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Task 4: Problem Statement Outline
Transition Programs Are Not Effective
Stacey Greer
School of Business- Liberty University
BUSI 885-DBA Research Concept
Dr. S. Quatro
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Greer, Stacey
Cognate- Proper reentry programs promote reentry into society and reduce recidivism
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Research Project Track- Project
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Research Paradigm-Pragmatism
Planned Research Design-Flexible Design using qualitative methodologies
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Proposed Topic- The prison system is not a correction facility
Problem Statement
The general problem to be addressed is “The prison system is not a correction facility”, resulting
in recidivism and poor reentry into the society following incarceration.
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Over the years, reentry of incarcerated individuals into society has proven difficult
resulting in recidivism and mass incarceration, calling for the need to replace the current
model of mass incarceration with a more effective and human approach that will radically
downsize the jail system (Kurti & Shanahan, 2018).
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Proposed programs such as “Ban the Box,” Which advocated for banning the question
about previous criminal convictions from employment forms to facilitate the employment
of people with a criminal record, have yet to be approved (Martin & Price, 2016).
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Reentry services task force, agencies, and organizations have not considered banning the
box campaign, among other federal, state and local legal restrictions that have not
allowed men and women with a criminal history to secure adequate job placement and
reduce the need to engage in crimes to earn income creates an impression that the prison
system is not designed to correct (Pettus, 2021).
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This creates the need for a comprehensive examination of the criminal justice system that
will propagate the implementation of evidence-based, sustainable and sociable just
approaches for reform that will promote reentry into society and reduce recidivism
(Pettus, 2021).
The specific problem to be addressed is the lack of effective and successful reentry programs
tailored to help maintain a life that allows men and women to comfortably renter the society
following incarceration and to guarantee them the financial freedom to propagate their reentry as
law-abiding citizens.
Cognate: Proper reentry programs promote reentry into society and reduce recidivism.
References
Kurti, Z., & Shanahan, J. (2018). Rebranding Mass Incarceration: The Lippman Commission and
Carceral Devolution in New York City. Social Justice, 45(2/3 (152/153)), 25–50.
https://www.jstor.org/stable/26677655
Martin, W. G., & Price, J. M. (Eds.). (2016). After prisons? : Freedom, decarceration, and
justice disinvestment. Lexington Books
Pettus, C. (2021). Smart Decarceration. In Encyclopedia of Social Work.
RQ1
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What are the key criminal justice and medical approaches employed to support
reforms and the well-being of inmates during incarceration, and what, if any,
measures are in place to help the reenter citizens sustain their social, economic,
mental, and medical care needs and avoid recidivism?
It is critical to understand if there is a gap in criminal justice’s strategies to support reform for the
imprisoned and the re-entry of the released individuals to society sustainably. The prison system
should support several rewarding rehabilitations of the incarcerated individuals to support their
personal development, community well-being, and their more effortless adjustment during reentry. The systems offer the imprisoned educational, employment, counselling, social, and
wellness rehabilitation. Further, human rights set the foundation regulations on the treatment of
the imprisoned. All incarcerated individuals have a right to medical care concerning their value
and dignity as humans without discrimination (Human Rights Library). While the prison system
is perceived to have great criminal justice and medical care to help during imprisonment and
release, it is critical to establish if they are employed and their impacts during and after release.
The answers to the question can help assess if the criminal justice strategies and medical care
during incarceration and re-entry offer successful and efficient re-entry programs to successfully
assist the individuals in reintegrating into society. It also helps in recommending if the “Ban the
Box’ campaign should be recommended as a re-entry technique, among others.
RQ2
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Are the key criminal justice and medical approaches during incarceration and
measures for reentering programs available to all inmates and released citizens, or
what are the eligibility criteria?
Pettus (2021) posits the reduction of the dependence on the prison system, its notions,
and the logic that restrains them. The U.S. faces mass incarceration and has the highest number
of imprisoned individuals. Politicians have advocated for the loosening of the harsh legislations
of the drug wars, abolishing minimum compulsories, and closing some correctional facilities to
promote reitegration if released individuals (Martin & Price, 2016). Unfortunately, according to
Ziazadeh (2019), the U.S. prison systems are primarily created on a masculine specific model,
leaving most correctional facilities majorly unfit to support female inmates’ special social,
psychological, and biological health needs. As a result, the systems create a gap in making
adequate rehabilitation and medical strategies accessible to all inmates. As a result, illustrating
the inadequacies of the medical care and criminal justice techniques to serve all individuals,
especially women help in shows their ineffectiveness in maintaining lives.
RQ3
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What are the set key stages and anti-discrimination measures to be followed during
the release of the convicted individuals from prison, and if any, do they apply to all
imprisoned individuals being released, or what are the eligibility criteria?
The Legal Information Institute (2018) provides the U.S. code on releasing a prisoner that
should apply to all prisoners. The law posits that the prison bureau should release a prisoner on
the set incarceration term expiry less the credit gained towards service of the sentence or
satisfactory conduct. However, if the release date falls on a holiday, Sunday, or Saturday, the
individual may be released on the preceding weekday. The law, also, allows temporary release
for certain prisoners if such permissions coincide with incarceration purposes and any other
policy by the sentencing commission (Legal Information Institute, 2018). Such releases must
consider the public interest, and the if prisoner shows the ability to honor the trust granted to
them. Short-term releases include visiting particular locations, visiting relatives who are almost
dying, attending medical care, and attending burials for relatives. While the laws outline specific
guidelines for the release of imprisoned individuals, it is critical to seek primary evidence to
verify if they are followed and apply to all individuals to examine their success and effectiveness
in rehabilitation and re-entry to the community. It is also key to examine if the strategies are
discriminative (Martin & Price, 2016)
RQ4
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What are the requirements for attaining a parole offer, and how does the system
support the released individuals to achieve socially, economically, and
psychologically sustainable lives and avoid recidivism?
The parole requirements are also provided by the parole and mandatory parole laws
(Legal Information Institute). Parole is a conditional release of individuals before their sentence
completion, and the releases are monitored by a public staff and a parole officer. A violation of
the release conditions may result in a return to prison. However, mandatory parole is established
for prisoners incarcerated as per the youth correction act, delinquency or juveniles, and narcotic
addiction and serving five years or more (Legal Information Institute). The individuals are
eligible for parole after serving two-thirds of each term, after 30 years of each term, or for
periods over 45 years. The paroled individuals are not immune to the prevailing re-entry
challenges. They also face family strains, mental health issues, challenges in finding
employment, and the inability to know where to start (Kurti & Shanahan, 2018). The parties are
released before completing their term, and hence, reducing their recidivism is vital. The question
also assesses the sustainability of paroled individuals in the community socially, psychological,
and economically.
Realignment of the Research Questions with the Problem Statement
The study focuses on assessing the lack of success and effectiveness of re-entry programs
driven to assist in sustaining the lives of women and men released to the community. The agenda
should encourage successful re-entry after incarceration and promote financial liberty to
propagate their re-entry as law-abiding citizens. To attain the intended, it is critical to evaluate if
there are medical practices and criminal justice rehabilitation care driven to support reform and
well-being of the imprisoned and sustainable reintegration into the society for the released.
