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Paper guideline and instructions:
The ability to author a well written reflection paper is a staple
undergraduate work. By mid-semester you are to read the book,
Make Your Bed: Little Things That Can Change Your Life…And
Maybe the World and craft a reflection paper using the following
guidelines.
Your paper should be written according to APA 6 guidelines and
include an abstract and cover-page with the assignment title,
your name, date, university name, school name, course number,
and professor. See figure 1 below. Your paper should be no less
than eight pages in length, double-spaced, 1-inch margins,
Times New Roman, 12-point font, and include a reference page.
There is no penalty for writing more than the required page
count. References from course textbook (Self-Leadership: The
definitive guide to personal excellence by Neck, Manz, and
Houghton) should be followed by an in-text citation. Each page
should be numbered at the center and bottom of each page. Your
cover page and reference pages do not count towards the total
page count.
William Harry McRaven is a retired United States Navy admiral
who last served as the ninth commander of the United States
Special Operations Command from August 8, 2011, to August
28, 2014. From 2015 to 2018, he was the chancellor of The
University of Texas System. Admiral McRaven is credited for
organizing and overseeing the execution of Operation Neptune
Spear, the special operations raid that led to the death of Osama
bin Laden on May 2, 2011. Osama bin Laden financed and
supported the September 11th, 2001 attacks on the World Trade
Center in New York City.McRaven later gained internet fame
during a 2014 commencement speech at The University of
Texas. Please see the link below.

Read the book, Make Your Bed: Little Things That Can Change
Your Life…And Maybe the World by retired U.S. Navy Admiral
William Harry McRaven.
Write a seven-page paper and answer the following questions.
Each section of your paper should be labeled with the
corresponding question in bold.
● Provide an abstract and synthesis of the lessons offered by
William McRaven. What were the central themes present in
this book?
● The textbook discusses how we all lead ourselves. Provide
multiple examples when William McRaven exhibits this
leadership trait. Cite McRaven’s book and page number
when providing your examples. Discuss Leadership’s
relation to Self-Leadership. Make sure to cite the textbook
when defining Leadership.
● Discuss the importance of supporting those on your team
when they are “weak.” Discuss the importance of having a
strong network of people who support you. Why is it
important to support others in general? Make sure to cite
McRaven’s book when sourcing your examples.
● Using the textbook as a reference, discuss the relationships
among age, gender, cultural differences, and
self-leadership. According to McRaven, (cite his book
here) why is it important to not judge someone only by
their appearance? By their stature? By the way they talk?
By how fast they run?
● Discuss how you personally deal with adversity? How can
you foster the attitude that McRaven mentions in yourself
and others?
● Discuss what is a sugar cookie is? Hint* It is not a
confection made with sugar, flour, butter, eggs, and vanilla.
Make sure to cite McRaven’s book when answering this
question. What does McRaven mean when he says, “If you
want to change the world get over being a sugar cookie.”
What failures have you experienced? What did you learn
from this experience?
● Discuss how the BUDS student beat the Slide for Life
Record. Make sure to cite McRaven’s book when
answering this question. How does this action relate to the
topics discussed in Chapter 5 of your textbook? Make sure
to cite the textbook when answering this question.
● Discuss McRaven’s philosophy, “Don’t back down from
the sharks?” Make sure to cite his book when answering
this question. How does this philosophy relate to the topic
of Locus of Control discussed in your textbook? Make sure
to cite the textbook and McRaven’s book when answering
this question.
● What is McRaven’s central theme in Chapter 10 of his
book? How does this theme relate to the material in
Chapter 3 of your textbook?
Grading Rubric
Provide an abstract and synthesis of the lessons offered by
William McRaven. What were the central themes present in this
book?
10%
The textbook discusses how we all lead ourselves. Provide
multiple examples when William McRaven exhibits this
leadership trait. Cite McRaven’s book and page number when
providing your examples. Discuss Leadership’s relation to
Self-Leadership. Make sure to cite the textbook when defining
Leadership.
11.25
%
Discuss the importance of supporting those on your team when
they are “weak.” Discuss the importance of having a strong
network of people who support you. Why is it important to
support others in general? Make sure to cite McRaven’s book
when sourcing your examples.
