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Public Administration:
An Indispensable
Part of Society
“The care of human life and happiness…
is the first and only legitimate object
of good government.”
THOMAS JEFFERSON
Third President of the United States
(1743–1846)
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
|
1
OVERVIEW
• Introductions
• Syllabus Review
• Public Administration – History
• Essential Characteristics
• Truths and Myths
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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2
INTRODUCTION
Who are public servants?
Identify three people who you think serve the public, including
their professions and how they serve the public.
• What do all these people have in common? What is their
common interest/goal?
• How does government serve and affect its citizens on a
daily basis through these professions?
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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3
Government from an Organizational Perspective
• Federal
• State
• Municipal
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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4
Government from a Financial Perspective
• Sources
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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5
Government from a Financial Perspective
• Uses
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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6
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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7
Government Services and Accountability
• Nonprofit
• Private
• Role of the Public Administrator
• Truths and Myths of Bureaucracies
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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8
IN-CLASS EXERCISE
Harness the Power of Public Service
(Exercise 1.3)
President Bill Clinton addresses Rutgers University students
regarding the value of public service and civic engagement.
Harness the Power of Public Service – September 29, 2009
• What key messages would you deliver concerning the
importance of public service?
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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9
WRAP-UP
Public Administration:
An Indispensible Part of Society
• What is Public Administration?
• What are the Essential Characteristics of Government?
• What are the Truths and Myths?
Preparation for next class: Read Chapter 2
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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10
Organizational Theory
And Management
“When in charge, ponder; when in trouble,
delegate; when in doubt, mumble.”
JAMES H. BOREN
Author; Founder of the International Association
of Professional Bureaucrats, 1970
Organizational Theory and Management
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1
OVERVIEW
• Review Last Class – Key Topics
• Key Terms – Organization Theory
• Historical Perspective of Organization Theory
• Public Administration – Major Contributors
Organizational Theory and Management
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2
INTRODUCTION
X-Y Theory Questionnaire
(Exercise 2.2)
Score the statements on a scale of 0 to 5.
• Is your current work situation X or Y ?
Organizational Theory and Management
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3
Organizational Theory and Management
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4
EVOLUTION OF ORG THEORY
Classical
Era
Neo-Classical
Era
Humanizing
Theory
• Taylor
• Simon
• Parker-Follett
• Weber
• Merton
• Maslow
• Gullick & Urwick • Waldo
• Fayol
• McGregor
• Selznick
• Barnard
Organizational Theory and Management
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5
The Contemporary Theories
• Structural
• Systems
• Quality
• Economic
• Culture
• NPR
Organizational Theory and Management
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6
IN-CLASS EXERCISE
Managerial Priorities
(Exercise 2.1)
Rate the most important managerial qualities.
• Discuss your results with the person next to you.
Organizational Theory and Management
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7
WRAP-UP
Organizational Theory
and Management
• The Evolution of Organizational Theory
• Major Contributors
Preparation for next class: Read Chapter 3
Organizational Theory and Management
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8
Managing Human
Resources
“No duty the Executive had to perform
was so trying as to put the right man
in the right place.”
THOMAS JEFFERSON
Third President of the United States
(1743–1846)
Managing Human Resources
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1
OVERVIEW
• Review Last Class – Key Topics
• Define Human Resources Management
• Identification, Recruitment, and Retention Strategies
• Public Service Motivation
• Strategies to Build a Motivated Workforce
Managing Human Resources
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2
INTRODUCTION
What motivates you?
(Exercise 3.1)
Complete the sentences with the first words
that come to mind.
Managing Human Resources
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3
HR Management
• A Definition – Tactical & Strategic
“Leadership is all about people. It is not about
organizations. It is not about plans. It is not
about strategies. It is all about people–
motivating people to get the job done.
You have to be people-centered.”
COLIN POWELL
U.S. Army General;
Former Secretary of State
Managing Human Resources
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4
Recruitment
• External Strategies
• Internal Strategies
Managing Human Resources
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5
Development
• Supervision
• Training
• Motivating
• Evaluating
Managing Human Resources
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6
Managing Human Resources
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7
Employee Assistance
• Prevention
• Intervention
• Counseling
Managing Human Resources
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8
Culture
• Creating Affirmative Culture
• Team Work
Managing Human Resources
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9
IN-CLASS EXERCISE
Exercise in Counseling
(Exercise 3.4)
Create your own model counseling session script to present to
the class.
• Are the goals of performance appraisals being met?
• Are the objectives of employee counseling being fulfilled?
• Does your script follow the guidelines for effective employee
counseling?