Further, assessing whether the interventions are available to all individuals or examining their
eligibility helps measure their success and effectiveness in focusing on community inclusivity.
Additionally, an individual is incarcerated for being a social threat to the community. Therefore,
the release of such individuals should follow specific frameworks. Assessing if the rules apply to
all and whether there are any eligibility criteria also assists in reevaluating the prison’s success.
Lastly, there are requirements for attaining a parole offer. Examining how the system follows the
laws and supports released individuals to achieve socially, economically, and psychologically
sustainable lives are critical. Moreover, the tendency of the released individuals to avoid
recidivism elaborates on whether campaigns such as “Ban the Box” should be endorsed and
adopted.
References
Human Rights Library. Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners, G.A. res. 45/111, annex,
45 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49A) at 200, U.N. Doc. A/45/49 (1990).
hrlibrary.umn.edu/instree/g2bpt.htm
Kurti, Z., & Shanahan, J. (2018). Rebranding Mass Incarceration: The Lippman Commission and
Carceral Devolution in New York City. Social Justice, 45(2/3 (152/153)), 25–50.
https://www.jstor.org/stable/26677655
Legal Information Institute. (2018). 18 U.S. Code § 3622 – Temporary release of a prisoner.
https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/3622
Legal Information Institute. (2018). 18 U.S. Code § 3624 – Release of a prisoner.
https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/3624
Legal Information Institute. 28 CFR § 2.53 – Mandatory parole.
https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/28/2.53
Legal Information Institute. Parole. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/parole
Martin, W. G., & Price, J. M. (Eds.). (2016). After prisons? : Freedom, decarceration, and
justice disinvestment. Lexington Books
Pettus, C. (2021). Smart Decarceration. In Encyclopedia of Social Work.
Ziazadeh, D. (2019). Inadequate Health Care: A Significant Problem Affecting Incarcerated
Women. University of Michigan: School of Public Health.
https://sph.umich.edu/pursuit/2019posts/inadequate-healthcare-a-significant-problemaffecting-incarcerated-women.html
The prison system is not a correction facility
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Introductory paragraph
The study seeks to address the study topic, “the prison system is not a correction
facility.” The study issues focus fosters on recidivism and poor reintegration back to society
after release from prison. The nature of the study is descriptive, realigning with qualitative
methods (Hays & McKibben, 2021). Theoretical evidence is most practical when presenting the
successfulness and efficiency of reentry programs directed to supporting lives and help
individuals reintegrate into society following release from the prison comfortably. Responses
on if the programs are accessible also require detailed explanation. Additionally, the study
expects to examine the financial freedom of ex-prisoners and the frameworks that helps them
rejoin the community as law-abiding citizens, which also require in-depth theoretical evidence.
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Discussion of Research Paradigm
My research paradigm is pragmatism. It advocates for what is practical instead of what
may be considered objectively/ absolutely real or valid. It deals with facts and claims that the
research problem should inspire the decision of research methodology. The pragmatist approach
will allow the scholar to select the procedures, techniques, and methods that best suit the study
needs and the scientific research objectives (Žukauskas et al., 2018). The paradigm will allow
qualitative methods to concrete the study aims and questions to attain relevant evidence in realworld issues related to prison and reentry programs. The study will use qualitative evidence
through interviews, surveys, and secondary document analysis (Levitt et al., 2021). Hence, the
paradigm will be helpful in offering descriptive evidence to illustrate the inadequacy of prisons
as correction facilities and the impracticality of reentry programs to explain why ex-prisoners
result in recidivism and poor return into the community.
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Discussion of Methodology
This study will be conducted with a triangulation design using surveys, interviews, and
archival study/secondary data analysis methods. Specifically, a flexible qualitative triangulation
research design will be employed. It is a thematical approach that tests data credibility by
converging the information from various data sources. A triangulation will allow the scholar to
collect and assess qualitative data distinctly on the same study phenomenon about prison not
being a correction facility (Žukauskas et al., 2018). The different study outcomes will then be
united by comparing and contrasting the different results during analysis. Hence multiple datasets
and approaches will help answer the study questions. The essential purpose of this design is to
enhance the validity and credibility of the study findings on prison and release programs to assist
in individual reform and reintegration into the community.
According to the problem statement, it is critical to assess the effectiveness of the prison
system as the current model seems to propagate recidivism and mass incarceration (Kurti &
Shanahan, 2018). Practical solutions such as “banning the box” through legal systems at the local,
state, and federal levels are critical in improving reintegration in community (Martin & Price,
2016). Consequently, comprehensive research of the criminal justice system is necessary to
propagate the adoption of sociable, maintainable, and evidence-based strategies for supporting
individual change to lower recidivism and promote proper reentry (Pettus, 2021). Ample evidence
is hence critical for this research.
The selected study methods relate to the various research questions, problem statements,
and the study topic, as illustrated in this discussion.
Interviews. It is a primary data gathering approach where the scholar will ask questions,
and the participant will offer answers. The approach will involve a direct conversation between
the study participants. They will be conducted amongst ex-convicts, prison system officials,
policymakers, and random members of society (Žukauskas et al., 2018). The interview will
include structured and open-ended questions to allow the collection of quality theoretical
explanations of the study phenomenon. Interviews will seek evidence about the criminal justice
and medical approaches used to support reforms and the well-being of the inmates during and
after imprisonment. It will also seek data concerning how the strategies assist improve the
sustainability of ex-prisoners to avoid recidivism by assessing the medical and mental care,
economic, and social aspects of their lives. Data will also be sought during the discourses on the
availability of interventions, release program stages, parole requirements, and various eligibility
criteria.
Surveys. The survey will also seek evidence for all the study questions to address the
problem statement and study topic. Structured and open-ended questions will also be used.
Individuals will offer opinionated responses about the research phenomenon (Žukauskas et al.,
2018). The data from surveys will help illustrate the availability of medical care and criminal
justice approaches, their adoption rate, and availability amongst the imprisoned or ex-prisoners.
Archival study. Secondary data will be attained by synthesizing laws and past studies
about prison management (Morgan, 2022). The evidence from interviews and surveys will be
interpreted in light of secondary data such as legislation to identify if the system is efficient in
adopting the set guidelines. Moreover, new primary evidence from the study that is absent from
secondary sources will be highlighted as per the study’s commitment to offering practical results.
Data analysis. A qualitative methodology will be used in the data analysis. The data
from interviews, surveys, and secondary document analysis will be thematically assessed and
generalized into relevant themes. The information will be offered in the most detailed manner to
promote its practicality. The interviews will first be transcribed. The written evidence from
interviews and surveys will then be reviewed and familiarized, coded, grouped into themes,
defined as per the themes, and compiled for analysis.
