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Running head: FORUM 1-ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONS
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Rodriguez
Chapter 1 Shared information
Sharing information is one of the most important processes in a learning organization.
According to Nugroho (2018), sharing information increases innovativeness in an organization
thereby improving its competitiveness. The process has four sub-processes that include intuiting,
interpreting, integrating, and institutionalizing. The four sub-processes take place at the
Running head: FORUM 1-ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONS
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individual (intuiting, interpreting), group (interpreting, integrating), and organizational
(integrating and institutionalizing) levels (Nugroho, 2018). However, an organization must have
the proper measures in place to use the knowledge gained to its advantage. Kim and Park (2020)
further state that transformational leaders usually use information sharing approach to improve
their organizational effectiveness. Sharing knowledge in an organization usually depends on the
perceptions of the owners towards the practice. Business owners who value learning are more
likely to introduce information sharing strategies while those that do not value the process may
not institute such strategies (Kim & Park, 2020). Kim and Park (2020) further state that
employees are involved in the knowledge-sharing process when the organizational climate
allows such initiatives. Hasan and Nikmah (2019) state that learning organizations have betterperforming employees as underscored by better organizational performance. Therefore, firms
that value learning is highly likely to be more competitive compared to those that disregard such
initiatives.
Chapter 1 Stakeholder expectations
Stakeholders have expectations regardless of whether a business is a for-profit or a nonprofit organization. The society expects a business to consider their interests as reciprocation for
providing them with an educated workforce, health, and safety (Saunders, 2020). A business is
also expected to understand and act on customer expectations. Consumes are probably the most
influential stakeholders because they can help a firm generate sales and revenues important for
business operations (Saunders, 2020). Both for-profit and nonprofit businesses are expected to
understand the expectations of employees and address them in the best way possible. Employees
make it possible for businesses to operate through the production of products and services. Some
of the employee expectations include salaries, integrity, respect, and leaves when there is a need.
Running head: FORUM 1-ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONS
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The government expects businesses to pay taxes, act ethically in the provision of services, and
consider social, economic, and environmental impacts their activities may have. Some of the
expectations overlap among stakeholders such as maintenance of ethical principles,
environmental conservation, and corporate social responsibility regardless of whether a firm is
for-profit or nonprofit (Saunders, 2020). The major difference between for-profit and non-profit
firms is the expectations of the shareholders. Those of the former expect profits while those of
the latter expect organizations to address the issues they were formed for. Therefore, the
expectations of stakeholders of for-profit and nonprofit organizations do not vary much.
Chapter 2 Company goals
Organizational goals determine the actions companies take regarding employees.
According to Fazey (2020), employee development is the most effective approach in connecting
a firm strategy to the real world. However, education and training have more impact on small
and medium enterprises compared to larger organizations that may have more resources. There
may be more impact in an organization that is led by a transformational leader. Afriyie, Du, and
Musah (2019) state that transformational leaders focus on individual development, which
accelerates creative thinking among employees thereby improving individual and organizational
performance. Transformational leadership influences employee performance through idealized
influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration. Sheeba
and Christopher (2020) claim that learning and development impart employees with the requisite
knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for innovation. Some of the results of employee
development enhanced by transformational leadership include marketing innovation,
organizational innovation, process innovation, product innovation, and improved marketing
performance (Afriyie, Du, & Musah, 2019). Employees are also able to engage in routine and
Running head: FORUM 1-ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONS
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non-routine tasks, which can improve the effectiveness of an organization. Although training and
development can enhance the productivity of an organization, there is a risk in that some
employees may have intentions to look for better jobs.
Chapter 2 Police effectiveness
The first issue to consider is the organizational goals, mission, vision, and strategy of the
police department. I would further review the community statistics to try to determine whether
the police department has been able to meet its goals and objectives. Other important aspects I
would review are the importance of innovation in the police department as well as the strategies
employed to get and implement ideas. The approach I would use to proceed with the evaluation
of the department is a resource-based strategy. The main idea is to determine whether the police
department has been able to use the resources availed effectively to achieve the organizational
goals set (Cordner, 2020). The resource-based approach is much better compared to the
traditional metrics of crime rates, clearance rates, response times, and workload statistics that
have been criticized as inefficient. The main disadvantage of these approaches is the fact that
they do not have metrics that could be used to track progress over time. Additionally, these
metrics are poorly specified in which case they do not reflect the actual status (Hodgkinson,
Caputo, & McIntyre, 2019).
