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Assignment Instructions for writing your Discussion Post:
In this discussion, you are reflecting on the mental health piece of school
psychology practices. Please open the other two attachments I have uploaded
for you which are titled “Attachment #1” and “Attachment # 2”.
I have uploaded PowerPoint slides on Mental Health (titled Attachment #1)
and PowerPoint slides on Academic Skills (titled Attachment #2). There are
several videos in the PowerPoint slides for both the Mental Health slides and
the Academic slides. Make sure you watch the videos (or as many as you are
able, as some may stir up an emotional response, and I want you to be
mindful of that as you go through the videos) and then go through some of
the discussion prompts/vignettes that are pointed out in the slides, as well as
consider the problem solving process; your reaction to these,
thoughts/emotions provoked, previous experiences are all areas you can use
as discussion points for this discussion. Note, the problem solving process
can be used for both academic and behavioral difficulties that a child is
facing.
Your discussion post should be a minimum of 500 words.
MENTAL HEALTH AND BEHAVIOR:
A SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGIST’S ROLE
SONG ET AL., CHAPTER 7
MERRELL ET AL., CHAPTER 10
JACOB ET AL., CHAPTER 7
RTI AND PBIS
• RTI A FRAMEWORK FOR ACADEMICS AND BEHAVIOR
• PBS (PBIS) CAN STAND ALONE OR UNDER RTI
• RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
• ADDRESSES THE HARM DONE, TEACHES PROSOCIAL SKILLS, KEEPS STUDENT
INTEGRATED IN THE COMMUNITY
• POSITIVE BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS AND SUPPORTS
WELLNESS AND PREVENTION- MTSS
• WELLNESS AND PREVENTION THROUGH THIS FRAMEWORK
• ECOLOGICAL CONTEXT
• P. 126 IN SONG ET AL, 2019
• POPULATION-BASED SERVICES
• PUBLIC HEALTH MODEL- PREVENTION
• HTTPS://WWW.SAMHSA.GOV/
• SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL LEARNING, RESILIENCE, TRAUMA, SUICIDE
• ESSA (2015) ENCOURAGES MENTAL HEALTH ACCESS IN SCHOOLS
CONSENT
• NOT NECESSARY IF IN THE SCOPE OF CLASSROOM INTERVENTION AND UNDER THE
AUTHORITY OF THE TEACHER
• NOT NECESSARY FOR RECORD REVIEW, OBSERVATIONS, ASSIST IN INTERVENTION
DEVELOPMENT/MONITORING, OR SCREENINGS WHEN PART OF A GENERAL
PROGRAM OF INSTRUCTION
• NOT NECESSARY IN RTI PROCESS
• NEEDED WHEN ACTIVITIES ARE ONGOING OR EXTENSIVE, AND/OR WHEN THEY
MIGHT AFFECT PRIVACY RIGHTS
• NEEDED IF RTI IS BEING USED AS PART OF A SPECIAL EDUCATION EVALUATION
• NEEDED WHEN CONDUCTING EVALUATIONS OR SUBSTANTIALLY AFFECTING SERVICES,
LOCATION, DURATION, FREQUENCY
• PROCEDURAL SAFEGUARDS
CONSIDERATIONS: BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS
• USING SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES BASED ON LEARNING/BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES FOR THE
PURPOSE OF CHANGING THE BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS
• GOAL OF INTERVENTION MUST BE IN THE BEST INTEREST OF THE CHILD (ADAPTIVE)
• SELECT INTERVENTIONS BASED ON FUNCTION OF BEHAVIOR (FBA) WITH
DEMONSTRATED EFFECTIVENESS
• DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT*
• EXTINCTION
• REMOVAL OF DESIRABLE STIMULI OR AVERSIVE PROCEDURES
• CANNOT DEPRIVE CHILDREN OF THEIR BASIC NEEDS
TIME-OUT
• REMOVAL OF DESIRABLE STIMULI
• MONITOR STUDENT IN A NON-LOCKED SETTING
• VARYING DEGREES OF REMOVAL
• NONEXCLUSION- REMOVE REINFORCING SITUATION BUT STILL TAKE PART IN AND/OR SEE
WHAT IS GOING ON
• EXCLUSION- REMOVE FROM REINFORCING SITUATION BUT NOT FROM THE ROOM
• ISOLATION- REMOVE FROM REINFORCING SITUATION TO A SEPARATE AREA/ROOM
• MUST CONSIDER SAFETY OF CHILD IN THE TIME-OUT SETTING
RESTRAINT AND SECLUSION
• HTTPS://YOUTU.BE/PD4U0MQL2UI
• AS AN ABSOLUTE LAST RESORT DUE TO SERIOUS SAFETY ISSUES
• NOTE CHILDREN HAVE DIED OR BEEN INJURED
• SCHOOLS MUST HAVE AN ESI PLAN MADE AVAILABLE TO PARENTS, PUBLIC, AND AS
PART OF STATE REPORTING PROCEDURES
• SEPARATE/POTENTIALLY LOCKED ROOM
• MUST BE ABLE TO MONITOR CHILD AT ALL TIMES
• MUST INFORM PARENTS OF ITS USE
• EMERGENCY SAFETY INTERVENTION (ESI) REPORTING GUIDE:
HTTPS://WWW.KSDE.ORG/PORTALS/0/ECSETS/ESI/ESI-REPORTINGGUIDANCE.PDF
COUNSELING
• MUST HAVE CONSENT FOR ONGOING SERVICES
• NOT NECESSARY IN AN EMERGENCY SITUATION OR IN DETERMINING NEED FOR
COUNSELING (SELF-REFERRAL) AS PART OF DETERMINING SAFETY
• MUST DISCUSS WITH THE CHILD AND PARENTS THE LIMITATIONS OF CONSENT AND
COUNSELING TOPICS
• IF HARMING SELF, OTHERS ARE HARMING THEM, OR PLAN TO HARM OTHERS
• ONLY OPERATE UNDER THE SCOPE OF PRACTICE FOR WHICH YOU ARE COMPETENT
• ISSUES OF SEXUAL HEALTH/BIRTH CONTROL NEED TO KNOW YOUR SCHOOL POLICY
• HTTP://WWW.GUTTMACHER.ORG
COUNSELING
• SCHOOL PERSONNEL ARE MANDATED REPORTERS
• HTTP://WWW.KSLEGISLATURE.ORG/LI_2012/B2011_12/STATUTE/038_000_0000_C
HAPTER/038_022_0000_ARTICLE/038_022_0023_SECTION/038_022_0023_K/
STATE DOCUMENT
• GUIDE TO REPORTING
• HTTP://WWW.DCF.KS.GOV/SERVICES/PPS/DOCUMENTS/GUIDETOREPORTINGABUSEAND
NEGLECT.PDF
• REMEMBER DUTY TO PROTECT
COUNSELING
• PRACTICE DISCUSSING THE LIMITS OF CONFIDENTIALITY WITH AN
ELEMENTARY AGE CHILD, A HIGH SCHOOL CHILD, AND A PARENT…
THREAT ASSESSMENT
• 1 IN 5 STUDENTS BULLIED ON SCHOOL PROPERTY AND 15% EXPERIENCE CYBERBULLYING
• MAY INVOLVE AN EFFORT BETWEEN SCHOOL OFFICIALS AND POLICE, CONTACT PARENTS
• CONSIDER PAST VIOLENT ACTS AND WHAT CAUSED THEM
• PROTECTIVE FACTORS TO PREVENT VIOLENCE
• MEANS TO COMMIT A VIOLENT ACT (MAKING A THREAT VS POSING A THREAT)
• QUESTIONS:
• IS THERE A PLAN? VIOLENT INTEREST?
• PRECIPITATING BEHAVIORS? MEANS TO COMMIT ACT?