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Summary
The research methodology focuses to address the study topic, “the prison system is not
a correction facility.” The study uses qualitative study as descriptive evidence relevant to the
research questions. The research paradigm is pragmatism. It advocates for what is practical
instead of what may be considered objectively or absolutely real or valid. Measures from the
qualitative approaches will be employed through interviews, surveys, and secondary data
analysis. Moreover, the study will be conducted with a triangulation design using surveys,
interviews, and archival study/secondary data collection methods. Specifically, a flexible
qualitative triangulation research design will be employed. Comprehensive research of the
criminal justice system is necessary to propagate the adoption of sociable, maintainable, and
evidence-based strategies for supporting individual change to lower recidivism and promote
proper reentry. Interviews will involve a direct conversation between the study participants and
include structured and open-ended questions to allow the collection of quality theoretical
explanations of the study phenomenon. Surveys will seek evidence for all the study questions
using structured and closed open-ended questions. Secondary data will then be employed by
synthesizing laws and past studies about prison management and comparing them with the
primary evidence. Lastly, qualitative methodologies will be used in data analysis. Secondary
and primary data will be thematically assessed and generalized into relevant themes.
References
Hays, D. G., & McKibben, W. B. (2021). Promoting rigorous research: Generalizability and
qualitative research. Journal of Counseling & Development, 99(2), 178-188.
Kurti, Z., & Shanahan, J. (2018). Rebranding Mass Incarceration: The Lippman Commission and
Carceral Devolution in New York City. Social Justice, 45(2/3 (152/153)), 25–50.
https://www.jstor.org/stable/26677655
Levitt, H. M., Morrill, Z., Collins, K. M., & Rizo, J. L. (2021). The methodological integrity of
critical qualitative research: Principles to support design and research review. Journal of
Counseling Psychology, 68(3), 357.
Martin, W. G., & Price, J. M. (Eds.). (2016). After prisons? : Freedom, decarceration, and
justice disinvestment. Lexington Books
Morgan, H. (2022). Conducting a Qualitative Document Analysis. The Qualitative Report, 27(1),
64-77.
Pettus, C. (2021). Smart Decarceration. In Encyclopedia of Social Work.
Žukauskas, P., Vveinhardt, J., & Andriukaitienė, R. (2018). Philosophy and paradigm of
scientific research. Management culture and corporate social responsibility, 121.
Research Framework
Concepts
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Criminal justice strategies during incarceration are related to the extent how which
prisoners reform
The US criminal justice strategies such as imprisonment, setting fees or fines, cost and benefit
analysis, parole, and reconsidering probation help the incarcerated individuals understand their
offenses and feel the magnitude of the cost incurred and harm caused (Wakefield, 2019). The
experiences compel the offenders to reform to prevent similar encounters in the future.
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Medical approaches used during imprisonment are related to the well-being of the
inmates after release
Some incarcerated individuals have various illnesses, with some committing offenses due to
mental illnesses. Implementing the framework requiring medical treatment of all prisoners for
their diseases as humans can help them recover and attain stable mental and overall well-being.
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Reenter programs are related to how ex-prisoners reintegrate into the society
Reenter programs are established to assist released individuals in successfully reintegrating into
the community after imprisonment to lower recidivism, increase savings, and promote public
safety (Copp, 2019).
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The extent of people’s reform, well-being, and reintegration into the society relate to
their tendency toward recidivism
The ex-offenders who have reformed, are in good health, and have reintegrated into society are
less likely to re-offend.
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The fairness and standardization of measures to release convicts relate to recidivism
Fair and standardized measures to release prisoners optimize the procedure’s quality lowering the
tendency of re-offending (Polcin, 2018).
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Parole offers relate to reforms of the incarcerated and recidivism after release
Parole encourages reforms for the incarcerated are the parties are released before the expiry of
their sentence for good behavior. Parole can encourage reforms or recidivism as offenders take
the sentencing process lightly.
Theories
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Psychodynamic Theory
The theory supports that every individual has ethical and moral codes (superego), instinctive
drives (the id), and a rational personality (ego) (Fulmer, 2018). Criminal behavior results from a
conflict between the superego, ego, and id.
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Behavioral Theory
The theory indicates that humans establish behavior depending on the response they get from
such behavior from the people around them. If an individual is in the company of people such as
friends or figures of authority who are condoning and rewarding their criminal acts, they are
more likely to keep up the conduct (Nason et al., 2018).
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Cognitive Theory.
The notion cites that people undergo three moral development including the pre-conventional
stage (how children develop and learn the environment), the conventional level (how young
adults and teens relate acts to society), and the post-conventional level (adults focus on judging
the morality of social rules and values) (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020). Criminals are said not to
develop their moral judgment beyond the innate stage, pre-conventional phase.
Actors
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The reentry task force, agencies, and social service organizations
The stakeholders oversee the reentry program by helping clients get stable jobs after release
(Kurti & Shanahan, 2018). The parties also collaborate with other parties, such as employers, to
help improve the reintegration of the ex-offenders.
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Department of Justice (DOJ) Bureau of Prisons (BOP)
The department is entitled to oversee reform strategies and medical care of federal inmates
during the custody, where most are imprisoned for national drug usage (Wakefield, 2019). The
successful reform, reentry, and avoidance of re-offending depend on how well the division acts.
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Governments (local, state, and national)
The governments are responsible for making legal reforms to help transformation and
reintegration of the offender by targeting issues such as lowering mass incarceration, promoting
criminal justice reform techniques, and “banning the box” from improving adaptation after
release (Beckett et al., 2018; Martin & Price, 2016).
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The imprisoned and released offenders
The incarcerated and released individuals are the subjects of this study as it seeks to understand
how well they are groomed to change and adapt to the community after release (Copp, 2019).
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General community members
The community is a party of interest as it includes individuals who are expected to allow the
reintegration of ex-offenders in the community to reduce re-offending (Wakefield, 2019).
Rejection by society can encourage recidivism.
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Various employers in the community
Released parties need access to employment to attain financial stability critical for reintegration
and reduction of recidivism (Polcin, 2018). Economic well-being is only attainable if employers
agree to intake the released parties.
Constructs and Variable
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Medical care during incarceration
Medical care during imprisonment is a mitigating variable influencing the mental health outcome
of the released after the expiry of the sentence.
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Criminal justice management strategies
The criminal system management strategies are mitigating factors and affect the prisoners’
outcome after their sentence completion or release through parole (Pettus, 2021).
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Anti-discriminatory Procedures
The presence of unbiased procedures is critical to reassure the incarcerated and released that they
will encounter fairness acting as mitigating variables (Beckett et al., 2018). The fair procedure
increase trust in the system and stakeholders, which is critical for successful reentry.
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Employment issues
Ex-offenders are likely to re-offend if they face employment issues, an independent variable in
this study.
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Marital and family status
Individuals from stable and supportive families are likely to reform and avoid re-offending after
imprisonment (Copp, 2019).
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Low or no income
Low or no income is a dependent variable that influences independent and mitigating factors
such as employment issues, medical care, and anti-discrimination procedures (Polcin, 2018).
