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APA format – Instructions on citations, format and guidelines indicated on the question paper. Need to prepare an excellent report with citations, references, statistical data, reviews, and measures to be implemented in accordance with the given case scenario for all parts. Answers to be justified with relevant graphs, charts and statistical data where possible. Attached the study guide, course slides and notes for additional assistance. Need to have a minimum of six citations.Since I am looking to score distinction for my assignment, seek for assistance in delivering an excellent paper. Greatly appreciate all your efforts. I will upload more files on subsequent chats. Feel free to enquire on parts where clarity is needed.

Adopted E-textbook:

Warehouse Management 3rd Edition

A complete guide to improving efficiency and minimizing costs in the modern warehouse.

Gwynne Richards, Kogan page

LOG207
Warehousing and Material Handling
Group-based Assignment
January 2021 Presentation
LOG207
Group-based Assignment
GROUP-BASED ASSIGNMENT
This assignment is worth 20% of the final mark for LOG207 Warehousing and Material
Handling.
The cut-off date for this assignment is 12 April 2021, 2355hrs.
This is a group-based assignment. You should form a group of 4 members from your seminar
group. Each group is required to upload a single report via your respective seminar group site
in Canvas. Please elect a group leader. The responsibility of the group leader is to upload the
report on behalf of the group.
It is important for each group member to contribute substantially to the final submitted work.
All group members are equally responsible for the entire submitted assignment. If you feel that
the work distribution is inequitable to either yourself or your group mates, please highlight this
to your instructor as soon as possible. Your instructor will then investigate and decide on any
action that needs to be taken. It is not necessary for all group members to be awarded the same
mark.
Note to Students:
You are to include the following particulars in your submission: Course Code, Title of the
GBA, SUSS PI No., Your Name, and Submission Date.
Grading of GBA Submissions
Marks awarded to your assignment are based on the following guidelines:
1.
80% of the marks are allocated to the content of your answers:
• The marks awarded to what your answers cover depend on the extent to which they
cover the key points that correctly and comprehensively address each question.
•
2.
The key points should be supported by evidence drawn from course materials and,
wherever relevant, from other credible sources.
20% of the marks are allocated to the presentation of your answers:
Wherever applicable, the marks awarded to how your answers are presented depend on
the extent to which your answers:
•
form a sound reasoning by developing those key points in a clear, logical and
succinct manner;
•
provide proper and adequate in-text citations and referencing to content drawn from
course materials and other credible sources;
•
strictly follow APA formatting and style guidelines, in particular for:
o in-text citations and end-of-report references;
SINGAPORE UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SUSS)
Page 2 of 4
LOG207
Group-based Assignment
o
the identification of figures and tables;
[You can find a short tutorial on the APA formatting and style guidelines here:
https://apastyle.apa.org/6th-edition-resources/basics-tutorial. Additional details
(pertaining to tables and figures) can be found here: https://is.gd/O4vDdT.]
•
use, wherever relevant, the specialised vocabulary and terminology commonly used
in discussions about the topic(s) covered by each question;
•
provide a reference or bibliography at the end of the main report;
•
include the less relevant details in an Appendix;
•
use sentence constructions that are grammatically and syntactically correct;
•
are free from spelling mistakes; present the workings, numerical formulations and
results in a logical manner that follows the APA formatting and style guidelines;
•
design and present graphs, diagrams and plots that follow the APA formatting and
style guidelines;
•
are highly original;
•
have proper formatting, which may:
o include a properly formatted cover page;
o respect the answer length/word count set out in the assignment guidelines;
o present answers in paragraphs with proper spacing and page margins;
o include page numbers and appendices, if necessary
SINGAPORE UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SUSS)
Page 3 of 4
LOG207
Group-based Assignment
Question 1
WMS has become more and more attractive for many warehouses that are operating with
manual, paper-based systems. WMS can help to improve warehouse operational efficiency,
enhance productivity, and increase asset utilisation.
(a)
You are tasked by the management of a Singapore-based 3PL service provider to look
for a warehouse management system (WMS). This 3PL’s conventional warehouse
currently stores and handles a wide range of products for its clients such as consumer
electronics, household appliances, home and office furniture and furnishings. Compile
a list of key functions that the WMS must have. Give reasons for choosing them.
(15 marks)
(b)
Shortlist three (3) WMS that can meet the needs of this particular warehouse. Review
the features of each WMS you have shortlisted based on your criteria. Recommend the
best WMS for this warehouse. Give reasons to support your recommendation.
(20 marks)
(c)
The 3PL company plans to expand its business to serve retail companies that sell a wide
range of consumer goods through their online platforms. What other considerations
should you take into account when shortlisting the WMS for this warehouse?
(15 marks)
[Your write up for Q1 should not exceed 800 words.]
Question 2
Select a company you or your teammates are familiar with or worked for. Assume that the
company is going to build a new fulfilment centre with a floor size of 60m x 120m x 11m.
(a)
Examine the warehouse layout by developing a schematic layout of this facility. You
need to estimate the areas needed for receiving and dispatch, storage space, aisle width
and other spaces.
You need not come up with the architectural plans, just a concept layout will be
sufficient indicating the main areas of the warehouse. State any assumptions used and
give reasons to support your answer.
(20 marks)
(b)
Analyse the storage system and handling equipment for this warehouse. State any
assumptions used and give reasons to support your answer.
(15 marks)
(c)
Discuss the possibility for this company to use a fully automated warehouse. State any
assumptions used. Give reasons to support your answer and any possible issues the
company may encounter.
(15 marks)
[Your write up for Q2 should not exceed 600 words.]
—- END OF ASSIGNMENT —-
SINGAPORE UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SUSS)
Page 4 of 4
LOG207 Warehousing and Material Handling
Course Introduction
Instructor Profile
Getting to Know You
Welcome to LOG207 Warehousing and Material Handling!
SU1 The Role
and Scope of
Warehouse
Management
SU2 Receiving
and Put-away,
Order Picking and
Other Processes
SU3 Information
and Innovation in
Warehouse
Operations
SU4 Warehouse
Layout, Storage
and Handling
Equipment
SU5 Warehouse
Pricing and
Performance
Management
SU6 Managing
Workplace Safety
and Health
Role of
Warehousing
in the Supply
Chain
Receiving and
Put-away
Warehouse
Management
Systems
Warehouse
Layout Design
Pricing for
Warehousing
Workplace
Safety and
Health
Warehouse
Administration
and Processes
Order Picking
and Other
Processes
Innovations in
Warehousing
Storage and
Handling
Equipment
Warehouse
Performance
Management
The
Warehouse of
the Future
Quiz#2 (2%)
Quiz#1 (2%) / TMA (18%)
Quiz#3 (2%)
GBA (20%)
PCT (6%) / Exam (50%)
2
Course Learning Outcomes
Study Unit
Course Learning Outcome
SU1 The Role and Scope of
Warehouse Management
Explain the importance of warehousing in the supply chain as
well as related warehousing tasks and processes.
SU2 Receiving and Put-away, Order
Picking and Other Processes
Apply the processes for efficient and effective warehouse
operations.
SU3 Information and Innovation in
Warehouse Operations
Review the innovations that enable efficiencies in warehouse
operations.
SU4 Warehouse Layout, Storage and
Handling Equipment
Examine the design, storage and handling considerations for
optimising warehouse operations.
SU5 Warehouse Pricing and
Performance Management
Discuss relevant costing models and key performance indicators
for warehouse performance management.
SU6 Managing Workplace Safety and
Health
Develop effective policies and procedures to manage workplace
safety and health
3
Learning Materials
Main Text
• Gwynne Richards (2018). Warehouse
Management: A Complete Guide to
Improving Efficiency and Minimizing
Costs in the Modern Warehouse, 3rd
Edition, Kogan Page.
Others
• Refer to Course Guide pp
4
Instructor Profile
•
[Please say something about yourself here]
•
[Please provide contact details]
5
Getting To Know You
Please respond when survey is active (run an online poll)…
6
Study Unit 1 – The Role and Scope of
Warehouse Management
Role of Warehousing in the Supply Chain
Warehouse Administration and Processes
Study Unit Learning Outcomes
• Explain the role of the warehouse in the supply chain.
• Recognise the current trends that affect warehouse operations.
• Describe the role of warehouse management in today’s supply chain.
• Outline the main processes within a warehouse.
8
Role of Warehousing in the
Supply Chain
The Role of the Warehouse
Current Trends Affecting Warehouse Operations
Singapore’s Warehousing Past
Source: Lo & Behold Group; Bollore Logistics
10
Transport and Storage Industry
The transportation
and storage sector
is a growing sector
and an important
pillar of the
Singapore’s
economy.
11
Warehousing and Storage Sector
Warehousing &
Storage segment
registered the
highest
profitability ratio
in transport and
storage industry.
Source: Singapore Department of Statistics
12
Gearing up for Industry 4.0
Source: Simio LLC
13
Gearing up for Industry 4.0
Big
Data
Connectivity
Real-time
analytics
Industry 4.0
Cost-effective
sensors
Computer intelligence
is spreading and
allowing more devices
to connect and
communicate, which is
perfect for warehouse
Advanced
robotics
14
Warehouse Management
What are the warehouse
operations?
How to manage a
warehouse?