Chapter 3 Outsourced organizational activities
Outsourcing is a strategy companies delegate to other service providers. The main
advantage of outsourcing is that companies do not need to hire employees and have access to a
larger talent pool in which case they spend less on labor costs (Patel, 2017). Organizations
usually set expectations that the providers have to meet within a specific period. The inability of
the provider to meet the expectations may make the organization reverse the contractual
Running head: FORUM 1-ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONS
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agreement (Damanpour, Magelssen, & Walker, 2019). Firms should use the outsourcing strategy
to learn sustainable strategies they can use to improve their operations. The decision to outsource
services may be influenced by internal actors such as employees and external actors such as
users, experts, and early adopters (Damanpour, Magelssen, & Walker, 2019). Firms usually track
the cost of outsourcing by comparing it with customer satisfaction. The outsourcing decision
may be deemed important if there is no impact on customer satisfaction. On the other hand, it
may be considered ineffective in cases in which customer satisfaction declines. Organizations
can outsource most of their activities, but they should consider outsourcing the non-core ones
such as management and leadership.
Chapter 3 Application of Biblical worldview
The biblical worldview is an important aspect of Christians conducting business. The
emphasis is the application of ethical principles in all business activities. According to Melé and
Fontrodona (2017), one of the major approaches is “ensuring that humanity is served by wealth
and not ruled by it.” The Christian worldview is based on principles and criteria that must be
considered in every action a person undertakes. All businesspeople must ensure that everything
they do does not harm human beings but advances their overall interests. In this case, they must
balance between moral intuition and moral reasoning when they are making decisions. These
principles could be imperative in modern businesses considering people are increasingly
becoming moral conscious about different issues (Melé & Fontrodona, 2017). Businesses that
fail to consider the interests of the people are likely to lose customers, sales, and revenues in that
order.
Running head: FORUM 1-ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONS
References
Afriyie, S., Du, J., & Musah, A. A. I. (2019). Innovation and marketing performance of SME in
an emerging economy: the moderating effect of transformational leadership. Journal of
Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9(1), 1-25.
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Running head: FORUM 1-ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONS
Cordner, G. (2020). Evidence-based policing in 45 small bytes. National Institute of Justice.
https://www.ojp.gov/pdffiles1/nij/254326.pdf
Damanpour, F., Magelssen, C., & Walker, R. M. (2019). Outsourcing and insourcing of
organizational activities: the role of outsourcing process mechanisms. Public
Management Review, 1–24.
Fazey, M. (2020). Human resource policy: Connecting strategy with real-world practice.
Anthem Press.
Hasan, H., & Nikmah, F. (2019). The effect of organizational culture, organizational learning
and creativity on employee’s performance. Advances in Social Science, Education and
Humanities Research, 409, 456-460.
Hodgkinson, T., Caputo, T., & McIntyre, M. L. (2019). Beyond crime rates and community
surveys: a new approach to police accountability and performance measurement. Crime
Science, 8(1), 1-7.
Kim, E.-J., & Park, S. (2020). Transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, organizational
climate and learning: an empirical study. Leadership & Organization Development
Journal, 41(6), 761–775.
Melé, D., & Fontrodona, J. (2017). Christian ethics and spirituality in leading business
organizations: Editorial introduction. Journal of Business Ethics, 145(4), 671-679.
Nugroho, M. A. (2018). The effects of collaborative cultures and knowledge sharing on
organizational learning. Journal of Organizational Change
Management. doi:10.1108/jocm-10-2017-0385
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Running head: FORUM 1-ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND ORGANIZATIONS
Patel, D. (2017). The Pros and Cons of Outsourcing. Forbes.
https://www.forbes.com/sites/deeppatel/2017/07/17/the-pros-and-cons-of-outsourcingand-the-effect-on-company-culture/?sh=18d48760562d
Saunders, C. (2020). Leadership. Oxford University Press.