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Relationship with deviant peers
According to the behavioral theory, the relationship is an independent variable that can cause
criminal behavior (Nason et al., 2018).
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Substance usage
Substance usage is an independent variable that tampers with an individual’s judgment
encouraging re-offending and strained relationships in the society, which is unfavorable for
reintegration (Kurti & Shanahan, 2018).
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Mental health challenges
Mental health problems are dependent variables manipulated by medical and criminal justice
techniques and can help explain the effectiveness of reform and medical approaches in a prison
facility (Wakefield, 2019).
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Recidivism
Recidivism is a dependent variable that illustrates the tendency of an individual to re-offend.
High rates would show that the prison system is not a correction facility (Martin & Price, 2016).
References
Beckett, K., Beach, L., Knaphus, E., & Reosti, A. (2018). US criminal justice policy and practice
in the twenty‐first century: Toward the end of mass incarceration?. Law & Policy, 40(4),
321-345.
Copp, J. E. (2019). The impact of incarceration on the risk of violent recidivism. Marq. L.
Rev., 103, 775.
Fulmer, R. (2018). The evolution of the psychodynamic approach and system. International
Journal of Psychological Studies, 10(3), 1.
Kurti, Z., & Shanahan, J. (2018). Rebranding Mass Incarceration: The Lippman Commission and
Carceral Devolution in New York City. Social Justice, 45(2/3 (152/153)), 25–50.
https://www.jstor.org/stable/26677655
Martin, W. G., & Price, J. M. (Eds.). (2016). After prisons? : Freedom, decarceration, and
justice disinvestment. Lexington Books
Nason, R. S., Bacq, S., & Gras, D. (2018). A behavioral theory of social performance: Social
identity and stakeholder expectations. Academy of Management Review, 43(2), 259-283.
Pettus, C. (2021). Smart Decarceration. In Encyclopedia of Social Work.
Polcin, D. L. (2018). Role of recovery residences in criminal justice reform. International
Journal of Drug Policy, 53, 32-36.
Schunk, D. H., & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2020). Motivation and social cognitive
theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101832.
Wakefield, S. (2018). Sentence length and recidivism: Evidence and the challenges of criminal
justice reform in the carceral state. Criminology & Pub. Pol’y, 17, 771.
Annotated Bibliography
“Kurti, Z., & Shanahan, J. (2018). Rebranding Mass Incarceration: The Lippman
Commission and Carceral Devolution in New York City”
Kurti and Shanahan, both of whom are assistant professors of criminology, criminal
justice, and police, are the writers of the article, and their credentials are impeccable. At Loyola
University Chicago, Zhandarka Kurti serves as an assistant professor in the departments of
Criminology and Criminal Justice. Dr. Kurti is a sociologist by training and attended the State
University of New York at Binghamton to earn her Ph.D. in the field. Her study investigates
issues relating to class, race, and gender in relation to criminalization, probation, mass
supervision, and the politics of contemporary criminal justice reforms. Kurti’s research and
teaching are interdisciplinary, placing criminal justice system alterations within socio-historical,
economic, and political dynamics that determine American life. He uses his approach to combine
policing, prisons, and social control scholarship. On the other side, Jarrod is an assistant
professor at Governors State University. He focuses on policing and incarceration studies and
has a background in criminal justice.
The article immensely supports the research as it analyzes the Lippman Commission
report and its proposals to close Rikers Island as a current case study in local incarceration and
carceral devolution. A close reading of the Lippman Commission report reveals the importance
of decarceration and carceral devolution theories to the campaign to close Rikers Island. Finally,
it offers suggestions for what this shift in New York City’s carceral perspective means for
modern social justice efforts. The writers of this essay intend to address the growing chorus of
voices calling for an end to mass incarceration. This chorus includes not just abolitionists and
liberals but also some conservative voices. This discussion focuses on the non-profit
organizations that support the prison industrial complex and work to guide radical change in the
direction of liberal reform while also promoting the extension of the prison system under the
pretence of decarceration.
Martin, W. G., & Price, J. M. (Eds.). (2016). After prisons? Freedom, decarceration, and
justice disinvestment. Lexington Books
The authors of the article, Joshua and Price are formidable and credible researchers and
scholars. Joshua m. Price is a credible professor of sociology at SUNY-Binghamton and work as
the director of the Broome County Jail Health Project, situated in upstate New York. He
conducts ethnographic and participatory research on issues such as institutionalized and
structural violence, as well as violence against people of color and women. In contrast, Martin is
a sociology professor at Binghamton University, where he conducts research in the field. The
modern world, Africa, and social movements are just a few of Martin’s many interests. Studies
on criminal justice reform, particularly in New York State; southern Africa; social justice
movements; and the chronicle of African studies and African peoples have appeared most
recently in his writings, as have essays on these and other topics.
Five years ago, the general consensus was that mass incarceration was an inevitability in
American politics and society. The main point of this book is to advocate for repealing the
severest sentencing laws of the battle on drugs, eradicating mandatory minimums, and shutting
down correctional facilities. According to the book’s authors, while massive decarceration is
taking place, the result so far has not been what reformers had hoped for, namely a more
equitable system. The book examines the hidden costs that prisoners bear while in prison and
after they are released, drawing on hundreds of interviews with inmates, parolees, and their
families, many of which were harrowing and life-changing for those who participated in them.
Also, it claims that incarcerated people are cut off from their communities and susceptible to
other kinds of brutality, including sexual violence, because of this isolation.
Pettus, C. (2021). Smart Decarceration. In Encyclopedia of Social Work.
The writer, known as Carrie Pettus-Davis, is a credible writer and scholar, currently
serving as the founding director of the Institute for Justice Research & Development and her role
as a CSD faculty director at Florida State University. In addition to that, she is the network colead for the Smart Decarceration grand challenge for social work and is a co-director of the
Smart Decarceration Initiative.
This article discusses the beginnings of smart decarceration techniques, the historical
backdrop from which smart decarceration comes, and the societal momentum that led to the
conceptualization of smart decarceration. The American Academy of Social Work and Social
Welfare has recognized “smart decarceration” as one of the 12 “Grand Challenges” facing the
social work profession over the next decade, which will run from 2015 to 2025. Smart
decarceration is a social work-driven strategy. The essay discusses how economic inequities
throughout the criminal justice system contributed to the rise of mass incarceration rates and
helped to keep those disparities alive. The amount of time that individuals spent in jail prior to
trial likewise increased exponentially as the caseloads of the courts, public defenders, and
prosecutors all continued to grow.