• CAPACITY BOTH PHYSICAL/MENTAL? LIFE FACTORS THAT MAY CONTRIBUTE TO LIKELIHOOD?
• HTTPS://YOUTU.BE/SLKQVDRWK8I VIDEO ON MIDDLE SCHOOL VIOLENCE: JOHN HOPKINS
• HTTPS://YOUTU.BE/-6PZSLB5OAY BULLYING AT SOUTH ALLEGHANEY MIDDLE SCHOOL: SCHOOL VIEW
SUICIDE ASSESSMENT
• NEED CLEAR PROCEDURES AND STAFF TRAINING, CONTACT CHILD’S PARENTS (DOCUMENT)
• CONSIDER THROUGH INTERVIEW:
• DEGREE OF SUICIDAL IDEATION?
• HOW THE STUDENT FEELS CURRENTLY AND PAST HISTORY?
• PERCEPTION OF BURDEN, ISOLATION, LONELINESS?
• CURRENT STRESSORS? SUBSTANCE USE/ABUSE?
• PREVIOUS ATTEMPTS? CURRENT PLAN/MEANS TO CARRY OUT?
• CURRENT SUPPORT SYSTEM? REASONS TO LIVE?
• SIGN A “NO SUICIDE” CONTRACT
• HTTPS://YOUTU.BE/UXNI55YV5F4 12 YEAR OLD DIES AFTER CYBERBULLYING
• HTTPS://YOUTU.BE/UZC8X6OI8L0 12 YEAR OLD HANGS SELF IN SCHOOL
• HTTPS://YOUTU.BE/691QSJFLCNM HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT SHOOTS SELF AT SCHOOL
REMEMBER…
• DISCUSS CONFIDENTIALITY AND ITS LIMITS
• DEVELOP A GOOD WORKING RELATIONSHIP WITH THE STUDENT
• BE AWARE OF STATE LAWS, REGULATIONS, AND SCHOOL POLICIES
• BE FAMILIAR WITH COMMUNITY RESOURCES AND HOW TO ACCESS THEM
• DISCUSS OPENLY YOUR CONCERNS WITH A STUDENT AND POSSIBLE COURSES OF ACTION
PSYCHO-PHARMACOLOGIC INTERVENTIONS
• ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, AND ADHD MOST COMMON
• HTTPS://WWW.NIMH.NIH.GOV/HEALTH/PUBLICATIONS/CHILDREN-AND-MENTAL-HEALTH/INDEX.SHTML
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH WEBSITE
• ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD): CHARACTERISTICS OF INATTENTION,
IMPULSIVENESS, LOW TOLERANCE FOR FRUSTRATION, AND/OR INAPPROPRIATE
ACTIVITY
• OCCURS IN 3 TO 5 PERCENT OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN
• BOYS MORE LIKELY THAN GIRLS TO HAVE ADHD
• COMMON SIGNS:
• PERSISTENT DIFFICULTY FINISHING TASKS, FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS, AND ORGANIZING WORK
• FIDGETING, SQUIRMING, INABILITY TO WATCH AN ENTIRE TELEVISION PROGRAM
• FREQUENT INTERRUPTION OF OTHERS
• TENDENCY TO JUMP INTO A TASK BEFORE HEARING ALL THE INSTRUCTIONS
• DIFFICULTY IN WAITING OR REMAINING SEATED
PSYCHO-PHARMACOLOGIC INTERVENTIONS
• NO ONE TEST TO IDENTIFY ADHD: CHECKLISTS, RECORD REVIEW, BEHAVIOR RATING SCALES
• CAUSES UNCLEAR BUT SOME RESEARCH FINDS IT RELATED TO DELAY IN NEURAL DEVELOPMENT
• DRUG TREATMENT (RITALIN, DEXADRINE, ADDERALL, VYVANSE, STRATTERA, ETC.)