What should we learn and
prepare as an individual?
15
Types of Warehouses
Finished
goods
storage
Goods-inprocess
storage
Raw
materials
storage
Consolid
ation
centres
Transshipment
centres
Cross-dock
centres
Sortation
centres
Fulfilment
centres
Reverse
logistics
centres
Public
sector
16
Activity 1: Samsung Television
Supply Chain
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)
Watch this 6-minute video clip https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KCFLJcF6LFQ
that shows how Samsung electronics goods are shipped from South Korea to retail
stores in the UK. Ponder over the following questions:
(a) What are the roles of Samsung, NYK Logistics and Argos (a brand under
Sainsbury’s) in this particular supply chain?
(b) What do you think is the role of the Northampton Warehouse operated by NYK
Logistics? What can you observe about the warehouse operations?
(c) What do you think is the role of the Argos Warehouse? What can you observe
about the warehouse operations?
(d) What lessons can I learn from this?
Why Hold Stock?
Changing market
Transport economies of scale
Production economies of scale
Quantity discounts or price fluctuations
Time and distance gap between producers and consumers
Uninterrupted production or shutdowns
Support customer service policies
19
Supply Chain Trends
E-commerce
growth
More cost-saving
Smaller electronic
products
Retailer reduce
stock
Sustainability
Port-centric
logistics
Collaboration within
supply chain
20
Activity 2: Supply Chain Trends and
Its Impact on Warehouse Operations
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)
Read the passage from the textbook Richards (2018), Chapter 1, pp 30-31. Discuss
how these supply chain trends are likely to affect warehouse operations.
Supply Chain Trends
E-commerce continues to grow
Retailers and manufacturers look for more
cost-savings
Retailers reduce their stock
Port-centric logistics become important
Electronic products getting smaller, electronic
media getting popular
Sustainability
More collaboration within the supply chain both
vertically and horizontally
Likely Impact on Warehouse Operations
Warehouse Administration and
Processes
The Role of the Warehouse Manager
Warehouse Processes
Role of Warehouse Manager
Warehouse Manager
Drive Warehouse
Operations
Drive business
continuous
improvement
Drive material
handling and
delivery
Drive safety and
health operations
Drive technology
application activities
24
Warehouse Trade-offs
Customer service versus cost versus inventory level
Throughput versus cost
Storage density versus faster pallet extraction
Manual versus automated processes
Lower
Inventory
Speed (quick response) versus accuracy versus cost
Inventory level versus stock availability
Speed versus safety
25
Challenges
Challenges
Challenges
Reduce cost
• Improve productivity
• Improve utilisations
• Evaluate outsourcing
options
Perfect order
• Improve productivity
• Increase accuracy
• Improve handling
• Increase investment
in systems
Shorter lead
time and stock
availability
• Improve processes
• Increase productivity
Multi-channel,
smaller frequent
delivery
• Improve picking
strategies
• Make more use of
technology
26
Challenges
Challenges
Challenges
Fluctuations
in demand
• Improve picking
strategies
• Make more use of
technology
Increase SKU
• Improve use of
storage and
handling
equipment
Labour cost
and
availability
• Better working
conditions, flexible
hours, training
Environmental
issues
• Manage energy
use more
efficiently
• Reduce waste in
operations
Data and
information
transfer
• WMS to transfer
data in real-time
27
Activity 3: Attracting and Retaining
Talent
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)
The 2019 Third-Party Logistics Study by C. John Langley and Infosys provides a
snapshot of the state of the 3PL market (from a US perspective). The study analysed
data from 651 respondents in North America (67%), Asia (13%) and Europe (9%).
https://www.kornferry.com/content/dam/kornferry/docs/article-migration/2019-3PL-Study.pdf
(a) What are the top 5 workforce concerns that were reported in the 2019 Third-Party
Logistics Study? See pp 13 of report.
(b) Which 5 countries are expected to face the highest wage increase per worker as
mentioned in the 2019 Third-Party Logistics Study? See pp 13 of report.
(c) See textbook Chapter 1, pp 73-75. What are the 5 reasons mentioned for staff leaving
their jobs? Any of these reasons resonate with you? Why and why not?
(d) What can companies do to attract and retain talent in the warehouse sector? Share any
initiatives you have come across in your workplace or industry.
Important Concepts
Stock Keeping
Unit
Throughput
Smallest unit used for
accounting for inventory
The total amount of
units received plus total
amount of units
dispatched in the
warehouse per unit time
Unique number which
distinguishes one
product from another
Important metric to
indicate the efficiency of
operations
30
Warehouse Activities
Challenges
Challenges
Prereceiving
Receiving
Put-away
Storage
Replenishment
31
Warehouse Activities
Picking
Valueadding
Services
Packing
Dispatch
Returns
32
Warehouse Activities
33
Activity 4: A Trip Inside a Lazada
Warehouse
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)

Watch this 2-minute video clip that shows Lazada warehouse operations in
Thailand. Lazada is a multi-national e-commerce company owned by the Alibaba
Group. Discuss the following questions
(a) What do you think is the role of this Lazada warehouse?
(b) Identify the main warehouse activities in the video clip.
(c) What types of products are moved in the warehouse?
(d) Do you think this is a low or high throughput warehouse? Why?
(e) What do you notice about the layout of the warehouse?
(f) What do you observe about the type of storage and handling equipment
used?
(g) What do you notice about the use of technology in the warehouse?
(h) What lessons can I learn from this?
Summary
•
Warehouses remain a vital link in today’s supply chain and play different
roles.
•
Current trends such as growth of e-commerce and so on can affect
warehouse operations.
•
The role of the warehouse manager are to increase customer service but
also reduce cost and inventory level, while ensuring the safety and security
of staff, equipment and stock.
•
Basic activities are common to most warehouses such as receiving, putaway, cross-docking, picking etc.
36
THANK YOU!
Q&A
LOG207 Warehousing and Material
Handling
Previous Lesson Recap
SU1 The Role
and Scope of
Warehouse
Management
SU2 Receiving
and Put-away,
Order Picking and
Other Processes
SU3 Information
and Innovation in
Warehouse
Operations
SU4 Warehouse
Layout, Storage
and Handling
Equipment
SU5 Warehouse
Pricing and
Performance
Management
SU6 Managing
Workplace Safety
and Health
Role of
Warehousing
in the Supply
Chain
Receiving and
Put-away
Warehouse
Management
Systems
Warehouse
Layout Design
Pricing for
Warehousing
Workplace
Safety and
Health
Warehouse
Administration
and Processes
Order Picking
and Other
Processes
Innovations in
Warehousing
Storage and
Handling
Equipment
Warehouse
Performance
Management
The
Warehouse of
the Future
Quiz#2 (2%)
Quiz#1 (2%) / TMA (18%)
Quiz#3 (2%)
GBA (20%)
PCT (6%) / Exam (50%)
2
Study Unit 2 – Receiving and Put-away,
Order Picking and Other Processes
Receiving and Put-away
Picking and Other Processes
Study Unit Learning Outcomes
• Show how receiving and pre-receiving processes are key to efficient
warehouse operations.
• Demonstrate efficient put-away and cross-docking operations.
• Apply efficient order picking strategies and methods to improve
warehouse productivity.
• Demonstrate the value of good practice in replenishment, value-adding
services, dispatch and support functions.
4
Receiving and Put-away
Receiving and Pre-Receiving
Put-away and Cross-docking
Pre-receiving
Specific
Labelling
Pallets
Size
&Type
Whether
Palletised
Packaging
Type
Carton
Size
&Type
Label
Position
Carton
Quantities
Transport
Delivery
6
Pre-receiving
Advance
Shipping Notice
• Detail shipment
information in
advance of
delivery
• Warehouse plan
for receiving
earlier
Dock
Scheduling
• Dock scheduling
track system
track time for
each delivery
• Match resources
to the workload
Yard
Management
• Ensure sufficient
space to park the
vehicles
• Each vehicle is
assigned to the
correct dock door
7
Receiving
Verifying
Accepting
Updating
Preparing
Produ
ct
Quant
ity
Condi
tion
Different
Inspection Rules
8
Activity 1: How Amazon Receives
Your Inventory
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)

Watch this 5-minute video clip to see how an Amazon fulfilment centre receives
inventory from inbound shipments. Amazon is a US multi-national tech company
that focuses on e-commerce, cloud computing, digital streaming and AI.
(a) Why is receiving such as important activity at the Amazon fulfilment centre?
(b) What do you observe are some of the factors that can delay the receiving process at the
fulfilment centre?
(c) What happens to items that do not meet the receiving requirements at the fulfilment
centre?
(d) What does Amazon require from its sellers before goods arrive at the fulfilment centre to
ensure that they are received quickly and accurately?

(e) How can you apply what you have I learnt into practice (e.g. to situations in your work,
study or life)?
Put-away
Warehouse
Manager
Experience
based
WMS
Information
based
•
•
•
Size, weight of palletised goods
ABC analysis of goods
Current order data
•
…
Storage
Location
• Storage
Pick
Location
• Replenishment
11
Put-away
Fixed Location
Put-away
• Pickers familiar with the locations
• Space may not be well utilized
Random Location
Put-away
• Locations are random assigned
• Maximise storage utilisation
Interleaving
• Combine put-away with retrieval
• Directed by WMS
12
Cross-docking
Dispatched
Combined
Sorted

13
Activity 2: How useful is Cross-docking
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)
Read the passage in the textbook pp 101-103. Prepare the following questions for
class discussion.
(a) When do you think is cross-docking useful?
(b) What are the advantages of cross-docking?
(c) What are the risks associated with cross-docking?
(d) What lessons can I learn? How can I apply this into practice?
Picking and Other Processes
Picking Preparation, Strategies and Methods
Replenishment, Value-Adding Services and Returns Processing
Picking
Most Costly
Labour
Intensive
Error-prone
Direct impact
on customer
service level
Picking preparation: ABC Analysis
A: Most important
• about 20% of products producing 80% of sales
B: Moderately important
• about 35% of products producing 15% of sales
C: Least important
• remaining 45% of products producing 5% of sales
17
Picking Preparation
Product value
and frequency of
sales
Volume and
frequency of
sales
Frequency of
pick
Orders
completed with
a single
product line
Number of orders
containing the
same pair of
products
18
Picking Strategies
Use of robotic or semirobotic technologies to
pick
Pick to
individual
order
Picker travel entire
warehouse to pick
one or part order
Automated
picking
Cluster
pick
Multiple orders at the
same time, sort while
picking
Strategies
Equipment moves items
to pickers, pickers stay
at same place
Goods-topicker
Similar to batch pick, but
picking is scheduled at
specific times of the day
Batch pick
Wave pick
Zone pick
Multiple orders combined
in one picklist, sort after
picking
Each picker assigned to
a zone and only picks
items in that zone
19
Activity 3: Picker-to-Goods versus
Goods-to-Picker
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)
Watch the following two video clips (about 6 minutes each) that show picking
operations at two different iHerb distribution centres (DCs). iHerb is a US-based ecommerce retailer that sells healthcare and wellness products worldwide.
Picker-to-goods system at its first automated DC in Moreno Valley, California
which opened in 2010:

Goods-to-picker system at its second automated DC in Hebron, Kentucky which
opened in 2013:

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Why is speed and accuracy so important for iHerb’s business?
What do you notice about the picking equipment and method/technology used?
What are the pros and cons of each system?
What can I learn from this? How can I apply what I have learnt?
Picking Equipment
Floor/bulk storage
Trolleys, cages,
carts, garment rails
Manual and
mechanical
handling
equipment
Stacker, Hand/powered
pallet truck, pallet jack,
manual truck
Standard and narrow aisle pallet racking
Very narrow aisle (1.6-1.8 m) pallet racking
Carton flow racking
Forklift trucks
Shelving
Low level order pickers and
towing tractors
Medium-level order
pickers
High-level order
pickers
Mobile shelving and racking
Carousels: horizontal and vertical
Vertical lift module
A-frames
22
Picking Methods
Paper pick list
Pick by label
Pick by voice
One paper
contain pick
information
A series of
labels printed
in pick order
on a sheet
Headset and a
microphone
Barcode
scanning
RFID
Pick to light /
put to light
Vision pick
A hand-held or
wearable
device to scan
the barcodes
System of RFID
readers and
tags to track
and trace
Digital display
mounted at
storage
locations
Uses headsup display to
guide the
picker
23
Replenishment
Transfer or re-supply of items from
storage location to pick location
Two Ways
• Manually
• WMS
Time is important
• Early lead to overfull and FIFO
• Late cause order shortage etc
24
Labelling
Value-adding Services
Tagging
Shop-floor
Activities
For Retailer
Bundling
Pricing
Value-adding
Services
Assembling
Postpone Final
Production
For Manufacturer
Customised
Production
Customised
Packaging
25
Dispatch
Warehouse
manager
coordinate to
ensure dispatch
complete and on
time
When
transporter
arrives, WMS
generate the
delivery order
Deduct the
inventory from
WMS
26
Return
Awareness of economic value of
reusing product
Processing of returned goods
frees up space within the
warehouse
Improve the environment
Growth of e-commerce especially
in the fashion and apparel
business
27
Activity 4: What Happens to the Stuff
You Return to Stores?
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)

