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College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 3
Deadline: 10/4/2021 @ 23:59
Course Name: Logistics Management
Student’s Name:
Course Code: MGT322
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: II
CRN:
Academic Year: 1441/1442 H
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade:
Level of Marks:
Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
• The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
• Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
• Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be
reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
• Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
• Late submission will NOT be accepted.
• Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or
other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
• All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font.
No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
• Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Logistics Management
ASSIGNMENT -3
Submission Date by students: Before the end of Week- 12th
Place of Submission: Students Grade Centre
Weight: 5 Marks
Learning Outcome:
1. Ability to explain and distinguish between the concepts of logistic system operations using logistic
systems, time based management and lean thinking.
2. Analyze and identify challenges and issues pertaining to logistical processes.
Assignment Workload:
This assignment is an individual assignment.
Critical Thinking
The global marketplace has witnessed an increased pressure from customers and competitors in
manufacturing as well as service sector (Basu, 2001; George, 2002). Due to the rapidly changing global
marketplace only those companies will be able to survive that will deliver products of good quality at
cheaper rate and to achieve their goal companies try to improve performance by focusing on cost
cutting, increasing productivity levels, quality and guaranteeing deliveries in order to satisfy customers
(Raouf, 1994).
Increased global competition leads the industry to increasing efficiency by means of economies of
scale and internal specialization to meet market conditions in terms of flexibility, delivery performance
and quality (Yamashina, 1995). The changes in the present competitive business environment
characterized by profound competition on the supply side and keen indecisive in customer
requirements on the demand side. These changes have left their distinctive marks on the different
aspect of the manufacturing organizations (Gomes et al., 2006). With this increasing global economy,
cost effective manufacturing has become a requirement to remain competitive.
To meet all the challenges organizations try to introduce different manufacturing and supply
techniques. Management of organizations devotes its efforts to reduce the manufacturing costs and to
improve the quality of product. To achieve this goal, different manufacturing and supply techniques
employed. The last quarter of the 20th century witnessed the adoption of excellent, lean and
integrated manufacturing strategies that have drastically changed the way manufacturing firm’s
leads to improvement of manufacturing performance (Fullerton and McWatters, 2002).
Consult chapter 7 of your textbook or secondary available data through internet and answer the
following questions.
Question:
1. Why Companies adopted Lean Thinking and JIT model? (1.5 Mark)
2. Discuss major types of Waste, companies has to keep in mind during production. (1.5 Mark)
3. Due to pandemic COVID 19 emergency, do you think agile supply chain is the right concept
in this kind of situation? Give reason with example. (1.5 Mark)
4. Reference (0.5 Mark)
The Answer must follow the outline points below:
•
Each answer should be 300 to 500 range of word counts.
•
Lean Thinking and JIT Concept
•
Agile Supply chain
•
Their Main functions
•
Reasons with suitable Examples
•
Reference use APA style of referencing
Saudi Electronic University
Logistics
Management
Chapter 1
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
• What is the supply chain, and
how is it structured?
• What is the purpose of a
supply chain?
‫ﻣﺎ ھﻲ ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد وﻛﯾف ﯾﺗم ﺗﻧظﯾﻣﮭﺎ؟‬
‫ﻣﺎ ھو اﻟﻐرض ﻣن ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد؟‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Competitiveness needs to be considered at two levels:
• The level of the focal firm
• The level of the supply chain
We need to clarify the managerial and strategic perspectives of the logistics
challenge:
• Managerial: supervising day-to-day logistics processes in terms of their time,
cost and quality objectives
• Strategic: formulating and implementing the guiding principles, driving forces
and ingrained attitudes that are shared by partners across a supply network
:‫ﯾﺟب اﻟﻧظر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘدرة اﻟﺗﻧﺎﻓﺳﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗوﯾﯾن‬
‫• ﻣﺳﺗوى اﻟﺷرﻛﺔ اﻟﺑؤرﯾﺔ‬
‫• ﻣﺳﺗوى ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
:‫ﻧﺣﺗﺎج إﻟﻰ ﺗوﺿﯾﺢ اﻟﻣﻧظورات اﻹدارﯾﺔ واﻻﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﺣدي اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﻲ‬
‫اﻹﺷراف ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ اﻟﯾوﻣﯾﺔ ﻣن ﺣﯾث أھداف اﻟوﻗت واﻟﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ واﻟﺟودة‬: ‫• اﻹدارﯾﺔ‬
‫ﺻﯾﺎﻏﺔ وﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﻣﺑﺎدئ اﻟﺗوﺟﯾﮭﯾﺔ واﻟﻘوى اﻟداﻓﻌﺔ واﻟﻣواﻗف اﻟراﺳﺧﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ‬: ‫• اﻻﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺔ‬
‫ﯾﺷﺗرك ﻓﯾﮭﺎ اﻟﺷرﻛﺎء ﻋﺑر ﺷﺑﻛﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
We need to create clarity in logistics terms.
• Supply chain
• SCM
• Logistics
• Material flow
• Supply networks
Note that we will use “chain” and “network” interchangeably.Chain will generally
be used to describe simple links between organisations and network for more
complex linkages.