11.25
%
Using the textbook as a reference, discuss the relationships
11.25
among age, gender, cultural differences, and self-leadership.
%
According to McRaven, (cite his book here) why is it important
to not judge someone only by their appearance? By their stature?
By the way they talk? By how fast they run?
Discuss how you personally deal with adversity? How can you
foster the attitude that McRaven mentions in yourself and
others?
11.25
%
Discuss what is a sugar cookie is? Hint* It is not a confection
made with sugar, flour, butter, eggs, and vanilla. Make sure to
cite McRaven’s book when answering this question. What does
McRaven mean when he says, “If you want to change the world
get over being a sugar cookie.” What failures have you
experienced? What did you learn from this experience?
11.25
%
Discuss how the BUDS student beat the Slide for Life Record.
Make sure to cite McRaven’s book when answering this
question. How does this action relate to the topics discussed in
Chapter 5 of your textbook? Make sure to cite the textbook
when answering this question.
11.25
%
Discuss McRaven’s philosophy, “Don’t back down from the
sharks?” Make sure to cite his book when answering this
question. How does this philosophy relate to the topic of Locus
of Control discussed in your textbook? Make sure to cite the
textbook and McRaven’s book when answering this question.
11.25
%
Discuss the central theme in Chapter 10 of McRaven’s book
How does this theme relate to the material in Chapter 3 of your
textbook? Make sure to cite the textbook and McRaven’s book
when answering this question.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Self Leadership
As stated in the textbook, self leadership is essentially defined as the process of
influencing one’s self. When becoming an effective leader it is important to understand that you
must know how to lead yourself before you can properly lead other people. At the core of it all,
everyone inlduences their own actions and behavior. We see this in actions like completing and
submitting your work before a deadline, while also balancing your life outside of school. While
this subconscious action can happen in a number of ways, it doesn’t necessarily mean that
everyone is a great leader. For example, lacking adaptability can put a stain on becoming a great
self-leader because our daily lives and tasks can change at any given time.
External Leadership is a type of leadership where a hierarchy and roles are explicitly
defined. The higher you are up that ladder, the more say you have in accomplishing the end
goal. Participative leadership is the type of leadership where there are less clear positions in the
hierarchy. All work is generally collaborative and requires sooperations from all teammates. Self
leadership is the type of leadership where you guide yourself. You are responsible for setting
your own goals and accomplishing them efficiently and effectively.
The social cognitive theory is the idea that once a leader has established a way of doing
things in the workplace, their followers will acquire those social cues that will shape how they
behave and are mtoived in the workplace. Intrinsic motivation theory is the idea that you are
motivated by your personal satisfaction with your workplace and the job you are completing. As
a leadr you build both of these foundations when discovering how to self-lead.
Self-leadership is defined as the process of influencing one’s self. There are a number of
ways to lead, however, self-leadership is at the core of it all. You cannot effectively and
efficiently lead another gorup without being able to properly self-regulate. When you can
accomplish all tasks in the way you feel is best to lead, you can then acquire a group who will
look up to you as the example. If your way of sefl-leading is effective, the rest will follow with
you. While you may know what works best for you it is important to understand every person is
different and can and will accomplish your set goal in a different way. It is important as a leader
to recognize the best way to inlfeunce and motivate your team.
Patin
Chapter 2: The Context of Self-Leadership – Short Answer
There is a slight difference between the world and your world. While the world is a big
place, your choices toward positive self-leadership impact your experience of it — your world.
The notes provide a quote by Gandhi: “You must be the change you wish to see in the world”
(Mohandas Gandhi). This quote points out that while you cannot control every obstacle thrown
at you, it is your responsibility to make choices that create change in a favorable manner in your
world. One can choose who they are as a person, how they react to unfortunate circumstances,
and how they handle untimely change. If a person chooses positively, then their world will
follow that positive path as a self-leader.