A paradigm of “Smart decarceration,” which reflects a distinct attitude and tactics to
criminal justice reform as the United States enters the period of decarceration, is also proposed in
this article. A thoughtful approach to decarceration will look for reform strategies that are
evidence-based, sustainable, and socially just. Concepts of intelligent decarceration point
researchers and reformers in the direction of an exhaustive investigation of the criminal justice
system, an ongoing evaluation process, and intentional narrative shifting on for whom, how, and
why incarceration is utilized. The article needs to be beneficial to the research as it gives
information such as the fact that each year in the United States, 600,000 men and women return
from prison to their communities. However, the difficulties will not go away once the jail bars
have been removed. They are confronted with close to 50,000 legal restrictions at the federal,
state, and local levels, which makes it difficult for them to reintegrate back into society. People
who are forced to live with the collateral consequences of a criminal record are the focus of our
efforts to put an end to these repercussions.
Doctor of Business Administration
Liberty University
School of Business
BUSI 885
DBA Research Concept Guide
V2.0
1971 University Boulevard
Lynchburg, VA 24515-2269
BusinessDoctoralPrograms@liberty.edu
434-582-3000
March 10, 2020
Liberty University School of Business
DBA Research Concept Guide
Table of Contents
Overview ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
General Guidance……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Research Study Type ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Research Paradigms …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Concept Alignment in a Research Project……………………………………………………………………….. 8
Where to Study & Sample Size ……………………………………………………………………………………… 8
Assignment Instructions…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
Task 1: Problem Statement Outline ……………………………………………………………………………… 10
Task 2: Research Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
Task 3: Methodology …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14
Task 4: Research Framework Outline …………………………………………………………………………… 16
Task 5: Draft Research Concept…………………………………………………………………………………… 18
Task 6: Final Research Concept …………………………………………………………………………………… 21
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Overview
You have reached this point because you have passed all DBA core classes and you are ready to
develop a research concept for your Applied Doctoral Research Project (ADRP). As you work
your way through this course you will conduct research and develop the key elements of a viable
doctoral level research project, culminating in an approved ADRP Concept Paper. While your final
research concept will be approved by your Research Chair once you start your ADRP courses, the
work you put in here will give you a solid starting point and help ensure that you are able to hit
the ground running.
You are no longer a student – This course marks the start of your transition from student to
doctoral candidate. This is a significant milestone that shifts the burden from a professor in a course
teaching you things you do not know to you applying what you have already learned! Your
professor is here to evaluate your work and point out areas for improvement, not teach you how to
accomplish each task. You are responsible for reviewing the guidelines provided and submitting
work that is compliant them. When you hit a roadblock or do not understand a particular aspect of
your research project you need to be able to work your way through the issue by studying the
problem, conducting further research, and determining the best solution.
The DBA ADRP Research Concept Paper will be developed incrementally. Each task listed below
allows you to focus on one aspect of the research concept and then use the approved tasks to build
up to the completed document. It is important that you use approved tasks when you start
combining them into a single document. If you do need to make changes to a previously approved
document, you need to coordinate that with your professor. Finally, do not move to the next task
in the sequence until the current one is approved. As described, these build upon each other so
working ahead could result in significant revisions!
The following tasks will be completed in this course:
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Task 1: Problem Statement Outline
Task 2: Research Questions
Task 3: Methodology
Task 4: Research Framework Outline
Task 5: Draft Research Concept
Task 6: Final Research Concept
Submitting your work – This course is self-paced and you must complete all tasks in order to pass
and move on to the ADRP. Only work on one task at a time and do not move to the next task until
the current one has been approved (Grade of ‘1’ Posted). You can submit your work as soon as
you complete it, just be sure to email your instructor to let them know that you have submitted a
task for review.
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General Guidance
This section provides general guidance related to research paradigms, research study type,
methodology, research framework, study location, and sample size. Please review this information
carefully. There are specific research types and methods associated with the degree plan you are
pursuing.
Research Study Type
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For DBA students taking BUSI 987 – 990, the Research Study type is a Dissertation
For DBA students taking BUSI 887 – 890, the Research Study type can be either a Case
Study Project or a Consulting Project
Note: Students wishing to conduct the consulting project should be sure to include BUSI 830,
Case Study Research Methods and Consulting Techniques, in their degree plan to gain a better
understanding of the Lean Six Sigma tools that must be used in the research project.
With the dissertation or case study project approach, the student begins by researching the
literature to find a problem, develops a research proposal to study the problem, and then finds an
organization within which to study the problem. With the consulting project approach, the student
begins with an organization with a problem, researches the literature to better understand the
problem, and then develops a proposed solution to the problem. In all three cases, a problem
statement based upon the current literature must be developed.
Research Paradigms
A research paradigm is essentially a worldview that a researcher brings to their study. It represents
the researcher’s view of reality or truth. While there is ongoing discussion regarding which
paradigms exist in the modern research community, it is useful to focus on Positivism, PostPositivism, Constructivism, and Pragmatism for most researchers. Researchers should conduct
independent research on this topic to understand what their research paradigm is as it will shape
how the researcher approaches the problem being studied. It is also important to note that while
some paradigms lend themselves better to certain methodologies, the choice of methodology does
not change the paradigm. This is part of who the researcher is and how they view the world. For
this course and the research project, the researcher should identify which of the following best
describes their view of the world and reality. The researcher should also be able to describe why
that is the case:
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Positivism – Single objective reality that we seek to discover.
Post-Positivism – Single objective reality that we seek to discover with the knowledge
that we never will fully understand it.
Constructivism – Reality is determined by the individual and the researcher seeks to
understand that view of reality.
Pragmatism – Focus on the ‘problem’ rather than the view of reality, using any tools
available to understand the problem.
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Methodology
The methodology is how the researcher will study the problem at a very high level, all research
will be conducted using one of the following research approaches. The researcher will need to be
able to explain the application and benefits of each type of research:
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Fixed Design using Quantitative Methods
Flexible Design using Qualitative Methods
Mixed-Methods Design using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
Fixed Designs are fully defined (fixed) as part of the research proposal and following the proposal,
the researcher executes the research and analysis using quantitative tools as described in the
research proposal. Flexible designs on the other hand are defined in a general sense as part of the
research proposal and following the proposal, the researcher is free to adjust (flexible) the research
as is necessary using qualitative tools as described. Mixed-Methods Designs as the name implies,
use a combination of both in relatively equal amounts. This should not be confused with a Flexible
Design that might use a small number of quantitative methods to provide for triangulation of the
data found through the primary qualitative methods, such as the use of descriptive statistics to
show demographics or other relevant numerical data. The choice of research approach is guided
by the research problem, purpose, and research questions.
Within each research approach, there are specific methods (the research tool) that can be employed.
The table below lists the most common methods employed in the three research types of research
designs. Once selected, the method becomes the methodology or specific ‘research design’ for the
study. Please note that the options for conducting your research are limited based upon the track
that you are in (ADRP vs. Dissertation) and by the nature of the DBA degree (Applied Research
vs. Pure Research).
Fixed Design Methods
Flexible Design Methods
Mixed-Methods Design Methods
ï‚· Experimental
ï‚· Narrative
ï‚· Convergent parallel
ï‚· Quasi-experimental
ï‚· Phenomenology
ï‚· Explanatory Sequential
ï‚· Nonexperimental
ï‚· Grounded Theory
ï‚· Exploratory Sequential
Transformative
ï‚· Descriptive
ï‚· Case Study
ï‚· Correlational
ï‚· Single Case Study
ï‚· Causal-Comparative
ï‚· Multiple Case Study
ï‚· Ethnography
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Common Methods for fixed, flexible, and mixed research designs.