.‫ﻧﺣن ﺑﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﺧﻠﻖ اﻟوﺿوح ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺻطﻠﺣﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻣوردﯾن‬
SCM •
‫• اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ‬
‫• ﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣواد‬
‫• ﺷﺑﻛﺎت اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
‫ﺳﯾﺗم اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ ﺑﺷﻛل ﻋﺎم‬. ‫” ﺑﺎﻟﺗﺑﺎدل‬network” ‫”و‬chain” ‫ﻻﺣظ أﻧﻧﺎ ﺳوف ﻧﺳﺗﺧدم‬
.‫ﻟوﺻف اﻟرواﺑط اﻟﺑﺳﯾطﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺎت واﻟﺷﺑﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﺻول ﻋﻠﻰ رواﺑط أﻛﺛر ﺗﻌﻘﯾًدا‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Tesco Case Study 1.1
• Illustrates aspects of the
logistics challenge facing a
‫ﯾوﺿﺢ ﺟواﻧب اﻟﺗﺣدي اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﻲ اﻟذي ﯾواﺟﮫ‬
major retailer.
.‫ﺑﺎﺋﻊ ﺗﺟزﺋﺔ رﺋﯾﺳﻲ‬
• 20,000 products planned and
‫ ﻣﻧﺗﺞ ﻣﺧطط ﻟﮭﺎ وﻣراﻗﺑﺗﮭﺎ‬20000
controlled
‫ ﻣﻠﯾﺎر ﺻﻧدوق وﺷﺣﻧﮭﺎ وﻓرزھﺎ‬2.1 ‫ﯾﺗم طﻠب‬
• 2.1 billion cases per year to be
‫ﺣﺳب اﻟﻣﺗﺟر وﻋرﺿﮭﺎ ﺳﻧوﯾًﺎ‬
ordered, shipped, sorted by
‫ أﻧظﻣﺔ ﺣرارة ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ‬3
store, and put on display
‫ ﻣراﻛز ﺗوزﯾﻊ إﻗﻠﯾﻣﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻣﻠﻛﺔ اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‬10
• 3 different temperature regimes
‫ ﻣﺗﺟر‬2300 ‫أﻛﺛر ﻣن‬
‫ﻣﻌدل دوران ﺳرﯾﻊ ﻟﻸﺳﮭم ﻣن أﺟل اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت‬
• 10 UK regional distribution
‫ﺳرﯾﻌﺔ اﻟﺣرﻛﺔ‬
centers
‫ﺗﺗﺿﻣن اﻟطرق اﻟﯾوم اﻷول ﻟﻠﯾوم اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬
• Over 2,300 stores
‫اﺧﺗر اﻟﺻﻔر‬
• Rapid turnover of stocks for fast
‫ﯾﺗم اﻟﺗﺳﻠﯾم ﻓﻲ أرﺑﻊ “ﻣوﺟﺎت “ﯾوﻣﯾﺎ‬
movers
• Methods include day 1 for day 2
• Pick to zero
• Store deliveries in four “waves”
daily
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
The core purpose of Tesco is to “create value or
customers to earn their lifetime loyalty.”
To achieve loyalty, they have to understand customer needs
and how they can be served.
Products should be recognized by customers as
outstanding value for the money.
“.‫ Ú¾Ùˆ “ﺧﻠﻖ اﻟﻘﯾﻣﺔ أو اﻟﻌﻣﻼء ﻟﻛﺳب وﻻﺋﮭم ﻣدى اﻟﺣﯾﺎة‬Tesco ‫اﻟﻐرض اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻣن‬
.‫ ﯾﺟب ﻋﻠﯾﮭم ﻓﮭم اﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﻌﻣﻼء وﻛﯾف ﯾﻣﻛن ﺧدﻣﺗﮭم‬، ‫ﻟﺗﺣﻘﯾﻖ اﻟوﻻء‬
.‫ﯾﺟب أن ﯾﻌﺗرف اﻟﻌﻣﻼء ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧﮭﺎ ﻗﯾﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺑل اﻟﻣﺎل‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Logistics is the task of planning and controlling the purchase and
distribution of the product range from suppliers to stores.
It is concerned with managing two key flows:
•
•
material flow of the physical goods from suppliers through
the distribution centres to stores;
information flow of demand data from the end- customer back to
purchasing and to suppliers, and supply data from suppliers to the
retailer, so that material flow can be accurately planned and
controlled.
‫اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺎت ھﻲ ﻣﮭﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﺧطﯾط واﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ ﺷراء وﺗوزﯾﻊ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت ﻣن اﻟﻣوردﯾن إﻟﻰ‬
.‫اﻟﻣﺗﺎﺟر‬
:‫ﯾﮭﺗم ﺑﺈدارة اﺛﻧﯾن ﻣن اﻟﺗدﻓﻘﺎت اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ‬
‫• اﻟﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣﺎدي ﻟﻠﺑﺿﺎﺋﻊ اﻟﻣﺎدﯾﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣوردﯾن ﻋﺑر ﻣراﻛز اﻟﺗوزﯾﻊ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﺗﺎﺟر ؛‬
‫ وﺗزوﯾد اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت ﻣن‬، ‫• ﺗدﻓﻖ ﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت ﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟطﻠب ﻣن اﻟﻌﻣﯾل اﻟﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺷراء واﻟﻣوردﯾن‬
.‫ ﺑﺣﯾث ﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﺧطﯾط ﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣواد واﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﯾﮫ ﺑدﻗﺔ‬، ‫اﻟﻣوردﯾن إﻟﻰ ﺑﺎﺋﻊ اﻟﺗﺟزﺋﺔ‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
The logistics task of managing material flow and
information flow is a key part of the overall task of supply
chain management.
Supply chain management is concerned with managing the
entire chain of processes, including raw material supply,
manufacture, packaging and distribution to the endcustomer.