Watch this clip on CBS that looks at where the goods returned by customers end up.
(a) Why do consumers return items that they have purchased?
(b) What is the extent of these returns?
(c) What happens to these returned items?
(d) What lessons can I learn? How can I apply this into practice?
Supporting Functions
Labour,
space,
equipment
management
Stock
management
Stock count
Stock and
personnel
security and
safety
management
30
Summary
• Receiving and pre-receiving are crucial processes within the
warehouse as they set up all other warehouse activities
• Put-away is basic process in the warehouse while cross-docking
increase throughput and reduce warehouse stock amount.
• There are a wide variety of picking methods and strategies that can
improve picking accuracy and efficiency.
• Other processes such as replenishment, value-adding services and
returns are also important in warehouse.
31
THANK YOU!
Q&A
LOG207 Warehousing and Material
Handling
Previous Lesson Recap
SU1 The Role
and Scope of
Warehouse
Management
SU2 Receiving
and Put-away,
Order Picking and
Other Processes
SU3 Information
and Innovation in
Warehouse
Operations
SU4 Warehouse
Layout, Storage
and Handling
Equipment
SU5 Warehouse
Pricing and
Performance
Management
SU6 Managing
Workplace Safety
and Health
Role of
Warehousing
in the Supply
Chain
Receiving and
Put-away
Warehouse
Management
Systems
Warehouse
Layout Design
Pricing for
Warehousing
Workplace
Safety and
Health
Warehouse
Administration
and Processes
Order Picking
and Other
Processes
Innovations in
Warehousing
Storage and
Handling
Equipment
Warehouse
Performance
Management
The
Warehouse of
the Future
Quiz#2 (2%)
Quiz#1 (2%) / TMA (18%)
Quiz#3 (2%)
GBA (20%)
PCT (6%) / Exam (50%)
2
Study Unit 3 – Information and
Innovation in Warehouse Operations
Warehouse Management Systems
Innovations in Warehousing
Study Unit Learning Outcomes
• Describe the considerations when planning for a WMS.
• Comment on the WMS solution that is most suitable for a company.
• Outline how data analytics can support warehouse decision-making
and improve operational efficiency.
• Recognise how technological innovations can drive improvements in
warehouse performance.
4
Warehouse Management Systems
Choosing a WMS
WMS Solutions
What’s WMS?

What is WMS?
How can WMS help in warehouse operations?
How can WMS help in the supply chain?
6
Activity 1: The Cotswold Company
and Snapfulfil WMS
Solve and Discuss in small groups (15 min)
Present and Discuss findings (10 min)
Total (25 min)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QXtU_xXE0b4.+https%3A%2F%2Fwww.yo
Read the case study in textbook Chapter 8, pp 247-248 and watch the video
(a) What role does the Cotswold Company play in the furniture supply chain? What is the
company’s value proposition to its customers?
(b) Why do you think holding stock is so important for the Cotswold Company?
(c) Before the Cotswold Company implemented the Snapfulfil WMS, how did the company
manage its warehouse operations? What levels of inventory and location accuracy of its
warehouse operations were mentioned in the video clip?
(d) Why did the Cotswold Company decide to look for a WMS? What features did the company
consider when selecting the WMS?
(e) How did implementing the Snapfulfil WMS benefit the Cotswold Company?
(f) What lessons can I learn? How can I apply this to my work, study or life?
Warehouse Management System
Controls and manages warehouse operations in
real-time
Supports real-time data transfer between the
system and warehouse personnel
Communicates with other company systems
Can be stand-alone or part of an ERP system
9
Choosing a WMS
current and
future
business
needs
strategy
calculating
the returnoninvestment
• Form a Project Team
• Analyse Current Processes
• Create a List of Key Functions
• Include Growth Plans
• List the Benefits of WMS
• Create a Short List of Vendors
• Visit Reference Sites
• Prepare a ROI Report
10
What to look out for in a WMS?
Ability to interface
with other systems
Modular and scalable
Accessible
Ease of operation
Standard system
Meets specific needs
Capable of supporting
warehouse best
practice
Reporting capabilities
11
WMS Solutions
Stand-alone WMS
• Developed by the vendor and use certain features
• Installed at the company’s premises
Cloud WMS
• Operates through SaaS
• Cloud WMS vendor hosts the software and hardware
ERP Software
• WMS as part of an overall package
• Ease of integration with all tools within the software
12
Comparison
Features
Standalone
Cloud
ERP
Cost
Upfront capital
investment
Pay per Use model
Upfront capital
investment
Features
Customized or
Standard
Best In Class
functionalities
Standard Best In Class
functionalities.
Standard Best In
Class
functionalities.
Available as separate module
Costly and challenging for
advanced interaction with
automated material handling
systems due to “Cloud”
technology
Available as
separate
module
Connectivity Available as separate
module
13
Activity 2:Finding the Right WMS for
a 3PL Company
Discuss in small groups (15 min)
Present findings (15 min)
Total (30 min)
Each group selects one of the following
WMS available in the market:
Astro WMS
Bright Warehouse
In-DEX WMS
InfoLog
Blue Yonder
Manhattan Associates
Netsuite WMS
Snapfulfil
TradeGecko WMS
Do an online search to suss out the
attributes of your chosen WMS the best you
can. Be objective. Summarise your findings
using the following table and make a brief
presentation to the class.
Innovations in Warehousing
Data Analytics for Warehousing
Wearables Devices
Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems
Robotics
Data Analytics for Warehousing
What is Data Analytics?
•
Data analytics (DA) is the process of examining data sets in order to draw conclusions
about the information they contain, increasingly with the aid of specialized systems and
software.
Source: (https://searchdatamanagement.techtarget.com/definition/data analytics)

17
Data Analytics for Warehousing
Visibility of demand
Internet of Things
Inventory location
Social Media
Better decision-making
Web data
Manufacturing
data
…
More
Data
Reduces possible supplier risks
Faster response to possible issues
How warehousing affect financial
Manage increasing complexity
18
Data Analytics for Warehousing
Customerfacing
metrics
Inventory
reports
Warehouse
overview
Efficiency
measurement
Resourcerelated
reporting
19
Activity 3:Operational Dashboard for
a WMS
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VbjrWhxRkOQ.
Watch this 2-minute video clip that shows real-time dashboard views of
warehouse operations using In-DEX BI Business Intelligence software from
Principal Logistics Technologies, UK and Ireland
(a) What information does the dashboard show for the warehouse view?
What do the colour codes mean?
(b) What technology is used to update the status of the dashboard?
(c) What information does the dashboard show for the storage location
view?
(d) How would such a dashboard help the warehouse manager?
(e) What lessons can I learn? How can I apply this to my work, study or life?
Wearable Devices
• Voice Technology
• Smart glasses
• Wrist-mounted
terminals
• Finger scanners
• Smart watches
• Powered
exoskeletons
22
Wearable Devices
Voice Technology
• Convenient
• Hands and
eyes free
• Improve
productivity
https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=Dt0r-ZYR_fA
Smart Glasses
• Navigation
• Picking
• improve
efficiency and
accuracy
https://www.youtube.co
m/watch?v=fJSDVU1JO8
Wrist-mounted Data
Terminal and Finger
Scanners
Smart watches and
Fitness Bands
• Barcode
scanning
• Real-time data
transmitting
• Real-time
information,
monitoring
• Better work
assignment
• Improve safety
https://www.youtube.c
om/watch?v=498D4sK
IQlY&ab_channel=Bar
codes%2CInc
https://www.youtube
.com/watch?v=hrLX
8Woiak8&ab_chann
el=Funk-eStudios
Exoskeletons
• Support lifting
and carrying
• Improve safety
https://www.youtube.c
om/watch?v=zLWuHo
63C8k
23
Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems
https://www.youtube.com/wa
tch?v=RxizgvVn394
Advantages
• Increased space utilisation
• Improved control
• Labour and energy savings
• Minimum supervision
• 24/7 continuous operation
• Product security
• Increased safety
• Removal of manual handling
• Ability to cope with harsh
environment
Unit Load
AS/RS
AS/RS
Mini-Load
AS/RS
https://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=RwQLGe04l14
24
Robotics
Robotic
Cells
Advantages
https://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=0SKU3B_JjxY
AGV https://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=mpKo
DskMvqs
•
•
•
•
Reduce labour costs
Improved efficiency
Increased safety
Innovation brand
images
Robotics
AMR https://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=jwu9S
X3YPSk
Drones
https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=YXW4azCU_OY
25
Activity 4:Impact of Technological
Innovation for Warehouse Operations
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)
Each group chooses one example of technological innovation that can
impact warehouse operations.
Wearables:
Voice technology
Smart glasses
Wrist-mounted gear
Smart watches/fitness bands
Exoskeletons
(AS/RS):
Unit load AS/RS
Mini-load AS/RS
Robotics:
Robotic cells
AGVs
AMRs
Drones
Summary
•
WMS can help companies control and manage warehouse operations in
real-time as well as support real-time data transfer and communication with
other systems.
•
WMS solutions may be grouped into stand-alone WMS, cloud WMS and
ERP software.
•
Data analytics can support warehouse decision-making and improve
operational efficiency
•
Innovations in wearables, automation and robotics have the potential to
improve warehouse productivity and efficiency.
28
THANK YOU!
Q&A
LOG207 Warehousing and Material
Handling
Previous Lesson Recap
SU1 The Role
and Scope of
Warehouse
Management
SU2 Receiving
and Put-away,
Order Picking and
Other Processes
SU3 Information
and Innovation in
Warehouse
Operations
SU4 Warehouse
Layout, Storage
and Handling
Equipment
SU5 Warehouse
Pricing and
Performance
Management
SU6 Managing
Workplace Safety
and Health
Role of
Warehousing
in the Supply
Chain
Receiving and
Put-away
Warehouse
Management
Systems
Warehouse
Layout Design
Pricing for
Warehousing
Workplace
Safety and
Health
Warehouse
Administration
and Processes
Order Picking
and Other
Processes
Innovations in
Warehousing
Storage and
Handling
Equipment
Warehouse
Performance
Management
The
Warehouse of
the Future
Quiz#2 (2%)
Quiz#1 (2%) / TMA (18%)
Quiz#3 (2%)
GBA (20%)
PCT (6%) / Exam (50%)
2
Study Unit 4 -Warehouse Layout,
Storage and Handling Equipment
Warehouse Layout Design
Storage and Handling Equipment
Study Unit Learning Outcomes
• Relate the considerations that influence warehouse layout design.
• Analyse the most effective warehouse layout based on available space,
requirements and budget.
• Examine the different storage systems for efficient warehouse
operations.
• Inspect the features of warehouse handling equipment.
4
Warehouse Layout Design
Warehouse Size and Layout Considerations
Space Calculations
Warehouse Size and Layout Consideration
Future
needs of
the
facility
Maximise efficiency
Size of
market(s)
served
Level and
pattern of
demand
Maximise productivity
Keeping an eye for
future growth
Customer
service
level
Office
and other
activities
Range of
products
marketed
Factors
affecting
warehouse
size
Aisle
requirements and
handling
equipment
Size of
products
Throughput rate
Storage
option
Production lead
time
6
Activity 1: Warehouse Space
Planning 101
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)