• INCREASE ATTENTION SPAN AND COMPLIANCE
• PROBLEMATIC SIDE EFFECTS
• SOME STUDIES INDICATE THAT DRUGS DON’T HELP WITH ACADEMICS
• HTTPS://WWW.DRUGS.COM/CONDITION/ATTENTION-DEFICIT-DISORDER.HTML
• BEHAVIOR THERAPY MAY BE HELPFUL
• MAY BE A LINK BETWEEN ADHD AND DIET
• DIETS HIGHER IN FATTY ACIDS AND FOOD ADDITIVES CONTRIBUTE TO ADHD
The Brains of Children with ADHD
The brains of children with ADHD (in the top row) show less thickening of the cortex compared to the brains of typical
children at the same age.
PRACTICE
• JACOB ET AL. TEXT: PAGES 228-230
• DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: 3, 4, AND 5, NUMBER 6 DISCUSS AS A GROUP
• ACTIVITIES: 3 AND 4
• HTTPS://YOUTU.BE/LOEQUWDAJE0
• VIDEO REMOVED: PART 1
• HTTPS://YOUTU.BE/I1FGMEA6WNY
• VIDEO REMEMBER MY STORY: REMOVED PART 2, WHAT COULD YOU DO ON A SCHOOL LEVEL TO HELP
HER?
THE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGIST’S ROLE IN PREVENTION
AND INTERVENTION: ACADEMIC SKILLS
SONG ET AL, 2019- CHAPTER 10; MERRELL ET AL., 2012- CHAPTERS 7 & 9; LDA WHITE PAPER
REFRAME HOW WE SEE SCHOOL…
◼If we see schooling as an “intervention” with the purpose of
altering cognitive, adaptive, social, communication, and
motor/physical skills development from its “unschooled” or
natural course, then intervention and prevention become an
important part of education (Merrell et al., 2012, p. 195)
DATA-DRIVEN PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS
â—¼ Individuals respond differently to interventions
◼ Focus on the contexts in which the “problems” occur
â—¼ Connect to an RTI/MTSS framework
â—¼ Research based/Evidence based practices
â—¼ Use research to help decide who to target and in what domains, when to intervene,
and sometimes how to intervene
â—¼ Does not give an absolute for success but a higher probability
READING AS AN EXAMPLE
â—¼ 88% probability of being a poor reader in 4th grade if child was a poor reader in 1st
grade
â—¼ Poor reading skills at end of 3rd grade still poor reader at end of 8th grade, below a
basic reading level in 3rd grade affects high school graduation rates
â—¼ 33% of 4th graders and 25% of 8th graders are below basic reading standards
â—¼ Increases the likelihood of dropping out of school, unemployment, criminal behavior,
etc.
READING AS AN EXAMPLE
â—¼ Fundamental reading skills:
â—¼ *Phonemic awareness- hearing/manipulating sounds
â—¼ *Alphabetic principles- matching/blending of print letters to corresponding sounds
â—¼ Accuracy/Fluency- connecting text
â—¼ Vocabulary- using words orally and in writing
â—¼ Comprehension- recalling/understanding what is read
â—¼ Majority of children who receive Tier 2, skills targeted intervention can be brought
up to grade level if caught early (first 3 years of school)
FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT
â—¼ Lack ability to generalize between/across settings (i.e. sameness)
◼ Mismatch between student’s understanding and teachers instructional cues
â—¼ Poverty- powerful risk factor, multiple stresses are hard to overcome
â—¼ Lack nutrition, disorganized family structure, poor health care, lack of educational materials, lack variety of experiences, etc.
â—¼ Lack of parental/caregiver involvement
â—¼ Physical/Emotional Abuse and/or Neglect
â—¼ Marital discord/family dysfunction (multi-stressed families)
â—¼ Prolonged or multiple risk exposures= greatest need
â—¼ Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Questionnaire:
https://www.ncjfcj.org/sites/default/files/Finding%20Your%20ACE%20Score.pdf
â—¼ https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/acestudy/about.html
PROTECTIVE FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DEVELOPMENT
â—¼ Resiliency- ability to adapt despite challenges
â—¼ Resiliency questionnaire: https://www.aap.org/en-us/_layouts/15/WopiFrame.aspx?sourcedoc=/enus/Documents/RESILIENCE_Questionnaire-1.docx&action=default
â—¼ https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/resilience/Pages/Clinical-AssessmentTools.aspx
â—¼ Quality parent-child relationships
â—¼ Engaged, provide supervision, warm, caring, etc.
