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MGMT 650 Summer 2022
Week 2 Homework Questions
(Last updated 3/13/2022)
9/6/2022
You are a statistician contracted to sample and analyze weights of the 5 lb bags of coffee. You collect the following data:
5.30
4.67
4.93
5.51
5.99
5.34
5.04
4.42
6.14
4.28
4.84
5.61
5.08
5.15
5.28
5.78
4.47
5.08
4.51
4.60
5.15
5.45
4.39
4.86
5.38
5.53
4.14
4.54
4.57
5.82
3.83
4.90
6.00
5.32
5.59
4.26
5.18
5.30
5.40
4.67
5.56
4.85
4.46
5.74
4.90
5.13
5.60
4.77
5.34
4.25
4.77
5.40
5.03
5.73
5.08
6.18
For all questions, write your answers in the yellow cells.
1)
Compute the following statistics using Excel functions so that Excel calculates for you:
Mean
Median
2)
First quartile using QUARTILE.EXC
Third quartile using QUARTILE.EXC
Interquartile range (IQR)
3)
Maximum
Minimum
Range
4)
Variance
Standard deviation
Coeficient of Variation (CV)
5)
For the standard deviation, when do you use STDEV.S and when do you use STDEV.P?
6)
Explain why the standard deviation is a better measure to use than the variance.
The coefficient of variation (CV) is a measure of relative variability equal to the ratio between the standard deviation
divided by the mean, and formatted to %. It is regularly used to compare risk (volatility) in investing, and is especially
useful in to compare data on different scales or with different units of measure. Consider weights of 10 oz, 13.4 oz, 15.1
oz with SD of 2.597 oz. The corresponding weights in pounds 0.625 lb, 0.838 lb, 0.944 lb have SD 0.162 lb. The SDs
are not equal, yet the sample and its variability are the same. How can we compare variabilities? The CV, unlike other
measures of variability, does not depend on the units of measure. The units are divided out in dividing the standard
deviation by the mean. For a “rule of thumb”, a CV of greater than 5% is considered significant. So, the CV is also used
to assess data with no prior history to compare to evaluate any trends.
When is the Coefficient of Variation (CV) especially useful?
9/6/2022
7)
As a contracted statistician, you have no prior experience with the company’s product.
The company has no prior process history and data with which to compare the sample to evaluate any trends.
The mode is not especially useful for this data, but explain why there is or is not
a concern with bag weight in terms of the other measures of central tendency.
8)
What statistic should you use to assess variability of the product?
Explain why there is or is not a concern with the variability of the product.
9/6/2022
coffee. You collect the following data:
4.75
5.28
4.99
4.96
4.98
5.04
5.19
5.52
4.69
4.32
4.82
5.49
4.18
5.16
4.34
4.67
between the standard deviation
ty) in investing, and is especially
sider weights of 10 oz, 13.4 oz, 15.1
44 lb have SD 0.162 lb. The SDs
variabilities? The CV, unlike other
ded out in dividing the standard
significant. So, the CV is also used
5.13
4.49
4.86
5.03
4.53
4.29
5.29
5.92
9/6/2022
Pivot tables and other descriptive statistics are developed from raw data. In this problem, you must obtain or create a raw da
to obtain pivot tables. They must be used to understand the data. Pick data that interests you. Make sure it is available to th
data spreadsheet must have at least 50 rows. It must contain at least two categorical variables and two numerical variables.
See the tab ‘Sample Data for Pivot Table’ for a sample file and and explanation of one way and two way tables
9) Show the data spreadsheet and briefly describe its source and what it contains.
Copy the data into this file, preferably as a new worksheet
10) Create a one way pivot table or frequency distribution for a categorical variable. Use counts for the variable. In one para
table to explain the significance of your data. Use proportions, bar and pie charts to reinforce your conclusions.
11) Create a one way table for a categorical variable and a numerical variable. Use sum for the numerical variable. In one pa
the significance of your data. Use any appropriate charts to make your points.
