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Post 1:

Mark Hodge

In Christianity, as in relational databases, a cardinality of zero-to-one or zero-to-many is considered a bad thing. “Cardinality signifies how many instances of one entity can be associated with the instance of other entity.” (Javed and Lin 2021) In databases, a zero-to-n cardinality is indicated by missing data, or a null value, in a table. In Christianity, a zero-to-n cardinality is indicated by a lack of a relationship with Christ.

There are several ways of handling zero-to-n relationships. In regards to databases, “The first approach of handling the missing values in the key attributes involves ignoring any tuple that has a null in any of its values in the key. This may lead to the loss of a large amount of data and may change the original data pattern and integrity if a large number of tuples need to be ignored compared to the total number of tuples.” (Alattar and Sali 2020) This may be acceptable in relational databases where there are terabytes worth of data and only a handful of null values in the data. The effect of one null value for a billion rows of data is often negligible. In instances where null values do make a difference, null values can be filled using Single Imputation, Multiple Imputation, Predictive Mean Matching, Logistic Regression, or handful of other techniques. (Khan and Hoque 2020) The most common of these techniques would be Single and Multiple Imputation. An example of Single Imputation would be filling in the missing value with an average value calculated using the other non-missing data. An example of Multiple Imputation would be filling in the missing value with a random number between a certain range.

When it comes to Christ, even one null value in a quadrillion is unacceptable. “What do you think? If a man owns a hundred sheep, and one of them wanders away, will he not leave the ninety-nine on the hills and go to look for the one that wandered off? And if he finds it, truly I tell you, he is happier about that one sheep than about the ninety-nine that did not wander off. In the same way your Father in heaven is not willing that any of these little ones should perish.” (Matthew 18:12-14 NIV)

One major difference between zero-to-n relationships in databases verses Christianity is that often times data in a database is missing on accident but a relationship with Christ is often rejected. The bible has been translated into hundreds of languages and the gospel is available in every country and ever continent in the world yet there are those that hear the good news and are offered salvation and still reject it. It reminds me of the criminals that were crucified with Christ.

Two other men, both criminals, were also led out with him to be executed… One of the criminals who hung there hurled insults at him: “Aren’t you the Messiah? Save yourself and us!” But the other criminal rebuked him. “Don’t you fear God,” he said, “since you are under the same sentence? We are punished justly, for we are getting what our deeds deserve. But this man has done nothing wrong.” Then he said, “Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom.” Jesus answered him, “Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise.” Luke 23:32, 39-43 NIV


Alattar, M., & Sali, A. (2020). Strongly Possible Keys for SQL. Journal on Data Semantics, 9(2–3), 85–99.


Javed, M., & Lin, Y. (2021). iMER: Iterative process of entity relationship and business process model extraction from the requirements. Information and Software Technology, 135, 106558.


Khan, S. I., & Hoque, A. S. M. L. (2020). SICE: an improved missing data imputation technique. Journal of Big Data, 7(1).


New International Version Bible. (2011). The NIV Bible.


(Original work published 1978) Luke 23:32, 39-43

New International Version Bible. (2011). The NIV Bible.


(Original work published 1978) Matthew 18:12-14

Post 2:

Katelyn Trist

The Bible, Values, and Design

The Day of Atonement is a biblical event that shows a 1:many and 1:1 relationship with a cardinality of zero that relates to the article

Computing Ethics Values in Design

. The 1:M relationship is a norm for database design, and a 1:1 relationship should rarely occur in database design (TEXT). The cardinality of zero occurs when there are no entities in a database set (TEXT). The event in the bible is mentioned in the Bible in Hebrews Chapter 5 where the responsibilities of the high priest are discussed in relation to Christ and the sins of people. The event is described as Christ being assigned the role of high priest by God to empathize with people, share spiritual enlightenment, and forgive people’s sins. Hebrews 5:1 states that “Every high priest is selected from among the people and is appointed to represent the people in matters related to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins.” (NIV). The priest is responsible for sharing spiritual knowledge to the congregate during confessions and sermons. During this story, animals were sacrificed, one for the sins of the high priest and one for the sins of the people who did not confess, during the Day of Atonement. From this event, the 1:1 relationship can be seen when God appoints Christ as the high priest and asks Christ to share his message with the people. The 1:M relationship can be seen through the priest sharing God’s knowledge with the people. The cardinality of zero relationship could be seen as those in the congregation who choose not to confess their sins on the Day of Atonement.

In the article, an example is used from Mary Flannagan who altered the Atari video game so that it required the work of several people to accomplish game goals (Knobel, & Bowker, 2011). This is reminiscent of God, through Christ and sacrifice, encouraging people to work through their sins and better their relationship with faith and religion. The idea to change the Atari video game was seen as nontraditional, but showed how important it can be to reinvent practices to better serve communities and force everyone to view menial tasks from a new perspective that allows for positive change (Knobel, & Bowker, 2011). In this article, there is an importance placed on values which aligns with Christian priorities. Without values, there is little to trust, especially when discussing sensitive data that is integrated within the designing process for many technological systems.


Coronel, C., & Morris, S. (2019).

Database systems: Design, implementation, and management

(13th ed.). Cengage.

Knobel, C., & Bowker, G. C. (2011). Computing Ethics Values in design.

Communications of the ACM



(7), 26–28.


The Gideons International in the British Isles. (2012).

The holy bible: New international version


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