandemic is the
usefulness of HRL and HRD integrated holistically (2021). She defines the characteristics of
human relations as an “academic discipline with a primary concern for building relationships
across multiple contexts and environments while simultaneously preventing social support
breakdown during changing social and human events” (2021, p. 43).
Human relations were the first management approach to focus on informal work
relationships (Bateman, 2020, p. 34). An article written by Michael Weatherburn dives into the
different historical studies conducted on human relations. He goes over the commonly referred to
Hawthorne Studies, and also sheds light on the Incentives and Contentment studies from 1938.
Through his research and comparisons of several studies he came to the conclusion that some
information contradicts the Hawthorne studies (Weatherburn, 2020). He explains how people
often do not acknowledge the opposing studies because Hawthorne is considered “unique”
(Weatherburn, 2020). He describes the history of the study as “revealing that their unique nature
as the sole pioneers of sociotechnical research is what Hobsbawm calls an ‘invented tradition’”
(p. 913).
After comparing several different reviews, Weatherburn (2020) comes to the conclusion
that the Hawthorne studies have been overused and may not be as effective as portrayed. He
explains how the overarching premise remains that “people work hard in low-paid manual jobs
because they are paid to do so, rather than owing to social interaction and management attention”
(p. 914).
With that conclusion from Weatherburn, the management approach of human relations is
put into question. Bateman (2020) concludes “human relations proponents argued that managers
should stress primarily employee welfare, motivation, and communication” (p. 34). One can see
how Professor Lloyd-Jones uses the human relations management method to guide her students
during transition to online class. In order for her students to succeed during that transitional time,
she describes having to master professional competencies of coaching, care and collaboration (p.
52). Through using HRL and HDR practices to encourage her students it is clear that her students
were able to transition into using ZOOM and other technological equipment to continue the
class, as well as manage to finish the semester in the midst of constant change through the
pandemic.
It is hard to constitute Professor Lloyd-Jones success with human relation practices
because being in a classroom setting leaves no room for the contrary belief of work being
motivated by finances. One can see how socially and psychologically HRL helped the class
succeed, but through the research provided by Weatherburn it is hard to say whether or not that
would have been the case if finances were involved. Bateman (2020) says, “while scientific
management overemphasized the economic and formal aspects of the workplace, human
relations ignored the more rational side of the worker and the important characteristics of the
formal organization.” (p. 34).
Biblical Integration. Human relation is a means to better serve employees. By providing
this type of managerial method, this allows workers to feel cared for and listened to by their
bosses. Philippians 2:4 says, “Let each of you look not only to his own interest, but also to the
interests of others.” (English Standard Version Bible, 2001). This type of management approach
helps managers seek the best interest of employees. It forces them to look deeper into the
relationships in the workplace instead of viewing workers like a machine, as scientific
management does. Also, Proverbs 13:4 says, “The soul of the sluggard craves and gets nothing,
while the soul of the diligent is richly supplied.” (English Standard Version Bible, 2001). This
shows that hard work is important to the Lord. One may not always find themselves in a perfect
scenario with a well-paying job and bosses who care about their psychologically health, but the
Lord commands the Christian to always work hard.
References
Bateman, T. S., Snell, S. A., & Konopaske, R. (2020). M: Management (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
English Standard Version Bible. (2001). Crossway Bibles.
Lloyd-Jones, B. (2021). Developing Competencies for Emotional, Instrumental, and
Informational Student Support During the COVID-19 Pandemic:
A Human Relations/Human Resource Development Approach. Sage, Vol. 23, 41-54.
https://journals-sagepubcom.ezproxy.liberty.edu/doi/full/10.1177/1523422320973287?utm_source=summon&ut
m_medime=discovery-provider
Weatherburn, M. (2020). Human Relations’ invented traditions: Sociotechnical research and
worker motivation at the interwar Rowntree Cocoa Works. Sage, Vol. 73 (7), 899-923.
https://journals-sagepubcom.ezproxy.liberty.edu/doi/full/10.1177/0018726719846647?utm_source=summon&ut
m_medime=discovery-provider
Definition:
Organizational behavior studies and identifies management activities that promote
employee effectiveness through an understanding of the complex nature of the individual, group,
and organizational processes. Organizational behavior draws from a variety of disciplines,
including psychology and sociology, to explain people’s behavior as they do their jobs
(Bateman, 2020, p. 38).