Watch this 3-minute video clip that offers guidance on how to optimise
warehouse space by Toyota Material Handling Group, a subsidiary of Toyota
Industries Corporation.
(a) Why is it important to do proper space planning in a warehouse?
(b) What are the four tips suggested by TMHG to optimise space in
a warehouse? Do they make sense? Why or why not?
(c) What lessons can I learn from this?
Goal in Warehouse Design
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reduce the amount of travel time
Reduce the labour touch points
Avoid bottlenecks
Avoid cross traffic (where feasible)
Movements take place in a logical sequence
– Storage and Staging Activities Locations
– U, I and L flow
Appropriate Storage System
Appropriate Material Handling Equipment
9
Layout Guidance
The ideal layout is single-storey as it is less expensive to
construct.
The facility should be designed to fully utilise the cubic
space.
Direct, straight-line flow of goods in and out of the
warehouse is preferred to maximise efficiency in
operations.
The warehouse should have an effective storage plan in
place.
Trade-off between aisle space and storage space.
10
Activity 2: Warehouse Layout and
Goods Flow
Discuss in small groups (15 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (25 min)

emsInternational
Watch this 1.5-minute video clip showing three types of goods flow, namely U-, Iand L-flow. I-flow is also known as through-flow.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each goods flow.
Application: Suggest the types of warehouse operation that the U-, I- and L-flow is
most suited for. Summarise your findings using the following table and share them
class.
Goods Flow
U-Flow
I-Flow
L-Flow
Advantages
Disadvantages
Types of Operation
Space Calculation: Receiving and Dispatch Areas
Assumption 1
Inbound and outbound pallet loads are single-stacked;
double stacking of pallets will reduce the floor space
needed
Pallet floor space
Assumption 2
=
Does not include working and travel space around the
pallets; they have to be factored in; depends on the
handling equipment used
Roundup No. of Loads × Hours to Unload
×
Time of Shift
No. of Pallets × Space per Pallet
13
Space Calculation: Receiving and Dispatch Areas
We receive 20 vehicles per day, 26
pallets per load, pallet size 1.2 metres
by 1.0 metres, it takes 45 mins per
load to unload and 30 mins per load
to check, we operate in an 8-hour
shift.
Pallet floor space
Roundup No. of Loads × Hours to Unload
× No. of Pallets × Space per Pallet
Time of Shift
= {round-up ((20 ×1.25) ÷8) ×(26×(1.2×1)))} = 4×31.2 = 124.8 square metres
=
14
Space Calculation: Storage Space
Total Pallet Capacity
= (No. of Width Modules x Pallets in a Module
Width) x
(No. of Length Modules x Pallets in a Module
Length) x No. of Height Modules
Module Width (W)
• Aisle Width + 2 Pallets (dimension depends on whether short- or longfacing) + Clearance between back-to-back Pallets
Module Length (L)
• Width of Upright + 3 × clearance + 2 Pallets (dimension depends on
whether short- or long-facing)
Module Height (H)
•Height of Pallet + Clearance above Pallet + Racking Beam Height
15
Storage Space
Module Width
Module Length
Module Height
16
Space Calculation: Storage Space
Example
Calculations
•
•
•
•
•
•
• Module width = 3.0 + 2 + 0.1 = 5.1
metres
• Module length = 0.12 + 0.3 + 2.4 =
2.82 metres
• Module height = (1.2 + 0.15) + 0.15 +
0.14 = 1.64 metres
• Number of width modules = 48 ÷ 5.1
=9
• Number of length modules = 120 ÷
2.82 = 42
• Number of height modules = 10 ÷
1.64 = 6
• Total pallet capacity = (9 × 2) × (42 ×
2) × 6 = 9, 072 pallets
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aisle width= 3.0 metres
Pallet size = 1.2 metres ×1.0 metres
Width of upright = 0.12 metres
Clearance (sides) = 0.10 metres
Clearance (height) = 0.15 metres
Clearance back to back pallet = 0.10
metres
Racking beam height = 0.14 metres
Height of goods = 1.20 metres
Height of pallets = 0.15 metres
Warehouse heights = 10 metres
Storage area length = 120 metres
Storage area width = 48 metres
17
Space Calculation: Aisle Width
turning
circle of
the
forklift
truck
size of
the pallet
handled
Equipment
suppliers
recommend
the minimum
aisle width for
their trucks
Handling Equipment
Depth of Pallet
on Truck
Height of
Pallet Stack
Approximate
Aisle Width (m)
Counterbalance Forklift Truck
Single-deep
3 – 4 high
3.5 – 4.0
Single-deep
4 – 7 high
2.5 – 3.0
Double-deep
4 – 6 high
3.0 – 3.5
Single-deep
4 – 8 high
1.6 – 1.8
Narrow Aisle Reach Truck
Very Narrow Aisle Turret Truck
Source: https://www.distributionpropertysolutions.com/warehouse-aisle-width/
18
Activity 3: Estimating Warehouse Space
Computation(5 min)
Poll results (5 min)
Total (10 min)
a)Calculate the pallet floor space for the
following situation:
Receiving: 30 vehicles (loads) per day
Number of pallets per load: 20
Pallet size: 1.2 m x 1.2 m
Unloading time: 30 min per load
Inspection time: 30 min per load
Time of shift: 8 hours per shift
If an additional 2.2 m2 of working space
per pallet is needed, how much floor space
is required now?
b) Calculate the total pallet capacity for the
following situation using adjustable (or selective)
pallet racking, single-deep:
Aisle width: 3.0 m
Pallet size: 1.2 m x 1.2 m
Width of upright: 0.14 m
Clearance (sides): 0.12 m
Clearance (height): 0.15 m
Clearance back to back pallets: 0.10 m
Racking beam height: 0.14 m
Height of goods: 1.2 m
Height of pallet: 0.16 m
Warehouse height: 10 m
Storage area length: 120 m
Storage area width: 50 m
Storage and Handling Equipment
Storage Options
Warehouse Handling Equipment
Storage and Handling Equipment
Speed
• The greater the need for
faster access to pallet
locations to put-away and
retrieve, the wider the aisle
width needed but at the
expense of storage density
Storage
density
• Higher storage density
systems can take more
time to put-away/retrieve
loads
• Need specialised handling
equipment and different
type of racking
Type of
operations
22
Storage Options
Block stacking
• Stacked on the
floor to maximum
safe height
• FILO
https://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=X9L5c
y5ShaA
Wide aisle stacking
Double-deep racking
Narrow / very narrow aisle
racking
Drive-in / drive-through
racking
• Each aisle serves 2
rows of single-deep
racks
• Height adjustable
• Supports FIFO
• Each aisle serves 2
rows of racks of
two-deep, one
behind the other
• FILO
• Same as
adjustable pallet
racking but with
reduced aisle width
• Supports FIFO
• Forklift drives
between uprights of
racking
• Drive-in: access on
one side
• Drive-through:
access on both
sides
https://www.youtub
e.com/watch?v=rL
sbkk0FEoI
https://www.youtub
e.com/watch?v=6C
5y8NHckco
https://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v=
E-DF_1PkozQ
https://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v=z
wiguIK0Iys
23
Storage Options
Pallet-flow racking
Push-back racking
Mobile racking
Satellite or shuttle racking
• Gravity moves the
loads from upper end
to lower end
• FIFO
• Pallet is pushed back
when another is loaded
• When unloaded, rear
pallets automatically
move to the front
• FILO
• Racks are movable on
a set of guide rails
• Supports FIFO
• Automated shuttles
move or retrieve
• Manual or automated
forklift move pallets
between levels of racks
• FILO stock rotation,
supports FIFO
https://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=TixO3Lvp-Tc
https://www.youtube.co
m/watch?v=n9qe0lexE4I
https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=5kqw9RbCuLE
https://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=TYbxHBZ8KDk
24
Handling Equipment: Influence Factors
The load
and type of
pallet
Environmental concerns
Work
environment
Type of
storage
Factors
Working
area
Type of
operation
Warehouse
dimensions
Surfaces
and
gradients
Overhead
obstructions
25
Handling Equipment: Horizontal
https://www.y
outube.com/
watch?v=Kgp
E1q9s9O0
https://www.yout
ube.com/watch?
v=oDSvper_fTo
Exoskeleton
Conveyor
Tow tractor
Powered
pallet truck
Hand pallet
truck
https://www.yout
ube.com/watch?
v=hy_4vqlWoNA
https://www.yo
utube.com/wat
ch?v=XZEkGg
Hu99M
Autonomous
mobile
robots
26
Handling Equipment: Vertical and Horizontal
https://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v=
7X06LzT4Ckc
https://www.
youtube.com
/watch?v=I9t
tvjHlczE
Reach
truck
Turret
truck
Articulated
forklift
truck
https://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v=
QwR-wem7s-Q
Counterbalance
forklift
truck
https://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v=
FIyxmI0WowY
Pallet
stacker
Sideloader
AGV
AS/RS
https://www.y
outube.com/
watch?v=4JF
r-KbMBX0
https://www.
youtube.co
m/watch?v=
IML2IyR-IlM
27
Activity 4: Sussing Out Storage and
Handling
Discuss in small groups (20 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (30 min)
Analysis: Compare the following
storage systems by completing the
table. Indicate the handling
equipment needed and stock
rotation (e.g. FIFO, FILO). Based
on the criteria of storage density,
speed, access to pallet and cost,
rate the system performance using
a 3-point scale (e.g. 1=low,
2=medium, 3=high).
What storage and handling solution
would you recommend for the following
types of warehouses? Give reasons.
– Home appliances warehouse for a
consumer electronics and furniture
retailer
– Fresh, chilled and frozen food cold
chain warehouse for a supermarket
chain
Summary
• Many factors affect warehouse size and they must be considered.
Warehouse layout can have a profound effect on the flow of goods within
the facility.
• Examine ways to estimate the receiving and dispatch areas, storage
space in terms of total pallet capacity and aisle width.
• Choice of storage system depend on type of operations and trade-off
between storage density versus speed of access.
• Factors that can affect the choice of handling equipment and the features
of handling equipment are inspected.
30
THANK YOU!
Q&A
LOG207 Warehousing and Material
Handling
Previous Lesson Recap
SU1 The Role
and Scope of
Warehouse
Management
SU2 Receiving
and Put-away,
Order Picking and
Other Processes
SU3 Information
and Innovation in
Warehouse
Operations
SU4 Warehouse
Layout, Storage
and Handling
Equipment
SU5 Warehouse
Pricing and
Performance
Management
SU6 Managing
Workplace Safety
and Health
Role of
Warehousing
in the Supply
Chain
Receiving and
Put-away
Warehouse
Management
Systems
Warehouse
Layout Design
Pricing for
Warehousing
Workplace
Safety and
Health
Warehouse
Administration
and Processes
Order Picking
and Other
Processes
Innovations in
Warehousing
Storage and
Handling
Equipment
Warehouse
Performance
Management
The
Warehouse of
the Future
Quiz#2 (2%)
Quiz#1 (2%) / TMA (18%)
Quiz#3 (2%)
GBA (20%)
PCT (6%) / Exam (50%)
2
Study Unit 5 – Warehouse Pricing and
Performance Management
Pricing for Warehousing
Warehouse Performance Management
Study Unit Learning Outcomes
• Analyse warehouse costs using different costing methods.
• Relate how a 3PL can charge for warehouse services.
• Discuss the importance of measuring warehouse performance.
• Examine warehouse performance using relevant performance
measures.
4
Pricing for Warehousing
Warehouse Costs
How To Charge for Warehouse Services?
Pricing for Warehousing
Relative average prices of industrial property across the different regions
Benchmark: Office Rental in CBD
What are the factors that may influence
warehouse costs?
Why do some e-commerce business prefer to
outsource the warehouse to a 3PL?
6
Source: https://blog.spaceship.com.sg/comparison-of-warehouse-rental-prices-in-singapore
Type of Costs
Storage costs are costs
associated with having goods
stored in the warehouse
space.
Storage
Costs
Handling costs include labour
and equipment costs.
Handling
Costs
Overhead costs include
management and
administration, sales and
marketing, and
miscellaneous costs.
Overhead
Costs
Total Warehouse
Costs
7
Type of Costs
Total Warehouse
Costs
Storage Costs
Space Costs
Rent, Building
Insurance, …
Handling Costs
Labour Costs
Fixed Costs:
Wages, …
Variable Costs:
Bonuses, …
Overhead Costs
Equipment Costs
Fixed Costs:
Rent, …
Variable Costs:
Running costs,
…
Management
and
Administration
Sales and
Marketing
Miscellaneous
Costs
Salaries,
Company cars,
…
Advertising,
Exhibitions,…
Communication
costs, Postage,
…
8
Return on Investment (ROI)
Return on Investment, ROI =
Savings from Investment − Cost of Investment
× 100
Cost of Investment
To show the value of
an investment
To compare different
investments
9
Traditional Costing vs. Activity-Based Costing (ABC)
Traditional Costing
Activity-based Costing
•Unable to accurately capture the
true costs
•Allocate overhead costs arbitrarily
•Assign resource costs based on
the activities
•Assign warehouse activity costs
based on actual consumption
10
Traditional Costing vs. Activity-Based Costing (ABC)
• Same objectives with different computation
• Traditional (Standard) Costing Accounting is still very prevalent
• Simple to implement
• Compliance to accounting guidelines
• ABC Costing is specifically for activity costing
• In an organization, many activities (as a whole) produce the
product/services (revenue stream)
• Allocation estimation is still necessary
• Activity costing is time consuming
• Need clear activity mapping and time study
• ABC is typically done at operational (departmental) level
11
Activity 1: The ABCs of Activity-Based
Costing for Logistics
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)
https://www.mhlnews.com/transportation-distribution/article/22054501/the-abcs-ofactivitybased-costing-for-logistics
Visit the Material Handling and Logistics website and read the article by Tan Miller
(2017) on activity-based costing for logistics.
(a) Figure 1 compares the channel profitability of company XYZ using traditional costing
and ABC method. What are your thoughts on this?
(b) Figure 2 shows the ABC model of XYZ’s DC operations represented by a flowchart.
What do you observe about the ABC model?
(c) What do you think are the disadvantages of using ABC?
(d) The article argues that ABC is becoming important for logistics operations in today’s
business environment. Do you agree? Why or why not?
How to Charge for Warehouse Services?
Shared-User
Warehouse
Charges
Storage
charges
Fixed charge
Rental cost per week or per
month
Handling
charges
Variable
charge
Rate per pallet/carton/item
stored per week, Rate per
square foot/cubic foot
occupied per week, Rate per
tonne stored per week, Rate
per shelf location utilised per
week
Fixed
charges
Management fee per month
Value-adding
services
Variable
charges
Rate per pallet/carton/item
in-handled, Rate per
pallet/carton/item outhandled
Fixed
charges
Lump sum for a one-off job
Variable
charges
Rate per unit basis
14
Activity 2: Charging for Storage and
Handling
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)
Suppose you work for a 3PL company that offers warehousing services. Assume the
pallet storage data in textbook Table 12.5 pp 358 applies. The warehousing agreement
with the customer is based on the following pallet storage and handling charges:
Pallet storage:
$8.50 per pallet per week
Handling – Pallet-In:
$3.00 per pallet
Handling – Pallet-Out: $3.00 per pallet
Calculate the amount to bill the customer for the following scenarios:
(a)
Scenario 1: Dedicated storage space for 220 pallets and handling
(b)
Scenario 2: Based on maximum number of pallets and handling
(c)
Scenario 3: Based on average number of pallets and handling
Warehouse Performance Management
Why Measure Performance? What To Measure?
How To Choose the Right KPIs?
Activity 3: Why Do KPIs Matter?
Discuss in small groups (15 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (25 min)