â—¼ Good cognitive development
â—¼ Ability to self-regulate
â—¼ Attention, behavior, emotions
◼ Remember there is no such thing as an “invulnerable” child
EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE
â—¼ Should demonstrate:
â—¼ Trustworthiness and effectiveness
â—¼ Problem and context relevance
â—¼ Efficiency
â—¼ Limitations:
◼ May not generalize to current “problem”
â—¼ Effectiveness for a group does not take into account individual differences
â—¼ Interventions found to create desired outcomes may not be effective for your purpose
â—¼ Cannot know if strategy works without evaluating its success
VIDEO TO SET THE STAGE….
â—¼https://youtu.be/UCFg9bcW7Bk
â—¼Video on teaching methods for inspiring students*
CONSIDER EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION
â—¼ Quality instruction influenced by how teacher thinks about teaching and learning and what
they do (expectations)
◼ Academic failure can be linked to instructional environment rather than child’s lack of skills
◼ Manage “problem” situations before they arise- classroom management strategies
â—¼ Teachers use active problem solving with a focus on areas they have control over
â—¼ Have content knowledge and good structure of information delivery (scaffolding)
â—¼ Need to consider interaction of student, curriculum, instruction, and educational
environment, as well as those areas that can be changed
THE STUDENT
â—¼ Consider prior knowledge
â—¼ May affect task difficulty
â—¼ Attention- need selective attention for learning
â—¼ Recall- strategies to promote comprehension
â—¼ Motivation- perseverance, engagement with the task
â—¼ Problem-Solving skills
â—¼ Skill development- acquire the skill, fluent in use, generalize skill, and adapt for use in novel
situations (learning hierarchy)
THE CURRICULUM
Instructional Objectives
â—¼ Outcomes and expectations
The “what” of teaching
â—¼ Intended curriculum
â—¼ Adopted curriculum
â—¼ Taught curriculum
â—¼ Actual curriculum
â—¼ Learned curriculum
â—¼ What is actually learned
â—¼ Content
â—¼ What student learns
â—¼ Behavior
â—¼ What student does to show learning
â—¼ Criterion
â—¼ Expected level of performance
â—¼ Conditions
â—¼ Context/situation in which student works
THE CURRICULUM
◼ Should “spiral,” has a sequential hierarchical structure
â—¼ To assist learner diversity consider:
â—¼ Identifying big ideas and organize curriculum around them
â—¼ Teach explicit problem-solving strategies within the curriculum
â—¼ Preteaching background knowledge
â—¼ Scaffolding instruction
â—¼ Integrating new and old skills/concepts
â—¼ Adequate review over time, cumulative, and varied to promote generalization/adaptability/transfer
â—¼ Consider: folding-in new content, making connections between knowledge, discrimination
THE CURRICULUM
â—¼ 6 ideas for instructional scaffolding
â—¼ Show and Tell (model)
â—¼ Tap into prior knowledge
â—¼ Give time to talk (think, pair, share; triads; turn and talk)
â—¼ Front load knowledge/content (meaningful pre-teach)
â—¼ Use visual aids (graphic organizers, charts, images)
â—¼ Pause, ask open-ended questions, pause, review (give time for reflection) (www.edutopia.org)
◼ Let’s practice scaffolding!