‫ﺗﻌد اﻟﻣﮭﻣﺔ اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ ﻹدارة ﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣواد وﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت ﺟزًءا أﺳﺎﺳﯾًﺎ ﻣن اﻟﻣﮭﻣﺔ اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻹدارة‬
.‫ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
‫ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ذﻟك ﺗورﯾد اﻟﻣواد اﻟﺧﺎم واﻟﺗﺻﻧﯾﻊ‬، ‫ﺗﮭﺗم إدارة ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ﺑﺈدارة ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت ﺑﺄﻛﻣﻠﮭﺎ‬
.‫واﻟﺗﻌﺑﺋﺔ واﻟﺗﻐﻠﯾف واﻟﺗوزﯾﻊ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻌﻣﯾل اﻟﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
The Tesco UK supply chain structure comprises three main functions:
• distribution: the operations and support task of managing Tesco’s
distribution centres (DCs), and the distribution of products from the DCs to
the associated stores;
• network and capacity planning: the task of planning and implementing
sufficient capacity in the supply chain to ensure that the right products can
be pro- cured in the right quantities now and in the future;
• supply chain development: the task of improving Tesco’s supply chain so
that its processes are stable and in control, that it is efficient, and that it is
correctly structured to meet the logistics needs of material flow and
information flow.
:‫ ﻣن ﺛﻼث وظﺎﺋف رﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ‬Tesco UK ‫ﯾﺗﻛون ھﯾﻛل ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
‫ إﻟﻰ‬DC ‫ وﺗوزﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت ﻣن‬،Tesco (DC) ‫ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت وﻣﮭﻣﺔ اﻟدﻋم إدارة ﻣراﻛز ﺗوزﯾﻊ‬:‫• اﻟﺗوزﯾﻊ‬
‫اﻟﻣﺗﺎﺟر اﻟﻣرﺗﺑطﺔ ؛‬
‫ ﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﺗﺧطﯾط وﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﻗدرة ﻛﺎﻓﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ﻟﺿﻣﺎن إﻣﻛﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺔ‬:‫• ﺗﺧطﯾط اﻟﺷﺑﻛﺔ واﻟﻘدرات‬
‫اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت اﻟﺻﺣﯾﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻛﻣﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ اﻵن وﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل ؛‬
‫ ﺑﺣﯾث ﺗﻛون ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎﺗﮭﺎ ﻣﺳﺗﻘرة‬Tesco ‫ ﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﺗﺣﺳﯾن ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ﻓﻲ‬:‫• ﺗطوﯾر ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
‫ وﯾﺗم ﺗﻧظﯾﻣﮭﺎ ﺑﺷﻛل ﺻﺣﯾﺢ ﻟﺗﻠﺑﯾﺔ اﻻﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ ﻟﺗدﻓﻖ‬، ‫ وﺗﻛون ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬، ‫وﻣﺳﯾطر ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ‬
.‫اﻟﻣواد وﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Definitions:
A supply chain is a network of partners who collectively convert a basic
commodity (upstream) into a finished product (downstream) that is
valued by end- customers, and who manage returns at each stage.
Transforms inputs in the form of materials and information into
outputs in the form of goods and services.
:‫ﺗﻌرﯾﻔﺎت‬
‫ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ھﻲ ﺷﺑﻛﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺷرﻛﺎء اﻟذﯾن ﯾﺣوﻟون ﺑﺷﻛل ﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﺳﻠﻌﺔ أﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ )اﻟﻣﻧﺑﻊ( إﻟﻰ ﻣﻧﺗﺞ‬
.‫ واﻟذﯾن ﯾدﯾرون اﻟﻌواﺋد ﻓﻲ ﻛل ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ‬، ‫ﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ )ﻣﺻب( ﯾﺗم ﺗﻘﯾﯾﻣﮫ ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻟﻌﻣﻼء اﻟﻧﮭﺎﺋﯾﯾن‬
.‫ﯾﺣول اﻟﻣدﺧﻼت ﻓﻲ ﺷﻛل ﻣواد وﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت إﻟﻰ ﻧواﺗﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻛل ﺳﻠﻊ وﺧدﻣﺎت‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
SCM encompasses the planning and controlling of all processes
involved in procurement, conversion, transportation and distribution
across a supply chain.
SCM includes coordination and collaboration between partners,
which can be suppliers, intermediaries, third party service
providers, and customers.
SCM integrates supply and demand management within and
between companies in order to serve the needs of the endcustomer.
‫ﺗﺷﻣل إدارة ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد اﻟﺗﺧطﯾط واﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧطوي ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﺷراء‬
.‫واﻟﺗﺣوﯾل واﻟﻧﻘل واﻟﺗوزﯾﻊ ﻋﺑر ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
‫ اﻟذﯾن ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﯾﻛوﻧوا ﻣوردﯾن ووﺳطﺎء وﻣﻘدﻣﻲ‬، ‫ اﻟﺗﻧﺳﯾﻖ واﻟﺗﻌﺎون ﺑﯾن اﻟﺷرﻛﺎء‬SCM ‫ﺗﺗﺿﻣن‬
.‫ﺧدﻣﺎت ﻣن ﺟﮭﺎت ﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ وﻋﻣﻼء‬
.‫ إدارة اﻟﻌرض واﻟطﻠب داﺧل اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت وﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﺑﯾﻧﮭﺎ ﻣن أﺟل ﺗﻠﺑﯾﺔ اﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﻌﻣﯾل اﻟﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬SCM ‫ﺗدﻣﺞ‬
It is the buying behaviour of the
end-customer that causes
materials to flow through the
supply chain.