Watch the following video from Merchandise Warehouse to find out why key
performance indicators (KPIs) matter from a warehousing perspective.
(a) Why do KPIs matter to Merchandise Warehouse?
(b) What is the goal for the company? Is it only meant for senior management?
(c) What are the two main KPIs set by Merchandise Warehouse? Why do you think
they involve accuracy?
(d) According to Merchandise Warehouse, what are the 3M’s of a KPI?
(e) Do you agree with the views expressed in the video? Why or why not?
(f) What lessons can I learn from this? How can I apply this to my work, study or life?
Why Measure?
Ensure customers are satisfied through
service improvement. (Customers)
Better
manage
customers,
operations
and staff.
Ensure there is continuous
improvement within the warehouse.
(Operations)
Ensure staff are properly trained and
are rewarded for their effort. (Staff)
Discover potential problems and troubleshoot.
(Problems)
20
What to Measure?
Trade-off
Reliability
Cost
Customer
expectations
(Customer
Service)
Flexibility
Utilisation
Warehouse’s
own
resources
(Cost)
21
How to Choose the Right KPIs
Specific
Timely
Measurable
SMART
Relevant
Achievable
22
Utilisation
Labour hours used
Labour utilisation =
× 100
Labour hours available
Space used
× 100
Space available
Equipment hours used
Equipment utilisation =
× 100
Equipment hours available
Space utilisation =
Labour
Equipment
Space
23
Cost
Total warehouse cost
× 100
Total sales revenue
Total warehouse cost
Cost per unit dispatched =
Total number of units dispatched
% Cost of goods sold =
24
Labour Productivity
Lines picked
Total hours available
Units picked
Units picked per hour =
Total hours available
Lines picked per hour =
25
Time
Dock-to-stock time = time taken from arrival of vehicle at receiving dock to visibility
of stock on the system when put-away
Order cycle time
= time required to fulfil customer orders indicating how responsive the company can
satisfy demand
= Delivery date – Order date
26
Customer service
Order accuracy =
Orders picked and dispatched accurately
× 100
Total orders received
Order delivered as per customers′ request
On−time shipments =
× 100
Total order received
% On−time In−full (OTIF) rate = On−time rate × In−full rate ×100
% Pefect order rate = On−time rate × In−full rate × Damage free rate × Accurate invoicing rate× 100
27
Inventory
Stock cover in days =
Stock turn =
Current stock level
× 365
Total annual sales
Total number of units sold
Average number of units in stock
Number of correct locations
× 100
Number of locations counted
Number of correct lines counted
Stock line accuracy =
× 100
Total number of lines counted
Stock location accuracy =
Which is the
most important
one?
Stock unit accuracy =
Damaged inventory =
Actual quantity by SKU
× 100
Expected quantity by SKU
Items found damaged
× 100
Items despatched per month
28
Activity 4: Choosing the Right KPIs
Discuss in small groups (15 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (25 min)
https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/about/ac50/ac142/docs/wsa_representative.pdf
As a VMI Hub warehouse manager, you are about to enter into an agreement with
a client. Refer to the Warehousing and Logistics Agreement at the following URL
(a) Identify the KPIs to meet the client’s requirements in Exhibit A Standard
Services Scope of Work.
(b) How would you measure the KPIs?
(c) What target service levels of the KPIs would you set for your warehouse
team?
(d) Suggest other KPIs that you think are important that are not specified in
the Warehousing and Logistics Agreement.
Summary
• Warehouse managers need a comprehensive understanding of costs
associated with their warehouse operations.
• 3PLs can charge clients for warehouse services from the perspective of
shared use.
• Warehouse performance measurement matters as it allows warehouse
managers to better manage customers, operations and staff.
• SMART way of choosing the right KPIs and examined several
warehouse KPIs.
31
THANK YOU!
Q&A
LOG207 Warehousing and Material
Handling
Previous Lesson Recap
SU1 The Role
and Scope of
Warehouse
Management
SU2 Receiving
and Put-away,
Order Picking and
Other Processes
SU3 Information
and Innovation in
Warehouse
Operations
SU4 Warehouse
Layout, Storage
and Handling
Equipment
SU5 Warehouse
Pricing and
Performance
Management
SU6 Managing
Workplace Safety
and Health
Role of
Warehousing
in the Supply
Chain
Receiving and
Put-away
Warehouse
Management
Systems
Warehouse
Layout Design
Pricing for
Warehousing
Workplace
Safety and
Health
Warehouse
Administration
and Processes
Order Picking
and Other
Processes
Innovations in
Warehousing
Storage and
Handling
Equipment
Warehouse
Performance
Management
The
Warehouse of
the Future
TMA (18%)
GBA (20%)
PCT (6%) / Exam (50%)
2
Study Unit 6 – Managing Workplace
Safety and Health
Workplace Safety and Health
The Warehouse of the Future
Study Unit Learning Outcomes
• Apply effective measures to manage workplace health and safety.
• Develop policies and procedures for sustainable environment practices.
• Indicate the practice for managing services involving dangerous goods.
• Develop scenarios of the role of the warehouse in the future supply
chain.
4
Workplace Safety and Health
Workplace Safety and Health Management
Environment Protection Management
Dangerous Goods Management
Salute!
6
Workplace Safety and Health
Workers exposed to considerable risks
in warehouse
Safety and health very important