Behviors that take place at a physical level are things like actions and speaking, and
behaviors that happen on a mental level are things like thinking about a problem or making
decsions. According to an article on human behavior, “our physical actions and verbal beahviors
are products of the mental processes in our mind” (Study and Exam). Therefore, one observes
and makes choices in their head, then chooses to make a physical action afterward. An example
of this would be having an idea of a new business venture, then filling out the paperwork to
obtain an LLC liscense. A number of the theories studied in this course can be classified as
external or internal behaviors, while others can be deemed as both. The Self Regulartory Theory
leans more towards physical behviors. This theory considers “pre-set standards” that one may
regulate their behavior to abide by; like avoiding outbursts in the workplace (Dr. Hatala). On the
opposing side of this, self-detemination leans more toward mental behviors. This theory
considers that people seek tasks in order “to increase their feelings of competence” after
completing them (Dr. Hatala). Self-managment falls in the middle of this spectrum while
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“[progressing in] self-regulation and managing behaviors according to set standards” (Dr.
Hatala).
The triadic reciprocal model applies to the connection between an individual, their
environment, and their behaviors. This model gives a more detailed look at how an individual
advances through the lens of the soccial cognitive theory. The Social Cognative Theory broadly
relates to how an individual learns to behave through interaction with other people. There are no
explicit commands stated, but one simply uses social cues that, in turn, shapes their behavior in
that environment. For example, a child (the individual), with their own personal experiences,
attends a new summer camp (the environment) where they learn a unique game only played at
this summer camp (behavior). In the end, that child is welcomed and becomes a part of the
routine at what once was a new environment. All of these items are a continuous process that
will help the child in the example become more socialized in their new camp environment while
also forming more new personal experiences and behviors.
Every individual is made up of their own personal socilizations and habits. In turn, they
create a unique self-leader. There are external and personal factors that shape each individual.
External factors greatly “influence and affect” your world (Dr. Hatala). While the world does
impact one’s life, they still have the power to influence their direction and ultimately achieve
their desired end goal. Personal factors include a person’s thoughts and behaviors. These
thoughts and behaviors are the driving force to make the choice to influence the world. When
the factors positively work together a great self-leader can become a good leader.
Works Cited
Hatala, John-Paul. “Ch 2 The Context of Self-Leadership.”
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“Overt and Covert Human Behavior.” Overt and Covert Human Behaviors – Meaning &
Difference, https://www.studyandexam.com/overt-covert-behavior.html.
Patin
Chapter 3: Behavior Focus Strategies – Short Answer
Negative and positive cues are physical and mental behaviors that present a negative or
positive connotation. According to an article on customer experience, negative cues include
things like bad body language, lacking eye contact, late for scheduled meet times, and lack of
engagement (Dijulius). Positive cues inclue anything that promotes self- determination and
positive emotions in your followers. For example, living up to your own high expectations will
promote a positive exchange from the individuals who are following you. According to the
lecture, “[asscoiating and surrounding] yourself with people who cut your desirable behvior” will
increase the chances and efficiency of reaching the group’s desired goal.
Self- reward and self-punishment are strategies used to push behaviros to achieve the
desired goal. Self- reward strategies are ment to be used to entice yourself or others to
accomplish assigned tasks. These rewards can be “desired physical objects, self-praising
thoughts, or pleasant images” (Hatala). Self-punishment strategies include feeling guilty or not
allowing yourself to do something because you have failed at completing a task. Self- Rewarding
strategies are more beneficial because they provide a personal tie to completing a goal. This
creates extra motivation in completing work.
Self-observation is self-explanitory. It is when you observe your own emotions and
feelings, and try to discover why they may be happening at that particular time. When observing
one’s self you must first identify the behavior you want to increase or eliminate. Next it is
important to identify other facts when having the emotion, where are you, how extreme are you
feeling that emotion, what has just happened. It helps to keep a record of these observations so
you may easily indeify a pattern. Once a pattern is established you can choose whether to avoid
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those emotions when a similar situation arises or replace them with your more favorable behviors
that you idnefied at the beginning. Self-observation helps each individual improve through
creating better habits and catching bad behviors and emotions, so you might change them before
they occur or explode.