Sheeba, M. J., & Christopher, P. B. (2019). Exploring the role of training and development in
creating innovative work behaviors and accomplishing non-routine cognitive jobs for
organizational effectiveness. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(4), 263-267.
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K. Barton
Discussion Forum – Part 1
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The Importance of Shared Information
When faced with a problem or when planning for the future, gathering a number of
opinions from trusted sources helps a person determine the best course of action. The average
collective thought is more accurate than the thought of a single person (Palley & Soll, 2019).
Sharing information between departments, between businesses, and anywhere along the supply
chain, ideally allows every facet of the flow to operate at maximum efficiency. Instead of
focusing solely on efficient performance within a single organization, two competitors who share
information improve their management of resources, increasing efficiency and competition.
Within an organization, when two or more departments share information and the
coordination between the departments is a priority, the results are positive relationships and
beneficial outcomes. The collaboration of organizational units, especially within multinational
corporations, must aim for perfection of their coordination in order for goals to be successfully
met (Daft, 2016). Without shared information, the departments and organization risk wasting
resources. Task outcomes are delayed, consumer growth idles, and the business culture becomes
stagnate.
Stakeholder Expectations Regarding Nonprofit vs. For-profit Businesses
The stakeholders of a for-profit company expect to see a certain set of financial
documents that reflect the goals of the organization. Daft (2016) wrote that for-profit companies
focus on improving their services and products in order to increase overall business profit. While
some elements of the business may target non-financial data, such as sustainability measures, the
bottom line is the bottom dollar.
In contrast, the stakeholders for a nonprofit expect to not only see correct management of
the financial resources, but also progress toward achieving the overall mission goals, such as
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serving a specific number of meals to those in need within a given time frame. As a result,
nonprofit managers pay more attention to the stakeholders. For example, the stakeholders of a
church include the pastoral and leadership staff, the members, and the general congregants.
During an annual business meeting, which could consist of several hundred people depending on
the size of the church, the church members review both the financial aspects of the church as
well as examine the number of nonfinancial contributions, such as number of attendees or
individuals reached through local outreach programs. Regardless of the tasks at hand during the
meeting, the nonprofit managers must pay more attention to the greater number of needs and
opinions simply given the increased number of stakeholders and the variety of opinions.
Employee Development Affecting Innovation, Change, and Productivity
Goals for employee development, productivity, innovation and change all function under
a heading of operating goals. These operating goals, according to Daft (2016), explain what an
organization is doing, are classified by their topic, and relate to each based on their reliance of
success. If one area is failing to achieve its goals, the other areas will be lacking.
In small and medium-sized firms, resources are typically more limited, resulting in a
greater sensitivity to the importance of employee development (Rabie et al., 2016). When an
organization encourages the growth of their employees, the employees implement the newly
learned behaviors through innovation and change. The outcome affects productivity through
increased efficiency and competence, and ultimately affects competitive advantage.
Daft (2016) points out two potential conflicts however between these operating goals.
First, while employee development propels the entire organization forward, the risk of the
growth may affect profitability when the goals of the company become blurred. Second, when
implementing goals for employee development, the productivity goals are likely to be delayed or
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set aside; however, once a learning curve is achieved, productivity increases above the previous
standards (Daft 2016). As a result, these conflicts or risks must be weighed against the
advantages. If the benefits outweigh the loss, then the organization will likely turn a profit in the
long-run.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Police Department
The effectiveness of a police department in a medium-sized city can be evaluated by
implementing an integrated effectiveness model. To begin, the first step is to look at the focus of
the department. As a civic organization, the majority of what a police department does is
influenced by environmental factors. Therefore, the welfare of the department has an external
focus. Next, the second area to assess is the structure of the organization. The police department
has a top-down hierarchy, a structure of stability. This structure, along with the external focus,
results in an organization that operates with a rational goal emphasis.
Assessing efficiency of goal completion can also be used to improve the overall
effectiveness of the organization. This is done by assessing the inputs versus the outputs and
making modifications to procedures as needed (Daft, 2016). Therefore, to proceed further in
evaluating the effectiveness of the police department, the goals for specific outputs should be
identified at all levels of the organization in order to make sure they are controlled and that they
reflect the mission of the police department.