Protect workers from potential
hazards; reduce workplace accidents
7
Activity 1: WSH in Singapore’s Logistics
Industry
Discuss in small groups (10 min)
Present and Discuss findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)
https://www.mom.gov.sg/-/media/mom/documents/safety-health/reports-stats/wsh-national-statistics/wshnational-stats-2019.pdf?la=en&hash=6D52E18A099E8E83EA4F8836981F3463
Singapore’s Ministry of Manpower publishes annual statistics on workplace safety and
health for all industry sectors. Download the 2019 statistics at the following link:
(a) How did Singapore’s “transportation and storage” industry compare with other
industries in workplace fatal (Figure 3) and major (Figure 10) injuries?
(b) What were the top three causes of workplace major injuries (Table 13) in the
“logistics and transport” industry?
(c) What were the top three causes of workplace minor injuries (Table 17) in the
“logistics and transport” industry?
(d) See textbook Figure 15.1 on causes of workplace injuries in UK warehouses.
Although strictly not comparable, do you notice any common thread?
Risk Management
Review regularly
and update if
necessary
10
Warehouse Risk Categories and Measures
Vehicles
Who is responsible to
ensure warehouse health
and safety?
Manual
handling
Slips
and trips
Fire
Layout
and
Design
Working
at height
Forklift
trucks
Warehouse safety during
COVID-19 outbreak?
11
Top 10 Warehouse Safety Tips

1. Housekeeping
2. Organise warehouse
3. Fire safety
4. Focus on relevant hazards
5. Power tools
6. Conduct inspections
7. Training and PPE
8. Communicate safety policy
9. Warning signs
10. Employee involvement
12
Substantial
opportunities in
warehousing
industry to
save energy,
costs and
reduce carbon
by simple
implementation
of existing lowcost
technology
Environmental Protection Management
• Switch off
equipment
when not in
use
•…
• Reduce
excessive use
stretch-wrap on
products
•…
• Use recycled
pallets instead
of new ones
•…
Energy
usage
Packaging
Pallets
• Packaging
waste
• Product waste
• Hazardous
waste
Waste
• Recycle items
efficiently
•…
What can warehouses
do to reduce their
carbon footprint?
Equipment
disposal
14
Activity 2: Why Are These Singapore
Warehouses Green?
Discuss in small groups (15 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (25 min)
https://www.supplychaincity.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Industry-4-0-Transforming-SingaporesWarehouses.pdf
Visit the following link to download the report by JLL Singapore (2019) on Industry 4.0
Transforming Singapore’s Warehouses. JLL (short for Jones Lang La Salle Incorporated), is a
US-headquartered professional services firm specialising in real estate and operates in 80
countries. Page 8 of JLL Singapore’s report gave examples of green warehouses in Singapore.
(a) What are the names of the four warehouses stated in the report? What special award did
these buildings win?
Visit the Building and Construction Authority website to find out more about the four award
winners. Search by building name under past award winners 2017 and 2018.
See https://www1.bca.gov.sg/buildsg/bca-awards/bca-green-mark-awards
(b) Why do you think they were mentioned as examples of green warehouse?
(c) What do you notice are the green features that these warehouses have in common?
(d) What do you think are the main challenges of building a green warehouse or retrofitting
green ideas into existing warehouses?
Dangerous Goods Management
Warehouse
staff
Storage
Handling
Emergency
services
General
public
Environment
17
Nine Classes of Dangerous Goods
Hazardous chemicals (Dangerous
Goods) in the workplace are
categorised into three different types:
• Physical hazards (e.g., flammable,
explosive, and reactive);
• Health hazards (e.g., toxic,
corrosive, narcotic, irritating and
carcinogenic);
• Environmental hazards (e.g.,
aquatic toxicity and ozone depleting).
Source: atheryoun.com
18
Activity 3: What are Dangerous Goods? How to
Manage?
Discuss in small groups (10min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (20 min)

Dangerous Goods (DG) Warehouse Singapore

Visit this link to find out about dangerous goods. M&P International Freights is a
Singapore-based freight forwarding company offering services that include
container trucking, chartering, trans-shipment, pick and pack warehousing,
logistic freight services among others.
(a)
(b)
(c)
What do you understand by the term dangerous goods?
Give examples of dangerous goods imported and exported to/from Singapore.
How are dangerous goods classified in Singapore? See the following link

Dangerous Goods (DG) Shipping

(d) Are perfumery products considered dangerous goods?
(e) What is the greatest risk for a warehouse that stores dangerous goods?
(f) What are the regulations on storage of dangerous goods in Singapore?
https://www.nea.gov.sg/our-services/pollution-control/chemical-safety/hazardoussubstances/management-of-hazardous-substances
The Warehouse of the Future
Global Trends
View of the Future
Global Trends
Advances in
Technology
Ageing
population
Rise of Asia
Sustainability
Future
Supply
Chain
Coronavirus
How would these
global trends affect
the future supply
chain?
What other global
trends can you
think of?
22
What’s Next for Manufacturing and Supply Chains?
Top 3 disruptive forces
• Data is available everywhere
• Analytics and intelligence more pervasive
• Automation
How should CEOs respond to these forces?

• Think about transforming the company – start
with the business
• Think about how to scale and future-proof the
technology architecture
• Think about the organisation – people will remain
central in any transformation
23
Characteristics of the Future Supply Chain?
Information sharing
among multiple
partners
Collaborative
warehouses
Warehouses as
consol centres,
regional hubs,
shared-use facilities
3PLs to play even
greater supply chain
role
Will supply chain
collaboration at this
level be common in
the future?
24
Activity 4: What is Your View of the Future
Warehouse?
Discuss in small groups (15 min)
Present findings (10 min)
Total (25 min)
Watch the following video clips of DB Schenker’s future vision of logistics.
DB Schenker exploring the future of logistics

Next generation automation and sustainability at DB Schenker

We have come a long way from the shophouses and godowns along the Singapore River
during Singapore’s colonial past. Read the textbook pp 458-465 to find out the author’s own
views of the future warehouse. Do you agree? Why or why not? What is your own view of
how the future warehouse will look like?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Summary
•
Workplace health and safety is of paramount importance in warehouses.
•
Warehouses can reduce their carbon footprint by reducing energy usage,
reducing excessive packaging, recycling pallets, reducing waste and
disposing end-of-life equipment efficiently.
•
Import/export, transport, storage and handling of dangerous goods are
subject to stringent control and regulations.
•
Role of the warehouse in the future supply chain will continue to evolve.
27
Course Summary
SU1 Role and Scope of Warehouse Management
Role of warehouse
in supply chain
Current trends
affect warehouse
operations
Role of warehouse
managers
Basic activities in
warehouse
29
SU2 Receiving, Put-away, Order Picking and Other Processes
Receiving and prereceiving
Put-away and crossdocking
Picking methods and
picking strategies
Other processes like
replenishment and returns
30
SU3 Information and Innovation in Warehouse Operations
Information
Innovation
WMS can help
companies control and
manage warehouse
operations
Data analytics can
support warehouse
decision-making and
improve operational
efficiency
WMS solutions may be
grouped into standalone WMS, cloud
WMS and ERP
software
Wearables, automation
and robotics have the
potential to improve
warehouse productivity
and efficiency
31
SU4 Warehouse Layout, Storage and Handling Equipment
Factors
affecting
warehouse
size
Ways to
estimate
warehouse
space
Choice of
storage
system
Handling
equipment
and
features
32
SU5 Warehouse Pricing and Performance Management
Warehouse costs
How 3PL charge
clients
Why to measure
What to measure,
how to measure
33
THANK YOU!
Q&A
Course Development Team
Head of Programme
: Assoc Prof Tan Yan Weng
Course Developer(s)
: Assoc Prof Tan Yan Weng
: Dr Zhao Qitong
Contributor
: Raymond Barlis
: Francis Kwa
: Fabian Wang
Technical Writer
: Diane Quek, ETP
Video Production
: Claudia Lim, ETP
©
2021 Singapore University of Social Sciences. All rights reserved.
No part of this material may be reproduced in any form or by any means without
permission in writing from the Educational Technology & Production, Singapore
University of Social Sciences.
ISBN 978-981-48-7319-2
Educational Technology & Production
Singapore University of Social Sciences
463 Clementi Road
Singapore 599494
How to cite this Study Guide (APA):
Tan, Y. W., & Zhao, Q. (2021). LOG207 Warehousing and material handling (study guide).
Singapore University of Social Sciences.
Release V1.4
Build S1.0.5, T1.5.21
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Course Guide
1. Welcome…………………………………………………………………………………………………… CG-2
2. Course Description and Aims…………………………………………………………………. CG-3
3. Learning Outcomes…………………………………………………………………………………. CG-6
4. Learning Material……………………………………………………………………………………. CG-7
5. Assessment Overview……………………………………………………………………………. CG-14
6. Course Schedule…………………………………………………………………………………….. CG-17
7. Learning Mode………………………………………………………………………………………. CG-18
Study Unit 1: The Role and Scope of Warehouse Management
Learning Outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………. SU1-2
Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU1-3
Chapter 1: Role of Warehousing in the Supply Chain………………………………… SU1-4
Chapter 2: Warehouse Administration and Processes………………………………. SU1-12
Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SU1-19
Formative Assessment……………………………………………………………………………… SU1-20
Study Unit 2: Receiving, Put-away, Picking and Other Processes
Learning Outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………. SU2-2
Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU2-3
Chapter 3: Receiving and Put-away…………………………………………………………… SU2-4
i
Table of Contents
Chapter 4: Picking and Other Processes…………………………………………………… SU2-10
Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SU2-22
Formative Assessment……………………………………………………………………………… SU2-24
Study Unit 3: Information and Innovation in Warehouse
Operations
Learning Outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………. SU3-2
Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU3-3
Chapter 5: Warehouse Management Systems…………………………………………….. SU3-4
Chapter 6: Innovations in Warehousing……………………………………………………. SU3-11
Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SU3-23
Formative Assessment……………………………………………………………………………… SU3-24
Study Unit 4: Warehouse Layout, Storage and Handling Equipment
Learning Outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………. SU4-2
Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU4-3
Chapter 7: Warehouse Layout Design………………………………………………………… SU4-4
Chapter 8: Storage and Handling Equipment…………………………………………… SU4-12
Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SU4-25
Formative Assessment……………………………………………………………………………… SU4-26
Study Unit 5: Warehouse Pricing and Performance Management
Learning Outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………. SU5-2
Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU5-3
ii
Table of Contents
Chapter 9: Pricing for Warehousing…………………………………………………………… SU5-4
Chapter 10: Warehouse Performance Management………………………………….. SU5-13
Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SU5-19
Formative Assessment……………………………………………………………………………… SU5-20
Study Unit 6: Managing Workplace Safety and Health
Learning Outcomes……………………………………………………………………………………. SU6-2
Overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………. SU6-3
Chapter 11: Workplace Safety and Health………………………………………………….. SU6-4
Chapter 12: The Warehouse of the Future………………………………………………… SU6-15
Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………….. SU6-20
Formative Assessment……………………………………………………………………………… SU6-21
iii
Table of Contents
iv
List of Tables
List of Tables
Table 1.1 Types of Warehouses……………………………………………………………………….. SU1-6
Table 1.2 Challenges of Warehouse Management…………………………………………. SU1-14
Table 1.3 Description of Warehouse Activities……………………………………………… SU1-17
Table 2.1 Features of Picking Strategies………………………………………………………… SU2-13
Table 4.1 Aisle Width and Type of Handling Equipment……………………………… SU4-10
Table 4.2 Features of Storage Systems…………………………………………………………… SU4-14
Table 4.3 Types of Handling Equipment………………………………………………………. SU4-20
Table 5.1 Components of Total Cost of Warehouse Operations………………………. SU5-6
Table 5.2 Examples of Shared-User Warehouse Charges………………………………. SU5-10
Table 5.3 Examples of Warehouse KPIs………………………………………………………… SU5-16
Table 6.1 Examples of Warehouse Risk Management Measures……………………… SU6-7
Table 6.2 Examples of Warehouse Environmental Protection Measures………… SU6-11
v
List of Tables
vi
List of Figures
List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Main Warehouse Activities…………………………………………………………… SU1-16
Figure 3.1 Eight Steps to Select a WMS………………………………………………………….. SU3-6
Figure 4.1 Single-Deep Racking in Warehouse in Chongqing Western Logistics
Park: W = Module Width, L = Module Length, H = Module Height………………. SU4-9
Figure 5.1 Traditional Costing versus Activity-Based Costing………………………… SU5-8
Figure 6.1 Risk Management Process……………………………………………………………… SU6-6
vii
List of Figures
viii
List of Lesson Recordings
List of Lesson Recordings
Role of Warehousing in the Supply Chain……………………………………………………. SU1-11
Warehouse Administration and Processes…………………………………………………….. SU1-18
Receiving and Put-away…………………………………………………………………………………. SU2-9
Order Picking and Order Processes………………………………………………………………. SU2-21
Warehouse Management Systems…………………………………………………………………. SU3-10
Innovations in Warehousing…………………………………………………………………………. SU3-22
Warehouse Layout Design…………………………………………………………………………….. SU4-11
Storage and Handling Equipment………………………………………………………………… SU4-24
Pricing for Warehousing……………………………………………………………………………….. SU5-12
Warehouse Performance Management………………………………………………………….. SU5-18
Workplace Safety and Health……………………………………………………………………….. SU6-14
The Warehouse of the Future……………………………………………………………………….. SU6-19
ix
List of Lesson Recordings
x
Course
Guide
Warehousing and Material
Handling
LOG207
Course Guide
1. Welcome
Presenter: Dr Zhao Qitong
This streaming video requires Internet connection. Access it via Wi-Fi to
avoid incurring data charges on your personal mobile plan.
Click here to watch the video. i
Click here for the transcript.
Welcome to the course LOG207 Warehousing and Material Handling, a 5 credit unit (CU)
course.
This Study Guide will be your personal learning resource to take you through the course
learning journey. The guide is divided into two main sections – the Course Guide and
Study Units.
The Course Guide describes the structure for the entire course and provides you with an
overview of the Study Units. It serves as a roadmap of the different learning components
within the course. This Course Guide contains important information regarding the
course learning outcomes, learning materials and resources, assessment breakdown and
additional course information.
i