‫إن ﺳﻠوك اﻟﺷراء ﻟﻠﻌﻣﯾل اﻟﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ ھو اﻟذي ﯾﺗﺳﺑب ﻓﻲ ﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣواد ﻋﺑر‬
.‫ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
SCM encompasses the planning and controlling of all processes involved in
procurement, conversion, transportation and distribution across a supply
chain.
SCM includes coordination and collaboration between partners, which
can be suppliers, intermediaries, third party service providers, and
customers.
SCM integrates supply and demand management within and between
companies in order to serve the needs of the end-customer.
Logistics has both strategic (long-term planning) and managerial (short- and
medium-term planning and control) aspects.
‫ﺗﺷﻣل إدارة ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد اﻟﺗﺧطﯾط واﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧطوي ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﺷراء واﻟﺗﺣوﯾل واﻟﻧﻘل‬
.‫واﻟﺗوزﯾﻊ ﻋﺑر ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
‫ اﻟذﯾن ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﯾﻛوﻧوا ﻣوردﯾن ووﺳطﺎء وﻣﻘدﻣﻲ ﺧدﻣﺎت ﻣن ﺟﮭﺎت‬، ‫ اﻟﺗﻧﺳﯾﻖ واﻟﺗﻌﺎون ﺑﯾن اﻟﺷرﻛﺎء‬SCM ‫ﺗﺗﺿﻣن‬
.‫ﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ وﻋﻣﻼء‬
.‫ إدارة اﻟﻌرض واﻟطﻠب داﺧل اﻟﺷرﻛﺎت وﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﺑﯾﻧﮭﺎ ﻣن أﺟل ﺗﻠﺑﯾﺔ اﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﻌﻣﯾل اﻟﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬SCM ‫ﺗدﻣﺞ‬
‫اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ ﻟﮭﺎ ﺟواﻧب اﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺔ )ﺗﺧطﯾط طوﯾل اﻷﺟل( وإدارﯾﺔ )ﺗﺧطﯾط وﻣراﻗﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣدى اﻟﻘﺻﯾر‬
.(‫واﻟﻣﺗوﺳط‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
1.1.2 Supply chain: structure and tiering
The concept of a supply chain suggests a series of
processes linked together to form a chain. A typical Tesco
supply chain is formed from five such links.
‫ﺗﺗﻛون ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ‬. ‫ﯾﻘﺗرح ﻣﻔﮭوم ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت ﻣرﺗﺑطﺔ ﺑﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ اﻟﺑﻌض ﻟﺗﺷﻛﯾل ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ‬
.‫ اﻟﻧﻣوذﺟﯾﺔ ﻣن ﺧﻣﺳﺔ رواﺑط ﻣن ھذا اﻟﻘﺑﯾل‬Tesco ‫ﺗورﯾد‬
Figure 1.1
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
The additional complexity prompts many authors to refer to supply
networks rather than supply chains, a point we return to shortly.
Logistics today is also concerned with what happens after a product
has been sold. Two major concerns are:
•
•
Reverse logistics: the return of unwanted goods and packaging in
the opposite direction
Waste: the discarding of product at any stage in the supply chain
due to quality problems – for example, the disposal of out-ofdate or damaged stock by a retailer or by an end- customer.
، ‫ﯾدﻓﻊ اﻟﺗﻌﻘﯾد اﻹﺿﺎﻓﻲ اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن اﻟﻣؤﻟﻔﯾن إﻟﻰ اﻟرﺟوع إﻟﻰ ﺷﺑﻛﺎت اﻟﺗورﯾد ﺑدﻻً ﻣن ﺳﻼﺳل اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
‫ﺷﺎﻏﻼن‬. ‫ﺿﺎ ﺑﻣﺎ ﯾﺣدث ﺑﻌد ﺑﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ‬
ً ‫ﺗﮭﺗم اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ اﻟﯾوم أﯾ‬. ‫وھﻲ ﻧﻘطﺔ ﻧﻌود إﻟﯾﮭﺎ ﻗرﯾﺑًﺎ‬
:‫رﺋﯾﺳﯾﺎن ھﻣﺎ‬
‫إﻋﺎدة اﻟﺑﺿﺎﺋﻊ ﻏﯾر اﻟﻣرﻏوب ﻓﯾﮭﺎ واﻟﺗﻌﺑﺋﺔ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺟﺎه اﻟﻣﻌﺎﻛس‬: ‫• اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺎت اﻟﻌﻛﺳﯾﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬- ‫اﻟﺗﺧﻠص ﻣن اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ ﻓﻲ أي ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ ﻣن ﻣراﺣل ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ﺑﺳﺑب ﻣﺷﺎﻛل اﻟﺟودة‬: ‫• اﻟﻧﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
.‫ اﻟﺗﺧﻠص ﻣن اﻟﻣﺧزون اﻟﻘدﯾم أو اﻟﺗﺎﻟف ﻣن ﻗﺑل ﺑﺎﺋﻊ ﺗﺟزﺋﺔ أو ﻋﻣﯾل ﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬، ‫ﺳﺑﯾل اﻟﻣﺛﺎل‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Figure 1.2
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Other terms that are used to describe aspects of managing
the supply chain are:
•
•
Purchasing and supply deals with a focal firm’s
immediate suppliers (upstream).
Physical distribution deals with the task of distributing
products to tier 1 customers (downstream).