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For DBA students taking BUSI 987 – 990 (DBA Dissertation Track) the following designs &
methods can be used:
Fixed Designs
Flexible Designs
Mixed-Methods Designs
ï‚· Correlational
ï‚· Case Study
ï‚· Convergent parallel
ï‚· Causal-Comparative
ï‚· Single Case Study
ï‚· Multiple Case Study
ï‚· Phenomenology
ï‚· Ethnography
For DBA students taking BUSI 887 – 890 (DBA Project Track) the following designs can be
used:
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Consulting Project – Single Case Study with Lean Six Sigma Framework
Case Study Project – Single Case Study
Note: For the Consulting Project, the Lean Six Sigma Framework provides qualitative and
quantitative tools to be used in the DMAIC process. For the Case Study Project, quantitative tools
will be used for triangulation and descriptive statistics.
An effective way to begin the discussion of methodology is to start with the sentence: “This study
will be conducted with a XXXXX design using XXXXX method(s) specifically, a XXXXX design
will be used”
Examples:
This study will be conducted with a flexible design using qualitative methods specifically, a single
case study design will be used.
– Or This study will be conducted with a fixed design using quantitative methods specifically, a causalcomparative design will be used.
When deciding on a methodology, pay attention to the words used in the research questions.
Qualitative research questions are those that seek to understand or explain while quantitative
research questions seek to relate or measure. The goal here is to ensure that there is alignment from
the problem statement to the research questions to the methodology. You will be required to
substantiate your choice of methodology with multiple citations. The bar is high to substantiate
Phenomenology or Ethnography.
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Research Framework
The researcher should think of the research framework as the ‘word picture’ for the specific
problem statement. Once a person reads the framework and examines the diagram it should be
very clear what the conditions surrounding the problem are as well as how the study is connected
to the literature. Not all studies will have both concepts and theories, and flexible designs such as
a case study will typically rely more on concepts than theories.
Diagram – The research framework diagram should allow the reader to ‘see’ the problem and its
outcomes. The diagram should show 1) the inputs (constructs or variables) and how they relate to
the actors, 2) how action/information/influence flows between the actors, 3) how the actors are
influenced by concepts and theories, and 4) how the outputs (constructs or variables) are
determined. Additional research on Conceptual Frameworks and Theoretical Frameworks will
provide a better understanding of this important part of the research project.
Concepts – These are commonly held views that are not as formally defined as theories that can
be found in the literature that are central to your research problem. The researcher should be able
to provide a short ‘descriptor’ for the concept. An example descriptor could be Higher Job
Satisfaction Leads to Higher Productivity. Follow the descriptor with a discussion of the concept
and how it relates to the problem supported by citations. Flexible studies will typically have
concepts.
Theories – These are formal theories that can be found in the literature that are central to the
research problem. They will have a researcher or researchers connected with them. Examples
include Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Transformational Leadership Theory, Servant Leadership,
etc. The researcher should be able to provide the formal name of the theory, and then a discussion
of the theory and how it relates to the problem supported by citations. Flexible studies will not
always have a theory or theories associated with them. Theories are developed as our
understanding of a problem matures and often flexible studies will be looking at relatively new
research problems.
Actors – These are the key people groups such as leaders, followers, or customers central to the
research problem, as well as the organizations such as the specific business, government entity, or
school that are central to the research problem. The researcher should be able to provide a short
‘descriptor’ for the actor followed by a description and a discussion of how it relates to the
problem. An example descriptor could be Executive Leaders, Project Team Members, or even
ABC University. Follow the descriptor with a discussion of the actor supported by citations.
Constructs & Variables – These are the constructs and independent, mitigating, and dependent
variables found in the research study. Constructs are the broad concepts or topics in a study while
variables are measurable and vary. Independent variables can be thought of as inputs such as
leadership style, level of intrinsic motivation, or even revenue from product sales. Mitigating
variables can be used to group and could include things like gender, age, employment status.
Finally, dependent variables can be thought of as outputs such as job satisfaction, extrinsic
motivation, or productivity. The researcher should be able to provide a short ‘descriptor’ for the
construct or variable followed by a description and a discussion of how it relates to the problem.
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An example descriptor could be Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style, or Gross Profit.
Follow the descriptor with a discussion of the construct or variable supported by citations.
Concept Alignment in a Research Project
The reader must be able to visualize a straight line connecting the general problem, the specific
problem, the purpose statement, the research questions, and the nature of the study:
General Problem – Overarching business problem related to the candidate’s cognate with the
existence of the problem supported by current literature (less than five years).
Specific Problem – Narrowly focused market(s) / industry (s) / region(s) / organization(s) being
studied to provide insight into the general problem.
Purpose Statement – To study the specific problem, thereby giving insight into the general
problem. In a flexible design, the goal is generally to explore or to understand. In a fixed design,
the goal is generally to measure, compare, or relate.
Research Questions – The broad questions that need to be answered to provide meaningful insight
into the specific problem. These are not interview questions, they are questions that guide the
overall study. In a flexible design, these questions will seek to explain or understand and will
typically include words such as how, why, and what. In a fixed design, these questions will
generally seek to describe, measure, compare or relate variables.
Nature of the Study – The nature of the study describes the researcher’s paradigm, the research
design, and the research method. The researcher will need to be able to describe why the chosen
design and method are the best choice for the research being conducted.
Alignment exists when:
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The specific problem is a subset of the general problem
The purpose statement describes a research goal that addresses the specific problem
The research questions address the specific problem and its consequences
The nature of the study identifies a design and method that is consistent with the action
word choices in the purpose statement and the word choices in the research questions
Where to Study & Sample Size
Selecting where to conduct your research study and how many participants will be guided by
several factors:
Fixed Design Dissertations – to provide for statistically significant results that can be generalized
to the overall population, you will need to use a sample size calculator (not gPower which is a
great post hoc test) to determine the right number. For large populations (over 5000) this is going
to be around 380 for each group within the sample based upon a Confidence Level (CL) of 95%
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and a Confidence Interval (CI) of 5%. How you define the population determines what you would
like to be able to generalize your results to, which in turn determines the sample size.
Flexible Design Dissertations – The goal here is to reach saturation which is the point at which
you are no longer gaining new information from participants. While various authors will provide
varying ranges for this, the common ground is that saturation will be reached within 25 to 30
interviews for a group.
Consulting Project or Case Study Project – Since the results are not intended to generalize (relate)
to the entire population, a single organization can be used. However, the size of the organization
will need to allow the researcher to interview between fifteen and thirty participants.
Note for Consulting Project or Case Study Project: The researcher may contact an organization
to gauge their interest in being part of your proposed study once the problem and research questions
have been approved. See Task 2.