THE CURRICULUM
â—¼ PASS variables to promote differentiated instruction
â—¼ Prioritize instruction
â—¼ Adapt instruction, materials, environment
â—¼ Systematically teach with SCREAM
â—¼ Structure, clarity, redundancy, enthusiasm, appropriate rate, maximized engagement through
questions and feedback
â—¼ Systematically evaluate instructional outcomes
EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES
â—¼ The how and when to teach content
â—¼ Missing prior knowledge, need direct instruction
â—¼ To facilitate learning need to:
â—¼ Explain content
â—¼ Demonstrate/model skills
â—¼ Utilize guided practice
â—¼ Offer timely correction
â—¼ Provide task specific feedback
â—¼ Teacher actions aligned with the curriculum
â—¼ Teachers align instructional strategies to student needs, type of information being taught, using the
learning hierarchy
◼ Intervention selections must link assessment– intervention– evaluation
DISCUSSION PRACTICE
â—¼ What would a preschool classroom look like where you promoted academic
competence and reduced the influence of risk factors? What instructional strategies
might assist in this process? (Discussion question 1, Merrell et al., 2012)
TRADITIONAL VS. PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL
â—¼ Traditional Model
â—¼ Gather information about presumed learning processes and individual
differences with goal of meeting a classification category which in turn informs
what interventions/treatment to do
â—¼ Recommendations based on alignment with category
â—¼ Problem-Solving Model
â—¼ Gather information about the problem , develop working hypotheses, then
evaluate those in the natural setting
â—¼ Recommendations based on what works or not
PARADIGM SHIFT TO INTERVENTION MODEL
â—¼ Shift from assess, diagnose, and place to an MTSS model that emphasizes prevention
and intensive, evidence-based interventions (figure 10.1 in Song et al., 2019, p. 185)
â—¼ Intervention= implement & monitor a specific, targeted skill building strategy
â—¼ Accommodation= makes material accessible for the learner (i.e. extended time, quiet
space)
â—¼ Modification= when level of performance, content, or expectation is modified (i.e.
reduced or lower level spelling list, higher level reading content)
â—¼ Importance of treatment integrity or fidelity
â—¼ Table 10.1 on p. 189 (Song et al., 2019) lists academic and behavior intervention resources
CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING INTERVENTIONS
â—¼ Structure of the classroom environment and learning routines/expectations
â—¼ Contingency management- reinforcement and punishment
â—¼ Use interactive teaching strategies to increase student engagement
â—¼ Teach students to self-monitor
â—¼ Strategy instruction (i before e except after c)
â—¼ Organization of materials and presentation of content (scaffolding)
â—¼ Explicit instruction for foundational skills
â—¼ Good primary prevention strategies
â—¼ Tier 1, all students, quality curriculum, teaching delivery/monitoring
â—¼ https://youtu.be/Kg38A1ggYiE
â—¼ Station rotation: Differentiating instruction to reach all students (elementary)*
PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS
â—¼ Begins with the determination of differences between current performance
and expected performance (the problem)
â—¼ Problems vary in levels of intensity, duration, severity, magnitude,
complexity, and resistance to intervention
â—¼ Applied along a continuum of needs
â—¼ Address the following questions:
â—¼ 1. What is the problem?
â—¼ 3. What should be done about it?
2. Why is it occurring?
4. Did it work?
STEP 1: WHAT IS THE PROBLEM?
â—¼ Problem Identification and Validation
â—¼ Receive a referral from someone
â—¼ Consider current performance against a standard of expected performance
â—¼ Must define problem in a way that can be measured
STEP 2: WHY IS IT OCCURRING?
â—¼ Problem Analysis
â—¼ Gather information relating to areas affecting learning conditions from a
variety of sources and through assessment practices
â—¼ Consider if the problem is related to:
◼ Skill (can’t do)
◼ Performance (won’t do)
â—¼ Function of behavior or environmental factors that contribute
â—¼ Focus on what we can change to enable the child to learn
â—¼ Generate possible problem hypotheses and potential interventions to match
STEP 3: WHAT SHOULD BE DONE ABOUT IT?
â—¼ Intervention development and Implementation
â—¼ Take gathered information and decide what should be done about the
problem
â—¼ Select interventions based on relevance to the problem, contextual fit, and
probability of success
â—¼ Clarify intervention steps, roles/responsibilities of each person involved,
process for progress monitoring, method for determining effectiveness
(clear Intervention Plan)
STEP 4: DID IT WORK?