:‫اﻟﻣﺻطﻠﺣﺎت اﻷﺧرى اﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧدﻣﺔ ﻟوﺻف ﺟواﻧب إدارة ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ھﻲ‬
.(‫ﺻﻔﻘﺎت اﻟﺷراء واﻟﺗورﯾد ﻣﻊ اﻟﻣوردﯾن اﻟﻣﺑﺎﺷرﯾن ﻟﻠﺷرﻛﺔ اﻟﺑؤرﯾﺔ )اﻟﻣﻧﺑﻊ‬
.(‫ﯾﺗﻌﺎﻣل اﻟﺗوزﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﺎدي ﻣﻊ ﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﺗوزﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻣﻼء اﻟﻣﺳﺗوى اﻷول )اﻟﻣﺻب‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
•
•
•
•
Logistics refers to management of materials
and information.
Inbound logistics deals with links between the focal
firm and its upstream suppliers.
Outbound logistics refers to the links between
the focal firm and its downstream customers.
Internal logistics deals with planning and control of
material flow within the boundaries of the focal
firm.
.‫ﺗﺷﯾر اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺎت إﻟﻰ إدارة اﻟﻣواد واﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت‬
.‫ﺗﺗﻌﺎﻣل اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ اﻟداﺧﻠﯾﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟرواﺑط ﺑﯾن اﻟﺷرﻛﺔ اﻟﻣﺣورﯾﺔ وﻣوردﯾﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻧﺑﻊ‬
.‫ﺗﺷﯾر اﻟﻠوﺟﯾﺳﺗﯾﺎت اﻟﺻﺎدرة إﻟﻰ اﻟرواﺑط ﺑﯾن اﻟﺷرﻛﺔ اﻟﻣﺣورﯾﺔ وﻋﻣﻼﺋﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣراﺣل اﻟﻧﮭﺎﺋﯾﺔ‬
.‫ﺗﺗﻌﺎﻣل اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺎت اﻟداﺧﻠﯾﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺗﺧطﯾط واﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ ﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣواد داﺧل ﺣدود اﻟﺷرﻛﺔ اﻟﻣﺣورﯾﺔ‬
•
•
•
•
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
The essential points of supply chain management were
summarised long ago by Oliver and Webber (1982):
•
•
•
•
Supply chain management views the supply chain
as a single entity.
It demands strategic decision making.
It views balancing inventories as a last resort.
It demands system integration.
Oliver and Webber ‫ﺗم ﺗﻠﺧﯾص اﻟﻧﻘﺎط اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻹدارة ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ﻣﻧذ ﻓﺗرة طوﯾﻠﺔ ﺑواﺳطﺔ‬
:(1982)
.‫ﺗﻧظر إدارة ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد إﻟﻰ ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ﻛﻛﯾﺎن واﺣد‬
.‫ﯾﺗطﻠب اﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرار اﻻﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﻲ‬
.‫وﺗﻌﺗﺑر ﻣوازﻧﺔ اﻟﻣﺧزوﻧﺎت ﻛﺣل أﺧﯾر‬
.‫ﯾﺗطﻠب ﺗﻛﺎﻣل اﻟﻧظﺎم‬
•
•
•
•
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Supply chains should be views as
networks of organizations.
Figure 1.3
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Flow measures the quantity of material (measured in
input terms such as numbers of components, tonnes and
litres) that passes through a given network per unit of
time.
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Figure 1.5 Example of a confectionery network map
(Source: After Zheng et al., 1998)
What is the relationship between
material flow and information
flow?
‫ﻣﺎ ھﻲ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﯾن ﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣواد وﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت؟‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
1.2 Material Flow and Information Flow
Material flow should be synchronous.
It is important to keep materials flowing from
source to end-customer in a supply chain.
To keep unnecessary build-ups of inventory,
flow must be orchestrated so that parts
movement is coordinated.
.‫ﯾﺟب أن ﯾﻛون ﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣواد ﻣﺗزاﻣﻧًﺎ‬
.‫ﻣن اﻟﻣﮭم اﻟﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣواد ﻣن اﻟﻣﺻدر إﻟﻰ اﻟﻌﻣﯾل اﻟﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
.‫ ﯾﺟب ﺗﻧﺳﯾﻖ اﻟﺗدﻓﻖ ﺑﺣﯾث ﯾﺗم ﺗﻧﺳﯾﻖ ﺣرﻛﺔ اﻷﺟزاء‬، ‫ﻟﻠﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺗراﻛم ﻏﯾر اﻟﺿروري ﻟﻠﻣﺧزون‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
1.2 Material Flow and Information Flow
The goal is continuous, synchronous flow. Continuous
means no interruptions, no dropping the ball, no
unnecessary accumulations of inventory. And
synchronous means that it all runs like a ballet. Parts
and components are delivered on time, in the proper
sequence, exactly to the point they’re needed.
‫ وﻋدم‬، ‫ وﻋدم إﺳﻘﺎط اﻟﻛرة‬، ‫ﯾﻌﻧﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﻋدم اﻻﻧﻘطﺎﻋﺎت‬. ‫اﻟﮭدف ھو اﻟﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر واﻟﻣﺗزاﻣن‬
‫ﯾﺗم ﺗﺳﻠﯾم‬. ‫واﻟﻣﺗزاﻣن ﯾﻌﻧﻲ أن ﻛل ﺷﻲء ﯾﺟري ﻣﺛل اﻟﺑﺎﻟﯾﮫ‬. ‫وﺟود ﺗراﻛﻣﺎت ﻏﯾر ﺿرورﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺧزون‬
.‫اﻷﺟزاء واﻟﻣﻛوﻧﺎت ﻓﻲ اﻟوﻗت اﻟﻣﺣدد وﺑﺎﻟﺗﺳﻠﺳل اﻟﺻﺣﯾﺢ وﺑﺎﻟﺿﺑط إﻟﻰ اﻟﻧﻘطﺔ اﻟﻣطﻠوﺑﺔ‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
2. Material Flow and Information Flow
Traditionally, sales were focused as stocked developed.