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Assignment Instructions
Task 1: Problem Statement Outline
Using the White Paper titled Effective Problem Statements and Research Questions as a guide,
develop a bullet point outline for the problem statement. Each bullet should be a single sentence.
Following the specific problem sentence include a short sentence describing how this problem is
related to your cognate. Finally, add APA formatted references for the supporting reference
sentences. Following the outline, you will provide an annotated bibliography for each reference
provided. You will post your submission as a word document.
Your submission will include the following:
Title Block
ï‚· Last Name, First Name
ï‚· Cognate
ï‚· Research Project Track (Dissertation or Project)
ï‚· Research Paradigm
ï‚· Planned Research Design
ï‚· Proposed Topic
Problem Statement Bullet Outline
ï‚· General Problem Sentence
o Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation (< 5 years) o Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation (< 5 years) o Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation (< 5 years) o Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation (< 5 years, optional bridge supporting references sentence, see problem statement white paper)  Specific Problem Sentence  Relationship to Cognate (Not part of the problem statement)  References Annotated Bibliography for each Reference APA formatted reference (250 words for each reference)  Description of why this is a credible source (author(s), publication, date)  Summary of the article  Discussion of how this reference supports the existence of the general problem and the consequences of the problem identified in the general problem sentence. March 10, 2020 Page 10 of 22 Liberty University School of Business DBA Research Concept Guide Submitting your Document: You will post your submission in the assignment link as a word document. Title your word document as follows: LastName_Task 1 Bullet Point Outline_DDMMMYY.docx Send an email to your instructor indicating that the submission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 1 Submitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your chair will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Once your document is reviewed by your instructor, any comments received will be collected by you in a Change Matrix document. As the comments are addressed, a brief description of the changes made will be added to the Change Matrix document for review by the instructor. Once you have made the necessary revisions, resubmit the document using the same format described above along with the Change Matrix. Send an email to your instructor indicating that the resubmission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 1 Resubmitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your instructor will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Your instructor will post a ‘1’ in Canvas once the document is approved. That will be your signal to submit the next task. March 10, 2020 Page 11 of 22 Liberty University School of Business DBA Research Concept Guide Task 2: Research Questions Using the White Paper titled Effective Problem Statements and Research Questions and your approved Problem Statement Bullet Outline from Task 1 as a guide, develop three to four open ended research questions that cannot be answered with a yes or no response. Good research questions are exploratory and not leading that presuppose a cause, outcome, or relationship. Where appropriate, develop sub-questions that address facets of the overall research questions. Following the list of research questions, you will discuss how each research question (and sub-questions) addresses aspects of the specific problem sentence to include the resulting consequences. Finally, you will discuss how taken together, the research questions (and sub-questions) fully address the specific problem statement. Include an APA formatted reference section. Your submission will include the following: Title Block  Last Name, First Name  Cognate  Research Project Track (Dissertation or Project)  Research Paradigm  Planned Research Design  Proposed Topic Approved Problem Statement Bullet Outline from Task 1  General Problem Sentence o Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation o Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation o Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation o Supporting Reference Sentence with Current Citation (Optional)  Specific Problem Sentence Research Question 1, use labels RQ1, RQ1a, etc.  Sub question 1a (optional)  Sub Question 1b (optional) Research Question 2  Sub question 2a (optional)  Sub Question 2b (optional) Research Question 3  Sub question 3a (optional)  Sub Question 3b (optional) Research Question 4 (optional)  Sub question 4a (optional) March 10, 2020 Page 12 of 22 Liberty University School of Business  DBA Research Concept Guide Sub Question 4b (optional) Discussion of Research Questions  Research Question 1  Research Question 2  Research Question 3  Research Question 4 (optional)  Specific Problem Statement Coverage Reference Section Note for Consulting Project or Case Study Project: Once this task is approved, you may contact an organization to gauge their interest in being part of your proposed study. You may not begin to interview any participants or gather any data until you have the approval to do so in the ADRP courses. Use the Permission Request Template found in Course Content. You will be submitting your Permission Request Template in Task 6. Submitting your Document: You will post your submission in the assignment tab as a word document. Title your word document as follows: LastName_Task 2 Research Questions_DDMMMYY.docx Send an email to your instructor indicating that the submission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 2 Submitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your chair will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Once your document is reviewed by your instructor, any comments received will be collected by you in a Change Matrix document. As the comments are addressed, a brief description of the changes made will be added to the Change Matrix document for review by the instructor. Once you have made the necessary revisions, resubmit the document using the same format described above along with the Change Matrix. Send an email to your instructor indicating that the resubmission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 2 Resubmitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your instructor will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Your instructor will post a ‘1’ in Canvas once the document is approved. That will be your signal to submit the next task. March 10, 2020 Page 13 of 22 Liberty University School of Business DBA Research Concept Guide Task 3: Methodology This is a narrative assignment rather than a bullet point outline. You will post your submission as a word document. Your submission will include the following: Title Block  Last Name, First Name  Cognate  Research Project Track (Dissertation or Project)  Research Paradigm  Planned Research Design  Proposed Topic Outline for this assignment:      Introductory paragraph – For this methodology paper, including the specific problem sentence. Discussion of Research Paradigm Discussion of Methodology Summary – For this methodology paper Reference Section Discussion of Research Paradigm: Begin with a theme sentence: “My research paradigm is XXX” Then discuss your research paradigm and how this is likely to guide your study. Discussion of Methodology: Begin with a theme sentence: “This study will be conducted with a XXXXX design using XXXXX method(s) specifically, a XXXXX design will be used”. Then discuss why this is the appropriate methodology for your study. Provide multiple citations from multiple authors to support factual assertions about the function of the design and research paradigm. Reference your problem statement and research questions in demonstrating why this is the correct methodology and how it fits with your research paradigm. Submitting your Document: You will post your submission in the assignment link as a word document. Title the word document as follows: Last Name_Methodology_DDMMMYY.docx March 10, 2020 Page 14 of 22 Liberty University School of Business DBA Research Concept Guide Send an email to your instructor indicating that the submission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 3 Submitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your chair will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Once your document is reviewed by your instructor, any comments received will be collected by you in a Change Matrix document. As the comments are addressed, a brief description of the changes made will be added to the Change Matrix document for review by the instructor. Once you have made the necessary revisions, resubmit the document using the same format described above along with the Change Matrix. Send an email to your instructor indicating that the resubmission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 3 Resubmitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your instructor will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Your instructor will post a ‘1’ in Canvas once the document is approved. That will be your signal to submit the next task. March 10, 2020 Page 15 of 22 Liberty University School of Business DBA Research Concept Guide Task 4: Research Framework Outline You will post your submission as a word document. Your submission will include the following: Title Block  Last Name, First Name  Cognate  Research Project Track (Dissertation or Project)  Research Paradigm  Planned Research Design  Proposed Topic The body of the document will include:      Concepts – The concepts (i.e. higher productivity is related to higher job satisfaction) that