12) Create a two way table for both categorical variables. In one paragraph, explain the significance of your data. If the table
there may be relationships between the variables, explain why.
problem, you must obtain or create a raw data file and use it
interests you. Make sure it is available to the public. The
rical variables and two numerical variables.
one way and two way tables
t contains.
ble. Use counts for the variable. In one paragraph, use the
s to reinforce your conclusions.
se sum for the numerical variable. In one paragraph, explain
lain the significance of your data. If the table shows that
Anticipated
Employment Expected Salary in 5
ID Num Gender
Status
Salary
Years
Spending
ID01
M
PT
45
75
200
ID02
M
FT
120
250
150
ID03
M
FT
85
120
65
ID04
M
FT
100
150
150
ID05
M
FT
80
90
300
ID06
F
FT
100
150
250
ID07
M
FT
100
125
400
ID08
M
FT
60
100
60
ID09
F
FT
50
60
180
ID10
M
PT
50
80
700
ID11
M
FT
60
100
100
ID12
M
FT
65
100
200
ID13
M
FT
80
110
300
ID14
M
FT
100
150
100
ID15
F
UN
50
100
1000
ID16
M
FT
40
65
300
ID17
F
FT
70
100
200
ID18
F
FT
60
75
150
ID19
M
FT
105
120
150
ID20
F
FT
60
100
130
ID21
F
UN
45
65
300
ID22
F
FT
60
80
200
ID23
M
FT
80
140
90
ID24
F
FT
65
85
170
ID25
M
PT
60
150
320
ID26
M
FT
65
135
200
ID27
F
FT
55
90
600
ID28
M
FT
90
130
200
ID29
M
FT
70
100
100
ID30
F
FT
45
80
160
ID31
F
PT
80
110
230
ID32
M
FT
75
150
500
ID33
M
FT
60
85
250
ID34
F
FT
75
95
150
ID35
F
FT
65
90
120
ID36
M
FT
50
85
160
ID37
F
FT
75
100
100
ID38
F
FT
60
90
160
ID39
M
FT
90
160
130
ID40
M
PT
55
85
110
This is a sample raw data file resulting fro
survey. We can create some tables usin
Excel/Pivot Table. Let’s construct a one
table for gender and a two way table for g
and employment status.
For the one way table, click on Insert/Pivo
Table. Select range and highlight all the
columns. Select new worksheet. Drag g
which is to the far right in the pivot table f
down to rows. Next drag gender again d
values. It should show “count”. If not, us
drop down arrow to get value field setting
select “count”.
If you want to show a bar chart, click on I
and look for the picture of a bar chart and
it. Also for a pie chart.
For a two way table, same initial steps as
Drag gender down to rows, drag employm
status down to columns, and drag either
down to values. Again make sure count
A two way table can be used to examine
two categorical variables may be related.
Next let’s construct a one way table that s
the total of all the expected salary of male
females. Same initial steps, drag gender
to rows, drag expected salary down to va
and make sure it shows sum. If not chan
the value field setting.
mple raw data file resulting from a
e can create some tables using
Table. Let’s construct a one way
nder and a two way table for gender
ment status.
way table, click on Insert/Pivot
ect range and highlight all the
Select new worksheet. Drag gender
he far right in the pivot table field list
ws. Next drag gender again down to
hould show “count”. If not, use the
arrow to get value field settings and
nt”.
to show a bar chart, click on Insert
r the picture of a bar chart and select
a pie chart.
ay table, same initial steps as before.
er down to rows, drag employment
n to columns, and drag either variable
ues. Again make sure count shows.
able can be used to examine whether
ical variables may be related.
onstruct a one way table that shows
all the expected salary of males and
ame initial steps, drag gender down
ag expected salary down to values
ure it shows sum. If not change it in
eld setting.