Meriam-Webster defines purpose as “intention, something set up as an object or end to be
attained” (Merriam-Webster). Purpose creates a goal oriented individual which directly correlates
to effective self-leaders. When following the self-goal setting process, one should establish a
purpose so thye may create long ang short-term goals to attain that purpose. The long-term goals
establish where you want to be in life in some years. This could be dealing with a career or
family status. The lecture descroibes short-term goals as “immediate efforts” (Hatala). Whether
the goals are short or long-term, they should be concrete and reasonable so you may actually
attain them and fulfill your life’s purpose.
Works Cited
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DiJulius, John. “Do You Have Any Negative Cues That You Are Unaware of?” The
DiJulius Group, 21 Dec. 2021,
https://thedijuliusgroup.com/do-you-have-any-negative-cues-that-you-are-unaware-of/.
Hatala, John-Paul. “Ch 2 The Context of Self-Leadership.”
“Purpose Definition & Meaning.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster,
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/purpose.
Chapter 4: Natural Reward Focused Strategies – Short Answer
The two main areas of naturally rewarding activities are externally administered rewards
and self-adminstered incentives. Externally administered rewards are often associated with work
organizations. This type of rewards will include things like pay raises, time off, and bonuses.
Self-adminstered rewards are incentives that are built into the task. The person who is
completing the task genuinely enjoys the action of doing that task and that is the reward. These
aspects want to give you help doing the job you want to do, while also enjoying what you are
doing.
As humans, mostof us desire to find a purpose and meaning for life. This alone makes
feelings of purpose extremely important to the natural rewards dimension of self-leadership. The
text argues that one sense of finding purpose in life is by doing good for others. It then
paraphrtases Hans Seyle, and endocrinologist, in suggestin to practice “alturistic egoism.” This
idea practivces earring another love by helping them which inturn feeds the ego because you are
doing a good deed. When practicing altruistic egoism and working towards your purpose for life,
it leads you to living a happy and meaningful life.
You begin building natural rewards into life’s activities by doing what you love, then you
simply “rarely work a day in your life.” While not working sounds great there will be times
where tasks will be challenging or difficult so you find a way to implement enjoyable activities
while still accomplishing the same task.When you make work enjoyable you do better or great
work. Loving what you do will keep this cycle going leading to a fulfilling life.
Any task you complete can have strenuous or unpleasant tendencies, but if we focus on
the naturally enjoyal aspects of the job it will provide a sense of motivation to be there because it
should be leading you to your purpose. The text provides an example of a runner, she could
focus on the stress her muscles are under or she can think about the endurance she is building. It
is important to identify what natural aspects of the work you are doing you enjoy so you can
remember them when you are actually completing a task, because it will not always be easy. If
you are unable to determine anything beneficial about your work then you should probably find
something else that aligns with your ultimate purpose.
Externally administered rewards focus on things like a paycheck or bonus. Natural
rewards are things that come with doing the task. While these rewards acn easily work hand in
hand in most situations, natural rewards are most important. When you can indentify the natural
rewards of your work you can always find a reason to enjoy what you are doing, even when the
task becomes difficult or unpleasant at times. The main idea is to find work that you love so you
essentially never “work” a day in your life, you are only working toward a fulfilling, purposeful
and meaningful life.
Chapter 5: Constructive Thought Focused Strategies – Short Answer
Because every person has a unique experience in life, no other person will experience the
same of another. We select what our mind focuses on because of our desires and interests. The
book uses the example of a snow storm, a skier and a golfer would both view the impact of that
snow storm very differently. Generally speaking, the snow storm is not good nor bad, it just
depends on how it’s being interpreted. It is important that every individual realizes that while the
snow store may have postponed the golf tournament, it has not ruined the day. It is imperative
you are selective with your thoughts because they become your reality.
Positive self-talk is speaking or thinking positive things so you will over come a difficult
situation. The Little Blue Engine stated “I think I can” and she did — up and over the mountain.
The engines twin sister state “I can’t do this” and never made it to the top. The Little Blue
Engine story demonstrates that that positively talking or thinking your way through a tuff
situation will eventually result in a victory, and negative talk will most likely result in failure.
Even if your are unsure think positively. It may just be the extra boost needed to win it.