Xerox realized that they should only make the stock when they
needed it, then ship it to the customer.
Three types of delivery were needed:
• Deliver JIT: Off the shelf commodity products
• Finish JIT: Middle-range products with 5-day window
• Build JIT: Larger products planned months in advance
.‫ ﻛﺎﻧت اﻟﻣﺑﯾﻌﺎت ﻣرﻛزة ﻣﻊ ﺗطور ﻣﺧزون‬، ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺎ‬
.‫ ﺛم ﺷﺣﻧﮫ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻌﻣﯾل‬، ‫ أﻧﮭﺎ ﯾﺟب أن ﺗﺻﻧﻊ اﻟﻣﺧزون ﻓﻘط ﻋﻧد اﻟﺣﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﯾﮫ‬Xerox ‫أدرﻛت‬
:‫ﻛﺎﻧت ھﻧﺎك ﺣﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ أﻧواع ﻣن اﻟﺗﺳﻠﯾم‬
‫ ﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت اﻟﺳﻠﻊ اﻟﺟﺎھزة‬:JIT ‫ﺗﺳﻠﯾم‬
‫أﯾﺎم‬5 ‫ ﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت ﻣﺗوﺳطﺔ اﻟﻣدى ﻣﻊ ﻧﺎﻓذة ﻟﻣدة‬:JIT ‫إﻧﮭﺎء‬
‫ اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت اﻷﻛﺑر اﻟﻣﺧطط ﻟﮭﺎ أﺷﮭر ﻣﻘدﻣﺎ‬:JIT ‫ﺑﻧﺎء‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Figure 1.6 Xerox: the
impact on inventories
How did inventory reduction in
the supply chain lead to
improved competitiveness at
Xerox?
‫ﻛﯾف أدى ﺗﻘﻠﯾل اﻟﻣﺧزون ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد إﻟﻰ‬
‫؟‬Xerox ‫ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻟﻘدرة اﻟﺗﻧﺎﻓﺳﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷرﻛﺔ‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
1.2 Material Flow and Information Flow
Information flow
Customer demand signals the trigger for the supply chain to respond
Demand information is shared across the supply chain by creating a
demand chain to enhance customer value.
IT is used to integrate demand and supply data to keep the entire chain
informed
‫ﺗدﻓﻖ اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت‬
‫ﯾﺷﯾر طﻠب اﻟﻌﻣﯾل إﻟﻰ اﻟداﻓﻊ وراء اﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد‬
.‫ﺗﺗم ﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ ﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت اﻟطﻠب ﻋﺑر ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ﻣن ﺧﻼل إﻧﺷﺎء ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ طﻠب ﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن ﻗﯾﻣﺔ اﻟﻌﻣﯾل‬
‫ﯾﺗم اﺳﺗﺧدام ﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺎ اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت ﻟدﻣﺞ ﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻌرض واﻟطﻠب ﻹﺑﻘﺎء اﻟﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ ﺑﺄﻛﻣﻠﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اطﻼع‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
Figure 1.7 Integrating
demand and supply chains
How do products win orders in
the marketplace? How does
logistics contribute to
competitive advantage?
‫ﻛﯾف ﺗﻔوز اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت ﺑﺄواﻣر ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳوق؟ ﻛﯾف ﺗﺳﺎھم اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﯾزة اﻟﺗﻧﺎﻓﺳﯾﺔ؟‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
1.3 Competing through logistics
Within a given supply chain, it is important that each
organisation understands how each group of products
competes in the marketplace, and that it aligns its
capabilities with those of its partners.
Product = physical product + accompanying service
‫ ﻣن اﻟﻣﮭم أن ﺗﻔﮭم ﻛل ﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ ﻛﯾف ﺗﺗﻧﺎﻓس ﻛل ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺟﺎت ﻓﻲ‬، ‫ﺿﻣن ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ ﺗورﯾد ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ‬
.‫ وأن ﺗﻘوم ﺑﻣواءﻣﺔ ﻗدراﺗﮭﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻗدرات ﺷرﻛﺎﺋﮭﺎ‬، ‫اﻟﺳوق‬
‫ اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﺻﺎﺣﺑﺔ‬+ ‫اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ = اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ اﻟﻣﺎدي‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
3. Competing through logistics
Key advantage provided by logistics is:
• Availability of conforming product in the marketplace at low cost
Logistics supports competitiveness of the supply chain by:
• Meeting end-customer demand through supplying what is
needed in the form it is needed, when it is needed, at a
competitive cost.