One way table
Count of Gender
Gender
F
M
Grand Total
Total
16
24
40
Two way table
Count of Gender
Gender
F
M
Grand Total
Employment Status
FT
PT
UN
13
1
20
4
33
5
Summary table
sum
Gender
F
M
Grand Total
Total
1015
1785
2800
2
2
Grand Total
16
24
40
13
Frequency Distribution:
Here is a hypothetical list of the number of caramel popcorn
cans sold in 70 scout troops in Maryland. Use Excel’s
capability (=FREQUENCY()) to create a frequency distribution
Number of Caramel popcorn cans sold in each troop
174
105 103
105
148 158 121
153
147 132
110
115 192 158
183
199 174
107
179 183 129
198
171 120
163
163 108 184
180
114 107
107
152 137 184
190
175 156
143
142 152 182
183
119 165
134
172 145 184
MIN
MAX
Use the =MIN() function to find the lowest num
Use the =MAX() function to find the highest nu
Subtract the lowest number of cans sold from the highest number of
The range of number of cans sold is:
14
Decide how many bins to use. Study the data and pick a number bet
See https://www.statisticshowto.com/choose-bin-sizes-statistics/
In one paragraph below explain why you selected the numbers of bin
15
Now divide the range of the cans sold by the number of bins to find t
Size of each bin is
16
Create your bins:
Start with the minimum number of cans sold and add the size of the
Therefore,
plus
is the highest number that the
The =FREQUENCY() function uses the highest number of each bin wh
The next bin highest number starts with the first bin’s highest numbe
Therefore, the second bin begins with
and adds the bin size
Continue adding to get the Bins array for the =FREQUENCY() functio
Follow the instructions in the youtube videos to use the =FREQUENC
You know that you have correctly used the =FREQUENCY() function i
Min
Max
Bins:
Frequency:
Note: Some versions of Excel treat the last bin a bit differently, so the FREQUENCY function may
If you get that, don’t worry about it, we will accept either answer.
mel popcorn
y distribution
old in each troop
130
118
196
149
194
119
134
186
200
189
126
142
168
170
157
140
150
175
103
160
113
o find the lowest number of popcorn cans sold.
to find the highest number of popcorn cans sold.
e highest number of cans sold:
nd pick a number between 5 and 10
n-sizes-statistics/
d the numbers of bins (between 5 and 10)
mber of bins to find the size that each bin should be
est number that the first bin should be.
umber of each bin when calculating the number in each bin.
t bin’s highest number and adds the size of the bins.
to get
use the =FREQUENCY() array function.
EQUENCY() function if Excel automatically puts {} around the function.
he FREQUENCY function may show the last bin as one higher than it should be.
18
As part of the marketing group of a film company, you a
You ask questions of customers who exit the theatre. Fr
165 are 10 to 14, 25 are 15 to 21, and 174 are older tha
a) Make a frequency table of these categorical data.
b) Make a relative frequency table.
c) Make a bar chart using counts in the frequency table.
d) Would a bar chart of relative frequencies look any different?
e) Make a pie chart.
Write a few sentences summarizing the distribution demonstrated by
19
In addition to age grouping information, the audiences interviewed were a
17
never
once
more than once
under 6
42
4
3
6 to 9
62
21
4
10 to 14 15 to 21 over 21
90
20
152
41
5
17
34
0
5
a) Find the marginal distributions of their previous viewing of the mov
b) Verify that the marginal distribution of the ages is the same as that
20
Continue with the data from question 17
c) Find column percentages.
d) Looking at these percentages, does the distribution of how many tim
e) Make a stacked bar chart showing the distribution of viewings for e
f) What is the percentage of all audience members who are over 21? A
g) If these proportions are not the same, what does that mean with r
m company, you are asked to find out the age distribution of the audience of the latest
xit the theatre. From 500 responses, you find that 49 are younger than 6 years old, 87
nterviewed were also asked if they had seen the movie before (Never, Once, More than
viewing of the movie. Margin means total. Create a new column labeled “total”.
s the same as that given previously. Create a bottom row labeled “total”.
on of how many times someone has seen the movie look the same for each age group?
who are over 21? And what percentage of audience members who saw the movie more
s that mean with respect to the variables “age” and “frequency of viewing movies”?
me for each age group? What can you assume from these percentages?

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