CG-2
LOG207
Course Guide
2. Course Description and Aims
Warehouses and fulfilment centres play an important role to support businesses on
a global scale and ensure that customer expectations are met. Warehousing facilitates
product accumulation, consolidation and customisation, improves logistics accuracy and
minimises the effects of supply chain inefficiencies. This course provides the students with
an understanding of the concepts and applications for managing warehouse operations
in the era of the digital economy. Through this exposure, students will gain insights into
how warehousing adds value to the organisation’s supply chain and how warehousing
decisions can increase efficiency and reduce costs.
Course Structure
This course is a 5-credit unit course presented over 6 weeks.
There are six Study Units in this course. The following provides an overview of each Study
Unit.
Study Unit 1 – The Role and Scope of Warehouse Management
This study unit helps you understand the role of the warehouse in the supply chain,
the different types of warehouses and why companies hold stock. We recognise the
current supply chain trends and how they may influence the way warehouses operate.
The study unit looks at the role of the warehouse manager and the challenges faced in
a changing business environment. We introduce the basic activities that are common to
most warehouses while noting that different types of warehouses may operate within very
different supply chains.
Study Unit 2 – Receiving, Put-away, Picking and Other Processes
This study unit focuses on the activities that are crucial to efficient and effective warehouse
operations. Receiving and put-away are associated with the inbound flow of goods once
they arrive at the receiving dock. Picking (or order picking), replenishment, value-adding
CG-3
LOG207
Course Guide
services and returns processing are associated with the outbound flow of goods to meet
customer needs. We investigate ways of improving the efficiency of warehouse activities
so as to improve productivity and reduce costs.
Study Unit 3 – Information and Innovation in Warehouse Operations
This study unit outlines how proper information flow and innovation in warehousing
operations can improve warehouse productivity and efficiency. We explore the use of the
warehouse management system (WMS) to control and manage product and information
flows within a warehouse, considerations when choosing a WMS and various WMS
solutions available. The study unit reviews the innovative technologies that can be applied
to the warehouse context such as data analytics, wearable devices, automation and
robotics.
Study Unit 4 – Warehouse Layout, Storage and Handling Equipment
Whether for a new, existing or re-designed facility, decisions on warehouse layout, storage
and handling equipment can affect warehouse efficiency and productivity which in turn
can impact on operational cost and level of service provided to customers. This study
unit discusses the factors that can affect warehouse size and considerations on warehouse
layout. We look at ways to estimate space requirements for receiving and dispatch, storage
and aisles. We examine different types of storage systems and handling equipment to
support warehouse operations.
Study Unit 5 – Warehouse Pricing and Performance Management
This study unit focuses on the pricing for warehouse services and performance
measurement of warehouse operations. Understanding warehouse costs can enable the
company to use the information for decision-making and can enable 3PLs to charge
appropriately for the services provided. We discuss why it is important to measure
warehouse performance and how to choose the right performance measures. Measuring
and analysing performance allow companies to better manage their stakeholders,
resulting in more successful outcomes.
CG-4
LOG207
Course Guide
Study Unit 6 – Managing Workplace Safety and Health
Warehouse personnel are exposed to considerable risks in the workplace with operations
that may involve the use of handling equipment to lift and move goods of various shapes
and sizes, some of which may be classified as dangerous goods. This study unit looks at the
importance of workplace safety and health in the warehouse. We introduce warehouse risk
management and outline several measures to mitigate warehouse risks. We explore the
environmental aspects of warehousing and management of dangerous goods. The study
unit rounds up the course by gazing at the crystal ball to see what lies ahead for the supply
chain in the long term and how global trends may shape future warehouse operations.
CG-5
LOG207
Course Guide
3. Learning Outcomes
Knowledge & Understanding (Theory Component)
By the end of this course, you should be able to:
Key Skills (Practical Component)
• Explain the importance of warehousing in the supply chain as well as related
warehousing tasks and processes.
• Discuss relevant costing models and key performance indicators for warehouse
performance management.
• Develop effective policies and procedures to manage workplace safety and health.
By the end of this course, you should be able to:
• Apply the processes for efficient and effective warehouse operations.
• Review the innovations that enable efficiencies in warehouse operations.
• Examine the design, storage and handling considerations for optimising warehouse
operations.
CG-6
LOG207
Course Guide
4. Learning Material
The following is a list of the required learning materials to complete this course.
Required Textbook(s)
Richards, G. (2018). Warehouse management: A complete guide to improving efficiency and
minimizing costs in the modern warehouse (3rd ed.). Kogan Page.
Other recommended study material (Optional)
The following learning resources may be required to complete the learning activities:
Study Unit 1
Langley, C. J., & Infosys. (2019). 2019 23rd Annual third-tarty logistics study. https://
www.kornferry.com/content/dam/kornferry/docs/article-migration/2019-3PLStudy.pdf
Lazada University. (2017 Jan 23). A trip in Lazada warehouse [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_CncNjBSic
Richards, G. (2017 Aug 24). Samsung television supply chain [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=KCFLJcF6LFQ
Skills Framework for logistics. (2017). https://www.skillsfuture.sg/skills-framework/
logistics
Study Unit 2
CBS This Morning. (2019, Mar 18). Tracking returns: Inside a Texas warehouse, the land of
buyer’s remorse [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=txaQzq0k7s4
Datex Corporation. (2015 Apr 9). Cross-docking 101: The basics of cross-docking [Video].

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LOG207
Course Guide
FulfillmentbyAmazon. (2013 Dec 23). How Amazon receives your inventory [Video].

Richards, G. (2017 Aug 24). Picker-to-Goods [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=CO4thqctbFY
Study Unit 3
Business Insider. (2017, Sep 20). Inside Alibaba’s smart warehouse staffed by robots [Video].

CGTN. (2017, Nov 11). Watch an army of robots efficiently sorting hundreds of parcels per
hour [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jwu9SX3YPSk
Copal Handling Systems. (2020, Sep 10). Fully autonomous container unloading and
palletizing [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0bztQg0-N1E
CNET. (2019, Dec 10). Guardian XO is a powered exoskeleton that makes you 20X stronger
[Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zLWuHo63C8k
DHL. (2018, Sep 17). DHL supply chain robotic picking cell [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=0SKU3B_JjxY
Delkor Systems Inc.. (2018, Jan 12). Robotic palletizer: Efficient palletizing equipment
[Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nq09MyNsWXw
Gwynne Richards. (2017, Aug 24). Cimcorp 3D Shuttle for automated storage and retrieval
[Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fp3AonVS04g
Gwynne Richards. (2017, Aug 24). SAP Vision and voice warehouse system [Video].

Gwynne Richards. (2017, Aug 24). Voice pick video at Americold [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dt0r-ZYR_fA
HEC Science & Technology. (2018, Apr 6). Indoor drones for warehouse inventory and facility
inspection [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YXW4azCU_OY
LGI Simulations. (2012, Feb 27). Unit load ASRS [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=RxizgvVn394
CG-8
LOG207
Course Guide
Mark, P. (2016). How to use analytics for better warehouse operations. https://
www.linkedin.com/pulse/how-use-analytics-better-warehouse-operationsmark-perkins
Principal Logistics Technologies UK Ireland. (2018, Oct 11). UK & Ireland 3PL supply
chain WMS Warehouse Management Software BI Business Intelligence Operational
[Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VbjrWhxRkOQ
SSI SCHAEFER Group. (2019, Apr 17). Automated guided vehicles: Smart, intelligent, flexible
[Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mpKoDskMvqs
STL Corporate. (2019, Aug 28). Exoskeletons in a logistics warehouse [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=6DlTRft44nU
Shane, S. (2016, 30th November). Five reports that should be on your WMS dashboard.
https://www.explorewms.com/five-reports-that-should-be-on-your-wmsdashboard
SnapFulfil. (2016, Mar 1). The Cotswold Company casesStudy – SnapFulfil Warehouse
Management System [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QXtU_xXE0b4
Swisslog. (2019, Feb 22). Swisslog ItemPiQ: Efficient robot-based automated item picking for
order fulfillment [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMsgnTq6C_s
Swisslog. (2017, Oct 18). Yusen Logistics, Singapore (Swisslog reference) English [Video].