:‫اﻟﻣﯾزة اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻘدﻣﮭﺎ اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ ھﻲ‬
‫• ﺗواﻓر اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ اﻟﻣطﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳوق ﺑﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻧﺧﻔﺿﺔ‬
:‫ﺗدﻋم اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺎت اﻟﻘدرة اﻟﺗﻧﺎﻓﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ﻣن ﺧﻼل‬
‫• ﺗﻠﺑﯾﺔ طﻠب اﻟﻌﻣﯾل اﻟﻧﮭﺎﺋﻲ ﻣن ﺧﻼل ﺗوﻓﯾر ﻣﺎ ھو ﻣطﻠوب ﺑﺎﻟﺷﻛل اﻟﻣطﻠوب ﻋﻧد اﻟﺣﺎﺟﺔ وﺑﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ‬
.‫ﺗﻧﺎﻓﺳﯾﺔ‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
3. Competing through logistics
Logistics advantage means setting
goals that are:
• Clear
• Measurable
• Quantifiable
Hard objectives for
creating logistical
advantage
• Quality
• Time
• Cost
‫اﻟﺗﻧﺎﻓس ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ‬
:‫ﺗﻌﻧﻲ اﻟﻣﯾزة اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻷھداف اﻟﺗﻲ ھﻲ‬
‫• واﺿﺢ‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺑل ﻟﻠﻘﯾﺎس‬
‫• ﻗﺎﺑل ﻟﻠﻘﯾﺎس اﻟﻛﻣﻲ‬
‫أھداف ﺻﻌﺑﺔ ﻟﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﯾزة ﻟوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ‬
‫• ﺟودة‬
‫• ز ﻣن‬
‫• ﻛﻠﻔﺔ‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
3. Competing through logistics
Hard Objectives
•
•
•
Quality- the most visible aspect of supply chain performance
Time – measures how long a customer has to wait in order to
receive a given product or service
Cost – is important for all supply chain processes because they
translate into price advantages
‫اﻟﺗﻧﺎﻓس ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ‬
‫أھداف ﺻﻌﺑﺔ‬
‫ اﻟﺟﺎﻧب اﻷﻛﺛر وﺿوًﺣﺎ ﻓﻲ أداء ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد‬- ‫• اﻟﺟودة‬
‫ ﯾﻘﯾس اﻟﻣدة اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﺟب أن ﯾﻧﺗظرھﺎ اﻟﻌﻣﯾل ﻣن أﺟل اﻟﺣﺻول ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻧﺗﺞ أو ﺧدﻣﺔ ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ‬- ‫• اﻟوﻗت‬
‫ ﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﻟﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ﻷﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﺗرﺟم إﻟﻰ ﻣزاﯾﺎ ﺳﻌرﯾﺔ‬- ‫• اﻟﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
3. Competing through logistics
Supportive capabilities are three more ways for creating
logistical advantage with regards to hard objectives:
•
•
•
Controlling variability in logistics processes
Dealing with uncertainty
Sustainability
:‫اﻟﻘدرات اﻟداﻋﻣﺔ ھﻲ ﺛﻼث طرق أﺧرى ﻟﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﯾزة ﻟوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻷھداف اﻟﺻﻌﺑﺔ‬
‫• اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﺑﺎﯾن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ‬
‫• اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻋدم اﻟﯾﻘﯾن‬
‫• اﻻﺳﺗداﻣﺔ‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
3. Competing through logistics
Supportive Capabilities
•
•
•
Controlling variability in logistics processes – Variability refers to
real and identifiable differences within a population
Dealing with uncertainty – uncertainty refers to our lack of
knowledge and having to deal with unpredictable events
Sustainability – addresses the improvement of social and
environmental issues in the design of logistics systems.
‫اﻟﻘدرات اﻟداﻋﻣﺔ‬
‫ ﯾﺷﯾر اﻟﺗﺑﺎﯾن إﻟﻰ اﺧﺗﻼﻓﺎت ﺣﻘﯾﻘﯾﺔ ﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﺣدﯾدھﺎ‬- ‫• اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﺑﺎﯾن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت اﻟﻠوﺟﯾﺳﺗﯾﺔ‬
‫داﺧل اﻟﺳﻛﺎن‬
‫ ﻋدم اﻟﯾﻘﯾن ﯾﺷﯾر إﻟﻰ اﻓﺗﻘﺎرﻧﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﺔ واﻟﺣﺎﺟﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ‬- ‫• اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻋدم اﻟﯾﻘﯾن‬
‫اﻷﺣداث ﻏﯾر اﻟﻣﺗوﻗﻌﺔ‬
.‫ ﺗﺗﻧﺎول ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻟﻘﺿﺎﯾﺎ اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ واﻟﺑﯾﺋﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺻﻣﯾم اﻷﻧظﻣﺔ اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ‬- ‫• اﻻﺳﺗداﻣﺔ‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
3. Competing through logistics
Controlling variability
Variability undermines the dependability with which a product or service meets
target.
Dependability is used to monitor a supplier’s
performance in such terms as:
•
On-time – percentage of orders delivered on-time and the variability against the
target
•
In-full – percentage of orders delivered complete
and the variability against the target
•
On-quality – percentage of defects and the variability against the
target.
‫اﻟﺗﺣﻛم ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﺑﺎﯾن‬
.‫ﯾﻘوض اﻟﺗﺑﺎﯾن اﻻﻋﺗﻣﺎدﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﺣﻘﻖ ﺑﮭﺎ اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ أو اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟﮭدف‬
‫ﯾﺗم اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻻﻋﺗﻣﺎدﯾﺔ ﻟﻣراﻗﺑﺔ اﻟﻣورد‬
:‫اﻷداء ﻣن ﺣﯾث‬
‫ اﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ اﻟﻣﺋوﯾﺔ ﻟﻠطﻠﺑﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗم ﺗﺳﻠﯾﻣﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟوﻗت اﻟﻣﺣدد واﻟﺗﺑﺎﯾن ﻣﻘﺎﺑل اﻟﮭدف‬- ‫• ﻓﻲ اﻟوﻗت اﻟﻣﺣدد‬
‫ اﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ اﻟﻣﺋوﯾﺔ ﻟﻠطﻠﺑﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗم ﺗﺳﻠﯾﻣﮭﺎ ﻣﻛﺗﻣﻠﺔ واﻟﺗﺑﺎﯾن ﻣﻘﺎﺑل اﻟﮭدف‬- ‫• ﻛﺎﻣل‬
.‫ اﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ اﻟﻣﺋوﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﯾوب واﻟﺗﺑﺎﯾن ﻣﻘﺎﺑل اﻟﮭدف‬- ‫• ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺟودة‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
3. Competing through logistics
Dealing with Uncertainty
Dealing with uncertainty means responding rapidly to unknown problems
that affect logistics processes. The implication of uncertainty for supply
chain processes is that they need to be flexible.
