+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com

Discussion Question # 4:  Rome’s Three Heirs


Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd 1911 edition

, Public Domain)

In Chapters 7:     Rome’s three heirs were:  the Byzantine Empire (that is the surviving eastern half of the Roman Empire), the Carolingian Empire (a new polity in the west), and Islamic World.   Write a paragraph on what you think was the most important legacy of these three societies in the early Middle Ages. (3 paragraphs)  Make sure you give specific details

Discussion Question #5:  The Crusades!

Credit:  illustration of

William of Tyre (Links to an external site.)


Histoire d’Outremer

, 1337, Public Domian

In Chapter 8:    In your opinion, what were the three biggest impacts of the Crusades on the West?  Make sure you give specific details!

Discussion Question #6: The Black Death!

Public Domain Illumination

In Chapters 10 and 11:  In your opinion, what were the most important effects of the plague (you may consider short and/or long-term impacts).


This is the book okay https://digital.wwnorton.com/109169


never mind I got it thank you I will send the replies okay discussion 4 Amara:The Byzantine Empire’s legacy was blending Christian religious beliefs with Greek science, philosophy, arts, and literature. Additionally, they developed engineering and law, reforming and formalizing Roman law and creating a Byzantine legal system that would last for centuries and influence the contemporary conception of the state. Although these were the Byzantine civilization’s most significant contributions, this does not imply that these activities are less than; on the contrary, they both impacted their society and a large portion of our culture. Without them, we would never have had all the knowledge we have now.The Carolingians empire owes most of its evolution to its 2nd LKing Charlemagne. After his father’s death, he took over and started to help the Carolingian empire with improvements to its education and religion by bringing Europe out of turmoil. Its legacy was creating stability in Europe and a strong education system. While the Carolingians sought to restore the glory of antiquity, they are also remembered today for working to establish the states that would become France and Germany, which is also a type of legacy. The final empire is the Islamic empire, and in my opinion, this empire left the most impactful legacy. The Islamic Empire made essential contributions to art, philosophy, science, medicine, and mathematics. From 790 until 1258 BCE, a period known as the Islamic Golden Age existed; during this period, the Islamic empire provided one of the pillars of our current thought of medicine. Muslim physicians added to Greek and Indian medical theories by studying their writings. All the significant cities had hospitals, which was a great improvement from what they previously had, a low number of hospitals and medical centers. Islamic medicine created substantial medical advancements, such as a surgical method to remove cataracts from the eyes. Much of what we now know came from the Islamic empire. That is why I believe its legacy Is the most important.


discussion 5 Amara Western Europe did not have much medical care for its citizens, with very few hospitals and care provided by untrained religious workers. In the middle east, there were more advanced medical systems and knowledge. The Crusaders were exposed to this while they were there. They then brought this knowledge back to the West with them when they returned. As a result, the crusaders built and established hospitals. In the majority of the Middle East’s main cities, there were one or more hospitals, which was a significant improvement from what they had before. One of the largest effects of the crusades on the West was that the staff of these hospitals was made up entirely of paid medical professionals who may come from any faith; hence, the doctors could be Muslim, Christian, or Jewish. A second impact of the Crusades was their impact on trade which was their second-largest effect on the West. Due to the thousands of Europeans trek to the Holy Land, new supply routes were required to feed and arm the crusaders. As a result, the towns and cities along the path to the Holy Land increased in size and included numerous stores and markets. Additionally, Italian port cities expanded and became more prosperous as traders tried to supply the demands of crusaders who were on the move.The crusades’ impact on the function of feudalism in Europeans’ daily lives was their third important legacy. Feudalism was a widespread system of administration in medieval Europe that entailed an extraordinarily rigid and hierarchical social structure. It was a common type of administration in European culture from the ninth century to the fifteenth century, when a single king ruled the entire country with absolute power. A king would rule the country while the rest of the populace was constrained by a hierarchical system that divided people into classes based on where they were born.


discussion 6 Nate There were so many huge effects the Black Death had on the world. One of them would definitely be the psychological effects. I’m sure we all went a little stir-crazy over COVID-19 quarantining, and imagining going through something like that without modern medicine and technology seems like a nightmare. Abandoning your family, shutting off from the world, and frantically leaving cities were just some of what people were doing to get away from the plague. Another huge effect the plague on the world is the death toll, with estimates of 75 million people dead in a world that held less than 500 million at the time. That is almost one fifth of the entire world population gone, with England in particular not reaching its pre-Black Death population until the beginning of the sixteenth century. The entire world had essentially been depopulated, with no certain cause to blame for this horrific event.A final effect the Black death had on the world is the rise of Anti-Semitism. Not only did the plague itself kill many people, but because of growing Anti-Semitism and blame on Jews for the plague, thousands of Jewish people were murdered, with entire villages being burned to the ground by crazed masses searching for someone to blame, eventually culminating with two thousand Jews dead in Strasbourg, France and multiple villages killed.

error: Content is protected !!