Study Unit 4
REB Storage Systems International. (2016, Apr 29). Warehouse layout & product flow
options | Total warehouse tutorials with REB [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=0OeStxbzKsM&t=1s
Toyota Forklift. (2015, Sep 11). Toyota material handling | Warehouse space planning 101
[Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_NqsxCJ0vRo
CG-9
LOG207
Course Guide
Handling Equipment
CrownEquipment. (2011, Jan 17). Crown RM 6000 reach truck [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=7X06LzT4Ckc
CrownEquipment. (2016, Jan 18). Crown SC 6000 series counterbalance forklift [Video].

Gwynne Richards. (2017, Aug 24). Articulated FLT from Translift Bendi [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwR-wem7s-Q
Herc Rentals. (2018, Jan 3). Toyota walkie stacker | #HercAtWork [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=FIyxmI0WowY
Honeywell Intelligrated. (2018, Oct 4). Conveyor and sortation systems for distribution center
operations [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KgpE1q9s9O0
Jungheinrich AG. (2014, Nov 4). Jungheinrich EZS C40. Tow tractor for internal and external
operations [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDSvper_fTo
Linde Material Handling Australia. (2015, Aug 25). Linde K series turret trucks in narrow
aisles [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I9ttvjHlczE
MSEFLEXOPS. (2012, Dec 18). FLEX-OPS® on side-loader forklift trucks [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=IML2IyR-IlM
Uline. (2019, Aug 27). Battery powered pallet truck [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=hy_4vqlWoNA
Uline. (2015, Jul 8). Uline pallet trucks [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=XZEkGgHu99M
Storage Option
Distribution Property Solutions. (2015, Jan 7). PushBack warehouse racking storage 888-349-2735 [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9qe0lexE4I
Jay Storage Solutions. (2019, Jan 4). Mobile pallet racking – Jay Storage Solutions Pvt Ltd
[Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5kqw9RbCuLE
CG-10
LOG207
Course Guide
JianHan Law. (2018, Feb 1). Block stacking of empty bottles in Pallet 2/3 [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9L5cy5ShaA
LinkMisr International. (2016, Jan 14). Wide aisle storage system [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=rLsbkk0FEoI
Mariska Regina. (2015, Oct 30). Double deep pallet rack [WESTAR] [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=6C5y8NHckco
Om7 Angola – Soluções de Armazenagem. (2015, Jan 6). Pallet flow racking [Video].

Provost Racking. (2016, Jun 23). Drive-in / Drive-through storage [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwiguIK0Iys
RidgURakVideo. (2018, May 23). Virtual showroom: Very narrow aisle rack [Video].

TSPG _Total Solution Provider Group. (2013, Mar 16). Shuttle & satelite storage rack system
[Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYbxHBZ8KDk
Study Unit 5
Gríful-Miquela, C. (2001). Activity-based costing methodology for third-party
logistics companies. In International Advances in Economic Research (Vol. 7, pp.
133-146). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227045759_Activitybased_costing_methodology_for_third-party_logistics_companies
Izaak & Brandon – Success Creation. (2019, Jan 6). Getting a warehouse – What’s the reality?
Costs, tips, tricks [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zYzvpY__yyw
Merchandise Warehouse. (2016, Jun 2). KPI’s [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=q61BoEMgbZI
Miller, T. (Aug 15th, 2017). The ABCs of activity-based costing for logistics. Material
Handling and Logistics. https://www.mhlnews.com/transportationdistribution/article/22054501/the-abcs-of-activitybased-costing-for-logistics
CG-11
LOG207
Course Guide
Warehousing and logistics agreement for Cisco Global Hubs (n.d.).
https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/about/ac50/ac142/docs/
wsa_representative.pdf
Study Unit 6
CNA. (2019, Jul 19). Total workplace safety and health scheme to help Singapore companies
address safety gaps [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVnFWT1jkeQ
DB Schenker. (2015, Jun 8). Environmental protection at DB Schenker [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pu-FZisfE4Q
DHL. (2018, Nov 30). DPDHL’s environmental protection program: GoGreen aims for zero
emissions by 2050 [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gzc4Bc3A_lo
DHL. (2018, Mar 21). Wireless sensors for a safer work environment at DHL supply chain
Singapore [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wUWw3Hqt1aQ
JLL. (2019). Industry 4.0: Transforming Singapore’s warehouses. JLL. https://
www.supplychaincity.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Industry-4-0Transforming-Singapores-Warehouses.pdf
M&P International Freights. (n.d.). Dangerous Goods (DG) Warehouse Singapore. M&P
International Freights. https://www.mp.com.sg/dg-warehouse-singapore/
National Environment Agency. (n.d.). Management of hazardous substances. National
Environment Agency. https://www.nea.gov.sg/our-services/pollution-control/
chemical-safety/hazardous-substances/management-of-hazardous-substances
Ministry of Manpower. (2020). Workplace safety and health report 2019. Ministry of
Manpower. https://www.mom.gov.sg/-/media/mom/documents/safetyhealth/reports-stats/wsh-national-statistics/wsh-national-stats-2019.pdf?
la=en&hash=6D52E18A099E8E83EA4F8836981F3463
The Mold Insider. (2017, Aug 29). Top 10 warehouse safety tips [Video]. https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=WHQlylzS1rc
CG-12
LOG207
Course Guide
Website(s):
1.
https://www.skillsfuture.sg/
2.
https://www.mom.gov.sg/
3.
https://www.nea.gov.sg/
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Course Guide
5. Assessment Overview
The overall assessment weighting for this course is as follows:
Evening Classes
Assessment
Assignment 1
Description
Weight Allocation
Pre-Course Quiz 01
2%
Pre-Class Quiz 01
2%
Pre-Class Quiz 02
2%
Assignment 2
Tutor-Marked Assignment
18%
Assignment 3
Group-Based Assignment
20%
Class Participation
Participation during
6%
seminars
Examination
Written Examination
TOTAL
50%
100%
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LOG207
Course Guide
Day Classes
Assessment
Assignment 1
Description
Weight Allocation
Pre-Course Quiz 01
2%
Pre-Course Quiz 02
2%
Pre-Course Quiz 03
2%
Assignment 2
Tutor-Marked Assignment
18%
Assignment 3
Group-Based Assignment
20%
Class Participation
Participation during
6%
seminars
Examination
Written Examination
TOTAL
50%
100%
The following section provides important information regarding Assessments.
Continuous Assessment:
There will be continuous assessment in the form of quizzes, class participation, one tutormarked assignment and one group-based assignment. In total, this continuous assessment
will constitute 50 percent of overall student assessment for this course. The continuous
assessments are compulsory and are non-substitutable. These assignments will test the
ability to comprehend, apply and analyse concepts and scenarios related to warehouse
management. It is imperative that you read through your assignment questions and
submission instructions before embarking on your assignments.
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Course Guide
Examination:
The final (2-hour) written exam will constitute the other 50 percent of overall student
assessment and will further test the ability to comprehend, apply and analyse concepts
and scenarios related to transport management. All topics covered in the course outline
will be examinable. To prepare for the exam, you are advised to review Past Year Exam
Papers available on Learning Management System.
Passing Mark:
To successfully pass the course, you must obtain at least a mark of 40 percent for the
overall continuous assessment and also at least a mark of 40 percent for the final exam. For
detailed information on the Course grading policy, please refer to The Student Handbook
(‘Award of Grades’ section under Assessment and Examination Regulations). The Student
Handbook is available from the Student Portal.
Non-graded Learning Activities:
Activities for the purpose of self-learning are present in each study unit. These learning
activities are meant to enable you to assess your understanding and achievement of the
learning outcomes. The type of activities can be in the form of Formative Assessment,
Quiz, Review Questions, Application-Based Questions or similar. You are expected to
complete the suggested activities either independently and/or in groups.
CG-16
LOG207
Course Guide
6. Course Schedule
To help monitor your study progress, you should pay special attention to your
Course Schedule. It contains study unit related activities including Assignments, Selfassessments, and Examinations. Please refer to the Course Timetable in the Student Portal
for the updated Course Schedule.
Note: You should always make it a point to check the Student Portal for any
announcements and latest updates.
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LOG207
Course Guide
7. Learning Mode
The learning process for this course is structured along the following lines of learning:
a.
Self-study guided by the study guide units. Independent study will require at
least three (3) hours per week.
b.
Working on assignments, either individually or in groups.
c.
Classroom Seminar sessions (3 hours each session, 6 sessions in total).
iStudyGuide
You may be viewing the iStudyGuide version, which is the mobile version of the
Study Guide. The iStudyGuide is developed to enhance your learning experience with
interactive learning activities and engaging multimedia. Depending on the reader you are
using to view the iStudyGuide, you will be able to personalise your learning with digital
bookmarks, note-taking and highlight sections of the guide.
Interaction with Instructor and Fellow Students
Although flexible learning – learning at your own pace, space and time – is a hallmark
at SUSS, you are encouraged to engage your instructor and fellow students in online
discussion forums. Sharing of ideas through meaningful debates will help broaden your
learning and crystallise your thinking.
Academic Integrity
As a student of SUSS, it is expected that you adhere to the academic standards stipulated
in The Student Handbook, which contains important information regarding academic
policies, academic integrity and course administration. It is necessary that you read and
understand the information stipulated in the Student Handbook, prior to embarking on
the course.
CG-18
Study
Unit
1
The Role and Scope of Warehouse
Management
LOG207
The Role and Scope of Warehouse Management
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this unit, you should be able to:
1.
Explain the role of the warehouse in the supply chain.
2.
Recognise the current trends that affect warehouse operations.
3.
Describe the role of warehouse management in today’s supply chain.
4.
Outline the main activities within a warehouse.
SU1-2
LOG207
The Role and Scope of Warehouse Management
Overview
This study unit provides the context for understanding the role of the warehouse, the
warehouse manager and warehouse processes in today’s supply chain.
Chapter 1 explains the role of the warehouse in the supply chain, the different types of
warehouses and the reasons why companies hold stock. We recognise the current trends
in today’s supply chain and how they affect warehouse operations. Of particular interest
is how e-commerce has changed the warehousing landscape.
Chapter 2 focuses on the role of warehouse management in today’s supply chain and
the challenges that warehouse managers face in a changing business environment. We
introduce the common activities within the warehouse while noting that there are different
types of warehouses that operate within very different supply chains.
SU1-3
LOG207
The Role and Scope of Warehouse Management
Chapter 1: Role of Warehousing in the Supply Chain
Singapore’s Warehousing Past
The humble beginnings of the shophouses and warehouses (or ‘godowns’ as they
were known) along the Singapore River played an important role in Singapore’s early
development. Sir Stamford Raffles (1781-1826) envisioned Singapore as the centre for
entrepot (or transhipment) trade between China and India. The sheltered waters of
the Singapore River made it the natural location for trade to be carried out.
In the late 19th century, development along the river spread upstream and the tidal
swamps were reclaimed. By early 20th century, warehouses were built at Robertson
Quay, Havelock Road and up to Jiak Kim Street, named after well-known people
during the then British Empire.

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