Flexibility comes in two basic forms:
• Proactive – to create the capability in advance to handle uncertainty
• Reactive – to cope with uncertainty in a focal firms internal or external
environment
‫اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻋدم اﻟﯾﻘﯾن‬
‫ﯾﻌﻧﻲ اﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻋدم اﻟﯾﻘﯾن اﻻﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﺳرﯾﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺷﻛﻼت ﻏﯾر اﻟﻣﻌروﻓﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗؤﺛر ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت‬
‫اﻵﺛﺎر اﻟﻣﺗرﺗﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋدم اﻟﯾﻘﯾن ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ اﻟﺗورﯾد ھﻲ أﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﺣﺗﺎج إﻟﻰ أن ﺗﻛون‬. ‫اﻟﻠوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺔ‬
.‫ﻣرﻧﺔ‬
:‫ﺗﺄﺗﻲ اﻟﻣروﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻛﻠﯾن أﺳﺎﺳﯾﯾن‬
‫ﻹﻧﺷﺎء اﻟﻘدرة ﻣﺳﺑﻘًﺎ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻋدم اﻟﯾﻘﯾن‬- ‫• اﺳﺗﺑﺎﻗﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ ﻋدم اﻟﯾﻘﯾن ﻓﻲ ﺑﯾﺋﺔ داﺧﻠﯾﺔ أو ﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺷرﻛﺎت اﻟﻣﺣورﯾﺔ‬- ‫• رد اﻟﻔﻌل‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
1.3 Competing through logistics
Sustainability
Sustainability is defined as the development that meets the needs of
the present without compromising future generations.
The three sustainability values are:
Environmental – a focal firm is concerned with reducing consumption of
non-renewable energy and materials.
Social – ensuring that goods are manufactured in socially responsible
conditions
Economic – the net value that a firm generates after social and
environmental values have been taken into account.
‫اﻻﺳﺗداﻣﺔ‬
.‫ﯾﺗم ﺗﻌرﯾف اﻻﺳﺗداﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧﮭﺎ اﻟﺗطوﯾر اﻟذي ﯾﻠﺑﻲ اﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﺣﺎﺿر دون اﻟﻣﺳﺎس ﺑﺎﻷﺟﯾﺎل اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬
:‫ﻗﯾم اﻻﺳﺗداﻣﺔ اﻟﺛﻼث ھﻲ‬
.‫ ﺗﮭﺗم ﺷرﻛﺔ ﻣﺣورﯾﺔ ﺑﺗﻘﻠﯾل اﺳﺗﮭﻼك اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ واﻟﻣواد ﻏﯾر اﻟﻣﺗﺟددة‬- ‫اﻟﺑﯾﺋﺔ‬
‫ ﺿﻣﺎن ﺗﺻﻧﯾﻊ اﻟﺑﺿﺎﺋﻊ ﻓﻲ ظروف ﻣﺳؤوﻟﺔ اﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾًﺎ‬- ‫اﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬
.‫ ﺻﺎﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﯾﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗوﻟدھﺎ اﻟﺷرﻛﺔ ﺑﻌد أﺧذ اﻟﻘﯾم اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ واﻟﺑﯾﺋﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻻﻋﺗﺑﺎر‬- ‫اﻗﺗﺻﺎدي‬
Chapter 1: Logistics and the Supply Chain
3. Competing through logistics
Case Study 1.3: Measuring schedule variability
Scheduled demand = S
Call-off quantity = A
Difference = D
•
•
D=S–A
Produced to schedule S > A and supplier will overproduce and
end up with excess stock
If S < A, the effects could be a reduction in stuck by the supplier or a shortfall (S – A) of parts from the supplier Both conditions have different logistical implications. ‫ﻗﯾﺎس ﺗﻐﯾر اﻟﺟدول اﻟزﻣﻧﻲ‬1.3: ‫دراﺳﺔ اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ = اﻟﻔرق‬D ، ‫ = ﻛﻣﯾﺔ اﻻﺳﺗدﻋﺎء‬A ، ‫ = اﻟطﻠب اﻟﻣﺟدول‬S D=S–A ‫ وﺳﯾﻔﺿﻲ اﻟﻣورد ﻓﻲ اﻹﻧﺗﺎج وﯾﻧﺗﮭﻲ ﺑﮫ اﻷﻣر ﺑﻣﺧزون ﻓﺎﺋض‬S> A ‫ﺗم إﻧﺗﺎﺟﮫ وﻓﻘًﺎ ﻟﺟدول‬
‫( ﻓﻲ اﻷﺟزاء ﻣن اﻟﻣورد‬S – A) ‫ ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﻛون اﻵﺛﺎر اﻧﺧﻔﺎض ﻓﻲ ﺗوﻗف اﻟﻣورد أو ﻧﻘص‬،S
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