â—¼ Intervention evaluation and follow-up
◼ Goal is to resolve the discrepancy between “what is” (current performance)
and “what should be” (expected performance)
â—¼ Continuous progress monitoring and problem evaluation
â—¼ Consider:
â—¼ Intervention plan effectiveness
â—¼ Ease of intervention implementation
â—¼ Acceptableness of intervention
â—¼ Revise and/or adjust goals if necessary
PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL
â—¼ Outcome focused
â—¼ Driven by data
â—¼ Linking of interventions
â—¼ Context specific
â—¼ Focus on what we can change
â—¼ Need to have a strong school commitment and systems in place to sustain
the process
FOCUS ON PREVENTION
â—¼ Importance of progress monitoring to quickly id students at risk
â—¼ Primary Prevention (Universal)
â—¼ Student not experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties (80%)
â—¼ Benchmark assessments 3-4 times a year
â—¼ Secondary Prevention (Targeted)
â—¼ Student at risk for learning or behavioral difficulties (15%)
â—¼ Monitor on a monthly basis
â—¼ Tertiary Prevention (Intensive)
â—¼ Student experiencing significant learning or behavioral difficulties (5%)
â—¼ Frequent, weekly, monitoring on individualized goals
LET US PRACTICE….
â—¼ Using the problem-solving model: what type of information would you collect
and consider at each stage?
â—¼ Evey is experiencing a great deal of difficulty in her 1st grade classroom. Her
teacher referred her to the school’s SIT team and it was noticed that her
kindergarten teacher previously referred her as well so some documentation
existed from the last school year.
â—¼ Evey is having significant difficulty with impulsive behaviors, she cannot apply
phonemic concepts to her reading and is behind her peers on the midOctober Reading Benchmark (DIBELS), she also seems to lack number sense,
and her spelling/handwriting skills are very poor. Parents shared similar
concerns with the teacher at the recent P/T conferences.
◼ To the best of your ability develop an intervention plan…
DISCUSSION PRACTICE
â—¼ You are asked to consult with a teacher about a child, Joey in 4th grade, who is
experiencing behavior difficulties in the classroom. The teacher shared that Joey has
difficulty in reading and comprehending stories. The teacher referred Joey because
he is often off-task and disruptive during the reading exercises. (paraphrased from Merrell et al, 2012,
p. 213)
â—¼ What problem-solving strategies would you use to assist the teacher and Joey? What
questions would you ask and what additional information would you collect?
â—¼ Think interaction of student, curriculum, learning environment
DISCUSSION
â—¼ How would you consider issues of diversity as you develop interventions and why is
this important?
SOME VIDEOS ON INSTRUCTION
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Teachers (from U.K.) discuss differentiated instruction

Video on teaching methods for inspiring students*

Student point on learning, emphasis on student lead learning

High school teachers/students discussing their experiences with differentiated instruction

New teacher experience with mentor on differentiated instruction

Quality matters clip, on responsive teaching

Station rotation: Differentiating instruction to reach all students (elementary)*
DISCUSSION: LDA WHITE PAPER- FEBRUARY 2010
â—¼ Conclusions drawn:
â—¼ Maintain the SLD definition and strengthen requirements in SLD identification
â—¼ Neither ability-discrepancy model or RTI alone is sufficient for SLD identification
â—¼ A 3rd method that utilizes a pattern of psychological and academic strengths/weaknesses makes the
most empirical and clinical sense
â—¼ A validated RTI model could be used in prevention of SLD, but comprehensive evaluations should
occur when needed for SLD identification
â—¼ Assessment of cognitive and neuropsychological processes should be used for identification, but also
for interventions, with clear assessment-intervention relationship (needs further investigation)
â—¼ (paraphrased from p. 2)
ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES
â—¼ For additional strategies to promote independence in learners, see the
additional PowerPoint listed in this module

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