are related to your research study and are found in the literature. Use a separate sub-point for each concept. Lead with a descriptor (short name for the concept), and then one to two sentences that describe how the concept is related to the specific problem. Theories – The formal theories (i.e. Maslow’s Motivational Theory, Transformational Leadership Theory, etc.) that are related to your research study and are found in the literature. Use a separate sub-point for each theory. Lead with the formal name of the theory and then one to two sentences that describe how the theory is related to the specific problem. Actors – The people groups (i.e. leaders, followers, accountants, etc.) or organizations that are related to your research study. Lead with a descriptor and then one to two sentences that describe how the actor is related to the specific problem. Constructs & Variables – The constructs and variables found in your research study (i.e. profit, leadership style, intrinsic motivation, etc.). Lead with a descriptor and then one to two sentences that describe how each construct or variable is related to the specific problem. Include the type for each variable (independent, dependent, mitigating). References – Include a reference section for citations supporting all factual assertions. Provide citations for each factual assertion in each category. Submitting your Document: You will post your submission in the assignment link as a word document. Title the word document as follows: Last Name_Research Framework Outline_DDMMMYY.docx March 10, 2020 Page 16 of 22 Liberty University School of Business DBA Research Concept Guide Send an email to your instructor indicating that the submission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 4 Submitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your chair will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Once your document is reviewed by your instructor, any comments received will be collected by you in a Change Matrix document. As the comments are addressed, a brief description of the changes made will be added to the Change Matrix document for review by the instructor. Once you have made the necessary revisions, resubmit the document using the same format described above along with the Change Matrix. Send an email to your instructor indicating that the resubmission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 4 Resubmitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your instructor will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Your instructor will post a ‘1’ in Canvas once the document is approved. That will be your signal to submit the next task. March 10, 2020 Page 17 of 22 Liberty University School of Business DBA Research Concept Guide Task 5: Draft Research Concept This is a narrative assignment. You will post your submission as a word document. Use APA formatting for the word document. Your submission will include the following: Title Block  Last Name, First Name  Cognate  Research Project Track (Dissertation or Project)  Research Paradigm  Planned Research Design  Proposed Topic Table of Contents Research Concept (Level 1 Heading)  Start a new page  Introductory paragraph for the research concept Problem Statement (Level 2 Heading)  Convert the bullet point outline into a single paragraph with less than 250 words  Citations to support all factual assertions Research Questions (Level 2 Heading)  Create an introductory paragraph  List the research questions and sub-questions (if used). Use labels RQ1, RQ1a, etc.  Describe how the research questions relate to the problem statement  Describe how taken together the research questions cover all elements of the problem statement.  Summary paragraph  Citations to support all factual assertions Methodology (Level 2 Heading)      Create an introductory paragraph Discussion of Research Paradigm and how it will influence the study Discussion of Methodology and why it is appropriate for the study Summary paragraph Citations to support all factual assertions March 10, 2020 Page 18 of 22 Liberty University School of Business DBA Research Concept Guide Research Framework (Level 2 Heading)      Create an introductory paragraph Add a diagram right after the introductory paragraph showing the relationship between all the elements included in the framework and discuss the diagram throughout this section. The diagram should show the flow of information, action, and ideas that lead to outcomes. Convert the bullet point outline into a narrative discussion. Use appropriate headings. Create a summary paragraph Citations to support all factual assertions Conclusion (Level 2 Heading)   Summary of research concept Key points of research concept References (Level 1 Heading)  APA formatted reference for all citations in the research concept Submitting your Document: You will post your submission in the assignment link as a word document. Title your word document as follows: Last Name_Draft Research Concept_DDMMMYY.docx Send an email to your instructor indicating that the submission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 5 Submitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your chair will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Once your document is reviewed by your instructor, any comments received will be collected by you in a Change Matrix document. As the comments are addressed, a brief description of the changes made will be added to the Change Matrix document for review by the instructor. Once you have made the necessary revisions, resubmit the document using the same format described above along with the Change Matrix. March 10, 2020 Page 19 of 22 Liberty University School of Business DBA Research Concept Guide Send an email to your instructor indicating that the resubmission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 5 Resubmitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your instructor will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Your instructor will post a ‘1’ in Canvas once the document is approved. That will be your signal to submit the next task. March 10, 2020 Page 20 of 22 Liberty University School of Business DBA Research Concept Guide Task 6: Final Research Concept Add two Level 2 Headings following the Research Framework in your approved Research Concept Narrative from Task 5: 1) “Potential Research Location(s)” and 2) “Biblical Perspective on Research”. Update your table of contents, introductory paragraph, conclusion, and reference section as required. Potential Research Location(s)    For DBA Dissertation students (BUSI 987-990) – Develop a list of at least potential industries, markets, regions, or organizations where your research could be conducted. Explain how and why this is a good choice. Include appropriate citations for all factual assertions. Note: Do not contact any organizations to solicit their involvement in your proposed study. For DBA Case Study Project students (BUSI 887 – 890) - Develop a list of potential industries, markets, regions, or organizations where your research could be conducted. Explain how and why this is a good choice. Include appropriate citations for all factual assertions. For DBA Consulting Project students (BUSI 887 – 890) - Identify a potential organization where your research could be conducted. Explain how you might gain access to this organization as well as how and why this is a good choice. Include appropriate citations for all factual assertions. Biblical Perspective on Research     Introductory paragraph A 200 – 300 word narrative discussing the process of conducting business research from a Biblical perspective. A 200 – 300 word narrative discussing how your research in particular will fulfill this requirement. Summary paragraph Use APA current edition formatting for a word document. Note for Consulting Project or Case Study Project: Submit the Permission Request Template from Task 2 as a word document. You are not required to send this to the potential organization at this time. If you have, you can include any responses you have received to date as a pdf document. You can submit multiple documents in the same submission so load these along with the final research concept document. March 10, 2020 Page 21 of 22 Liberty University School of Business DBA Research Concept Guide Submitting your Document: You will post your submission in the assignment link as a word document. Title your word document as follows: Last Name_Final Research Concept_DDMMMYY.docx You will post your permission request and any responses received as follows: Last Name_Organizational Permission Request_DDMMMYY.docx Last Name_Organizational Permission Request Response_(1, 2, 3, etc)_DDMMMYY.pdf You can submit multiple documents in the same submission. Send an email to your instructor indicating that the submission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 6 Submitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your chair will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Once your document is reviewed by your instructor, any comments received will be collected by you in a Change Matrix document. As the comments are addressed, a brief description of the changes made will be added to the Change Matrix document for review by the instructor. Once you have made the necessary revisions, resubmit the document using the same format described above along with the Change Matrix. Send an email to your instructor indicating that the resubmission was made. Include the following in your email: Last Name, First Name Task 6 Resubmitted Course and Section (i.e. BUSI 885-B01) Your instructor will provide comments in Canvas within six days of receiving your email. Your instructor will post a ‘1’ in Canvas once the document is approved. That will be your signal to submit the next task. March 10, 2020 Page 22 of 22 Purchase answer to see full attachment

  
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