Managing Human Resources
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10
WRAP-UP
Managing Human
Resources
• A Definition
• A Strategy for Recruitment – Retention
• A Strategy for Motivating
Preparation for next class: Read Chapter 4
Managing Human Resources
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11
Classic Era
A- Frederick Taylor
He is the pioneer of The Principles of Scientific Management, which updated the idea of
optimizing productivity. His four principles of scientific management are the baseline of the
classical management period of public administration.
The principles of scientific management contain four principles.
1- The first principle encompasses the adoption of laws and formulas to determine the most
efficient ways of completing tasks. Standard work procedures were believed to stimulate
productivity—and more importantly profit. Taylor, a mechanical engineer by profession,
implemented the use of time-and-motion studies to determine the highest level of worker
output in accordance with a particular procedure. To motivate workers and maximize
output, Taylor advocated adherence to stringent working procedures and tied employee
production levels to earnings: he paid workers on a piece-rate basis.
2- The second principle of Taylor’s scientific management theory entails studying the
capabilities of workers. By doing so, management can better identify the inherent
strengths and limitations of each worker and offer special training to maximize his or her
capabilities
3- Taylor’s third principle of scientific management is the fusing together of work
procedures and specialized training. “You may develop all the science that you please,”
noted Taylor (1911), “and you may scientifically select and train workmen just as much
as you please, but unless some man or some men bring the science and the workmen
together all your labor will be lost.” The fusion of procedures and training is arguably the
most important responsibility of management, and the success of scientific management
is contingent upon an equal division of responsibility between management and workers.
4- The final, principle of Taylorism. An equal division of labor is advantageous, given the
fact that management can better supervise its workers, thereby ensuring adherence to
standard procedures. Moreover, according to Taylor, dividing labor promotes
cooperation, which reduces the likelihood of serious disputes. Productivity and efficiency
are the primary ends of scientific management. Standard work procedures, as developed
through empirical examination, specialized training, and divided labor serve as the means
to those ends.
B- Frank and Lillian Gilbreth: Stewards of Scientific Management
They taught workers how to be more productive and efficient.
C- Max Weber The Weberian Bureaucracy
Max Weber was a German sociologist and educator. His model of bureaucracy includes several
components that reflect Taylor’s principles. According to Weber the bureaucratic models possess
stringent hierarchical components, whereby authority is centralized. This notion of bureaucracy
mandates uniform procedures, which are to be executed in an impersonal fashion. For example,
Weber advocated the use of written documents as a means of establishing formal lines of
communication, which ultimately reinforce a member’s powers and responsibilities within the
context of the organization’s hierarchical structure. . The viability of a bureaucracy is contingent
upon technical expertise and appropriate training.
D- Luther Gulick, Lyndall Urwick
Building on the principles of Taylor and Weber, Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick (1937)
developed the notion of POSDCORB—a set of organizational processes that offer executives a
tangible understanding of administration. POSDCORB stands for planning, organizing, staffing,
directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting, all of which are functional responsibilities of a
chief executive. Gulick and Urwick’s major goal was to develop the framework for designing
and running the most effective organizations
E- Henri Fayol 14 principles of management
Henri Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management
1. Division of work. Specialization allows for continuous improvement in skills and
methods, which leads to increased productivity.
2. Authority. The right to give orders and the expectation that they will be followed comes
with responsibility.
3. Disciplin . Employees are expected to obey the rules. At the same time, the management
should provide good leadership.
4. Unity of command. This is the “one master principle.” That is, a worker should answer to
one superior and only one superior to avoid conflicting lines of command.
5. Unity of direction. A single mind establishes a single plan that everybody in the
organization has a role in.
6. Subordination of individual interest to the common interest. When at work, employees
must focus only on work-related activities, while the management ensures that they stay
focused on the achievement of organizational goals.
7. Remuneration of personnel. Payment is an important motivator and should be fair,
although Fayol points out that there is no perfect system of remuneration.
8. Centralization refers to the consolidation of management functions. Decisions flow from
top to bottom.
9. Scalar chain (or line of authority) is a formal chain of command running from top to
bottom of the organization whereby superiors have authority over and responsibility for a
number of subordinates,
10. Order. All materials and personnel have a proper place.
11. Equity means equality of treatment
12. Stability of personnel tenure. Employees work better if they have some measure of job
security and future career prospects. High employee turnover will affect the organization.
13. Initiative. Affording employees opportunities to take initiative is a means of building a
strong organization.
14. Esprit de corps or unity of employed people. Management must foster the morale,
harmony, and cohesion among its employees.