Outsourcing Types of Organizational Activities
The organizational activities most likely to be outsourced by a company include tasks
that are of lower value but typically demand a specialized skillset. For example, human resource,
finance or accounting, marketing, manufacturing, and information technology departments are
often outsourced. By outsourcing less significant activities to companies who specialize in these
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areas, the organization can focus more of its resources on its main activities (Letica, 2016). This
organizational trend helps companies lower costs and improve competitive advantage (Daft,
2016). Tasks and functions that are likely to remain inhouse include only the activities that are
central to its mission, considered the organization’s core competence. In a bank, for example,
this may include the activities performed by the branch managers, tellers, loan officers, and
internal auditors.
Application of a Biblical Worldview
A biblical worldview should be applied in all areas of organizational purpose, design, and
structure and, in general, all aspects of business. Individuals, specifically higher education
students, who successfully and regularly apply a biblical worldview are better equipped to
understand worldview developments and employ critical thinking skills filtered by one’s own
Christian principles (Kim, 2020). Application of a biblical worldview can be implemented in all
areas of a business, such as the organization’s mission, the official, organizational and
operational goals, or the management of resources when deciding if an organizational activity
should be outsourced.
For example, within a Christian company, The Bair Foundation is a social service agency
in the US (The Bair Foundation, n.d.). The company’s strategic intent embraces Luke 9:48 (New
International Version), that “whoever welcomes this little child in my name welcomes me”. This
organizational goal cascades through each of the operating goals as well as throughout each of
the geographic divisions. In comparison, while the grocery retailer, Publix, does not embrace a
biblical scripture in its mission, the organization strives for excellence and quality (Publix, n.d.).
The organization embraces biblical concepts, including loving others in their employee and
customer services as well as being a good steward in the management of their resources. Both
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the design and structure of any organization can reflect Christian principles and a biblical
worldview.
References
The Bair Foundation. (n.d.). About us. https://www.bair.org/about-us/
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Daft, R. (2016). Organization theory and design (12th ed.). Cengage Learning.
Kim, Y. (2020). Think christianly, think critically: faith-learning integration, critical thinking,
and perceived importance of worldview development among students in christian higher
education. Religion & Education, 47(3), 273-299. https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.
liberty.edu/doi/full/10.1080/15507394.2020.1765068
Letica, M. (2016). The effect of outsourcing activities selection on the benefits of outsourcing.
Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 21(2), 77-97. http://liberty.summon.
serialssolutions.com/#!/search?bookMark=eNptj91KAzEQhRepYK19Ay_2AVxIMslu9l
KKP4WKN_U6ZCeTmrJuym4q-PYGW29EGJhhzjkfM9fFbIgDXRRzrmVdAdQwyz
MArxhv5VWxnKbQ5bEGoZiYFy_bdyrJe8JURl_GY5riccQw7EqLKXyGFGgqJqzIcShzJVyoqOBfEjTn8xNceltP9Hy3BfF2-PDdvVcbV6f1qv7TYVcgayEZKzpJHqv
O2xbJM-E4w4teCd9Y53qJBeco1S1olopQKaEYNQK10hJsCjWJ66Ldm8OY_iw45eJ
NpifRRx3xo4pYE_GA6K2ukGhXY6qzmU2Mt0BsNZrn1m3JxYSxd7s8ytDvt2oBqCV
Wb77V_7lu4hnqzk4D9-iYHSv
Palley, A. & Soll, J. (2019). Extracting the wisdom of crowds when information is shared.
Management Science, 65(5), 2291-2309. https://pubsonline-informs.org.ezproxy.liberty.
edu/doi/pdf/10.1287/mnsc.2018.3047
Publix. (n.d.). About Publix. http://corporate.publix.com/about-publix
Rabie, C., Cant, M., & Wiid, J. (2016). Training and development in smes: South africa’s key to
survival and success? Journal of Applied Business Research, 32(4), 1009-1024. http://dx.
doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.19030/jabr.v32i4.9717

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