Summary:
The chosen article is titled, The impact of ethical leadership on organizational citizenship
behavior: The moderating role of workplace ostracism, written by Qi Yang. The article explores
the correlation between ethical leadership and the employee organizational citizenship behavior
that follows. The study was conducted on multiple Chinese companies and used survey data
from positions of management and the direct subordinates to analyze how different management
styles effect the organizational behavior of the employees under that leadership. At the close of
the study, some of the major takeaways were that there is a direct correlation between ethical
management habits and employee behavior. Employees displayed a higher level of commitment
to the organization as well as better organizational behaviors when managers practiced ethical
and moral principles. One of the other major focuses of the article was on workplace ostracism
and how it undermines the link between ethical leaders and well-behaving employees and
negatively impacts organizational commitment as well as employee morale.
Discussion:
It is important to understand and study the relationship between ethical leadership habits
and the corresponding response of employees. The textbook stresses the significance of how the
way a manager treats their employees translates directly to the response of their employees and
their motivation (Bateman, 2020, p.37). Managers that use a self-fulfilling prophecy treat their
employees with the assumption that they will be lazy and not perform their jobs well. This
leadership technique is not only demeaning to the employees but eventually, the employees start
to believe this about themselves and their performance falls to meet those low
standards. Employees that are not supported and encouraged do not perform their best in their
role and therefore the company is not able to operate effectively either. In contrast, a manager
who encourages participation and inclusion, eliminating any feelings of ostracism, allows
employees to prosper and flourish while challenging them as they have the yearning to grow and
learn.
One recommendation to help alleviate the problem of ostracism in the workplace stated
in Yang’s article is to create an environment that employees feel comfortable to have open
conversations and speak freely (Yang, 2018). It is important for leaders to foster a climate
consisting of direct communication and encouraging open discussions, which allows employees
to be excited to go into work every day and feel comfortable. As employee morale increases,
productivity and quality of work increase in the workplace as well. This article directly relates to
the concept of organizational behavior because it is examining how different management
activities, whether ethical or immoral, influence employee motivation and their desire to work to
the best of their abilities.
After examining two separate articles, the second article, titled, Unethical Pro-
organizational Behavior and Positive Leader–Employee Relationships, by Will Bryant and
Stephanie M. Merritt, both articles agree that positive enforcement of authority from leadership
leads to a healthy, positive outlook from the employees, and therefore an increase in overall
productivity and quality of work. While Yang focuses on the ostracism of employees and the
impact that can have on their morale, Bryant and Merritt narrow in more closely on the issues of
behaviors that may seem to be a positive form of organizational behavior because they increase
productivity and efficiency, however, the behavior can be unethical and violate laws and values
in the process (Bryant, 2019). This then becomes a moral dilemma as to whether this type of
behavior should be considered acceptable or not.
Biblical integration:
Organizational behavior examines how different types of habits and behaviors in
different areas of an organization affect the overall flow and operation of the organization as a
whole. From a biblical perspective, this can be compared to how the church is considered a body
and the different parts of the bodywork together and function as a whole. 1 Corinthians 12:12
states that “For just as the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body,
though many, are one body, so it is with Christ” (ESV). The church is not defined by four walls
or by a building. The church is built around Christ and His followers modeling their lives after
Him. God specifically calls his children from all around the world with different backgrounds to
come together in fellowship and use their unique talents and skills to help each other serve His
Kingdom. The body of Christ is made up of all of His people and in order for a church to run
smoothly all of the body parts have to be working together. Organizational behavior shows
similarities to this concept because certain behaviors influence one’s ability to perform a job to
the best of their ability and in order for the organization to run smoothly, it is imperative that the
behaviors of the employees align with one another to help everything run efficiently.
References:
Bateman, T. S., Snell, S. A., & Konopaske, R. (2020). M: Management (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
Bryant, W., & Merritt, S. M. (2019). Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior and Positive
Leader–Employee Relationships: JBE. Journal of Business Ethics, , 1-17.
http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1007/s10551-019-04211-x
Yang, q., & Wei, h. (2018). The impact of ethical leadership on organizational citizenship
behavior: The moderating role of workplace ostracism. Leadership & Organization
Development Journal, 39(1), 100-113.
http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1108/LODJ-12-2016-0313.

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