The text describes dysfunction beliefs and assumptions as “mental distortions formed on
the absis of ineffective thinking that can hinder personal effectiveness and even lead to
depression. As a self-leader it is imperative to push yoursefl to think positively. You must be
able to look past difficulty so you amy victorious in the end. If you continue to feed into
dysfunctional thinking it has a great potential to lead you to failure, or creator greater mental
barriers, like depression, a habit of overthinking, and anxiety,etc.
Mental practice is visualizing “successful completion” before you begin the task at hand.
The steps of mental practice include the following: closing your eyes; relaxing, concentrating,
and focusing; focusing on a specific challenge; talking positively to yourself; continuing to
concentrate and focus; mentally rehersing; opening your eye and praising yourself. The texts
states that your mind is powerful tool, and mental practice and its techiques help you visualize
what you know you cna already accomplish, thus making it a reality.
The text describes opportunity thinkong as, “ a pattern of thoughts that focus on the
opportunities and possibilities that situations or challenges hold.” It continues and describes
obstacle thinking as, “a focus on roadblocks and pitfalls of undertaking new ventures.”
Opportunity thinking contributes to breakthroughs and advances towards a goal, while obstacle
thinking creates a barrier and avoidance of challenges, potentially leading to failure or
incompletion. Self-leadership thrive off of opportunity thinking. A leader always needs to think
positively and thing forwards. Obstacle thinking will only provide road blocks to the end goal
while opportunity thinking will potentially create more opportunties to lead you to success. It is
importnat for self leaders to be mindful of thinking patters because that can be the difference
between their success and failure.
Chapter 6: Team Self-Leadership – Short Answer
While these terms seem like they are contratidicting, they are not. They actually can work
hand in hand with one another. Self-leadership is required when working alone or in a team.
When you focus on leading yourself you better help the team lead itself. These actions do not
differ from self-leaderhip, they just eventually contribute to the overall benefit of the team and its
collective goals. These actions only consider a broader spectrum but are extremely similar if not
the same of the actions used for self-leadership.
The key behavioral aspects of team self-leadership include team self-observation, team
-goal-setting, team cue modification, team self-rewarding and team self-punihsmet, and team
practice. Team self-observation is the effort to analyze the team’s performance and how they
push to understand any positive or negative consequences that come with their performance’s
action. Team self-goal setting is setting goals per individual that will aid in the team reaching the
collective desired goal. Team cue modification is, when performance is anayalzed, the actions
made to remove negative cues and implement positive ones. Team self-reward/punishment is
reinfocing good behviors to increase good performance from the team. Team practice is
rehearsing things the team will have to do a collefctive so it goes over smoothly — like a big
presentation. These behviors begin at the individual level but will eventually contribute to the
entire team and its goals.
The basic premise of the mental aspects of team self-leadership is enhacing thinking and
mental processes that make for better performance as a group. This is very similar to that
premise of individuals who are self-leading. The key components of the collective mental
strategies include team beliefs and assumptions, team self-talk, team mental imagery, and team
thought patterns. Team beliefs and assumptions are adjusting your dysfunctional beliefs and
assumptions that hinder your objective outcome — thinking positively. Team self-talk is the idea
that thinking positively will increase effectiveness in reaching a desired goal. Team mental
imagery is using the ability to visualize a common goal as a collective so that the team may more
easily attain that goal. Team thought patterns is the idea of developing positiving thinking
patterns so the collective is always looking for opportunities and not living in an obstacle
mindset which may result in failure.
Groupthink is defined as, “The tendency for groups to become overly conforming and
ineffective in their decision making” (Hatala). Teamthink is defined as, “Team members strike a
balance between themselves (the “me”) and the team (the “we”)” (Hatala). Essentially
groupthink in conforming to too much “we-ness” and becoming agreeable to your peers, while
teamthink is the ability to work well with your team but still knowing when to raise opposition if
you recognize another, better approach to reach the desired outcome.
Synergy is a group of people working together to accomplish a common goal. It is
important to have synergy on a team so you may reach the overarching goal effectively and
efficiently. The idea that two minds are greater than one applies here. While individuals practice
synergy they are using their own personal experiences to contribute to the group’s cause.
Synergy does not just call for conformity but for a unique perspectiv from each individual.

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