Fayol believed his principles of management were universal and applicable to any type of
organization. The most important among them are specialization, unity of command,
scalar chain, authority, and unity of direction (the last two are referred to as “coordination”
by managers)
The Neo-Classical School
1- Herbert Simon’s Skepticism
Widely accepted classical management principles suggest that productivity and efficiency
are a function of specialization, hierarchy, a limited span of control, and unity of
command and direction. According to Herbert Simon (1946), however, these principles
are merely “proverbs,” as they are not grounded in scientific research. Simon believed that
the classical management principles of administration should be tested.
2- Robert Merton’s Challenge
Like Simon’s challenge of the classical principles, Robert Merton challenged the
Weberian model of bureaucracy during this neo-classical period. As discussed in the
context of classical management, the Weberian model of bureaucracy is hierarchical:
power is centralized, individual responsibilities are jurisdictional, and uniform procedures
are executed in the interest of efficiency. Weber championed rationalization and legal
order. According to his model, control and power are sources of stability, and they exist
within the context of a dominant-subordinate relationship.
Merton acknowledged the inherent tension between bureaucratic and democratic
principles, most notably because the Weberian model is predicated on secrecy.
Transparency and citizen participation are seemingly nonexistent within the context of
Weber’s model, as Merton points out in his book Social Theory and Social Structure
(1957, p. 102): “Bureaucracy is administration which almost avoids public discussion of
its techniques.” He further contends that the Weberian bureaucracy engenders
organizational rigidity, whereby an organization’s members are unable to adapt to
changing conditions because patterns of behavior are programmed.
3- Philip Selznick
Philip Selznick’s discussion of informal organizations within the formal organization
departs from classical principles. In simplest terms, informal organizations are cliques that
are grounded in personal relationships. These cliques can cut across the formal
organizational hierarchy—as vice presidents, managers, and rank-and-file employees can
form an informal organization.
Selznick also introduces the concept of organizational co-optation (1949). Co-optation
deals with bringing new or outside elements into an organization’s leadership or decision-
making structure. The purpose of doing so is to protect the organization from potential
threats. ‫مثال مشروع في منطقة معينة وراح يخدم سكان المنطقة بس له بعض االضرار الجانبية فنقوم باشراك ناس‬
‫من نفس المنطقة في عملية اتخاذ القرار حتى نخفف من أي مظاهرة محتملة للرفض‬
4- Chester Barnard
Barnard differs from the classical theorists in that he stresses the importance of
monetary and nonmonetary work incentives in an effort to secure greater worker
cooperation. This, in turn, leads to greater organizational stability and improved
worker performance. Classical theory assumes that worker cooperation is a function of
money and negative reinforcement (e.g., wage reductions, punishment, threats of
punishment).
Barnard discusses eight types of worker incentives: • Material inducements(money) •
Personal nonmaterial opportunities • Desirable physical conditions of work • Ideal
benefactions • Habit and attitude conformity • Opportunity for participation •
Associational attractiveness • Condition of communion
The Human Side of Organizational Management
1- Mary Parker Follett
Follett stressed the importance of effective leadership. Organizational leaders must
be able to unify individuals, resolve conflicts, demand performance, and delegate
authority without dehumanizing an individual.
2- Stumbling Upon Human Relations Theory
Human relations theory emerged with the Hawthorne experiments, which were
conducted for studying productivity in accordance with Taylor’s scientific
management principles
The Hawthorne experiments further demonstrated that, under Taylorism, workermanagement relationships fostered behaviors that adversely affected organizational
efficiency and productivity. The solution was not to increase wages, as Taylor
would have prescribed. On the contrary, it was discovered that workers’ needs
extend beyond economic considerations
3- Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor
The unanticipated results of the Hawthorne experiments engendered a scholarly
movement that altered the dynamics of organizational theory. This, in turn,
fostered the ascendance of scholars such as Abraham Maslow (1943) and Douglas
McGregor
Maslow states that motivation is predicated upon five fundamental needs, known as the needs
hierarchy
Regarded as one of the most influential organizational humanists, McGregor offered two
conflicting management theories, each of which makes specific assumptions regarding human
nature. They are Theories X and Y
Theory X:
Assumes that individuals dislike work, and they avoid it whenever possible. This makes intense
supervision necessary, because workers typically shun responsibility and are frequently
incapable of solving problems.
Under Theory X, workers are motivated by:
Economic factors, threats, and punishment. This theory represents a classical Weberian closed
model, which is reminiscent of a quasi-military structure.
Theory Y : is an open model that assumes that individuals enjoy work and embrace
responsibility and that most people are capable of self-direction and prefer not to be
micromanaged. Theory Y further assumes that individuals possess the ingenuity to solve
complex problems through creative means.
According to this theory, management should afford its workers the latitude to achieve individual
goals through self-directed efforts. This will help to achieve organizational goals

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