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‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬
‫وزارة التعليم‬
‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Education
Saudi Electronic University
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 2
Public Management (MGT 324)
Due Date: 06/08/2022 @ 23:59
Course Name: Public Management
Student’s Name:
Course Code: MGT324
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: Summer Semester
CRN:
Academic Year:2021-22-Summer
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name: Ms. Maryam H Alsobhi
Students’ Grade: /15
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
•
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•
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The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced
for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No
pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Learning Outcomes:
Demonstrate different management and leadership styles for different situations (LO 3.1)
Develop the ability to rise to ethical issues and challenges in the context of public management (LO 3.3)
Analyze data for public management policies (LO 3.8)
Use information technology for fast and effective means of communication to address public management issues 3.2
Assignment Question(s):
1. Part 1 (Read Chapter 6) (5 Marks)
a. Discuss the idea of federalism. Write a detailed note on the models used to explain how
the federalist system works. (2 Mark)
b. Explain in detail the two types of federal grants. (1.5 Marks)
c. Discuss various types of shared services. (1.5 Marks)
2. Part 2 (Read Chapter 8 and 10) (5Marks)
a. Define the concept of program evaluations. Discuss various methods of collecting
empirical data. Write two advantages and disadvantages for each method. (2 Marks)
b. Discuss various theories of leadership. Briefly explain the types of leadership power.
(3 Marks)
3. Part 3 (Read Chapter 11 and 12.) (5Marks).
a. What are ethics? Discuss the need for administrative ethics. (1.5 Marks)
b. Write a short note on fourteen principles of ethical conduct for Federal Employees. (1
Mark)
c. Discuss the role of technology in present day organizations. What security challenges
are faced by the public organization? Discuss the role of knowledge management in
present day organizations? (2.5 Marks)
Support your answers for each part of the assignment with proper references.
Answers
1. Answer2. Answer3. Answer-
Public Administration:
An Introduction
Marc Holzer, PhD
Dean and Board of Governors Professor
School of Public Affairs and Administration
Rutgers University – Newark, New Jersey
Richard W. Schwester, PhD
Associate Professor
John Jay College of Criminal Justice
The City University of New York (CUNY)
ROUTLEDGE
Routledge
Taylor & Francis Group
LONDON AND NEW YORK
First published 2011 by M.E. Sharpe
Published 2015 by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017, USA
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
Copyright © 2011 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by
any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,
including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
Notices
No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to
persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise,
or from any use of operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas
contained in the material herein.
Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and
knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or
experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should
be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for
whom they have a professional responsibility.
Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and
are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.
While every effort was made to contact copyright holders of the materials
printed here, we apologize for any inadvertent omissions. If acknowledgement
is missing, it would be appreciated if the publisher were contacted
so that this can be rectified in any future edition.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Holzer, Marc.
Public administration : an introduction / by Marc Holzer and Richard W. Schwester.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978–0–7656–2120–7 (pbk)
1. Public administration. 2. Public administration—Decision making. 3. Policy
sciences. I. Schwester, Richard Wilmot, 1977– II. Title.
JF1351.H65 2011
351—dc22
2010040045
About the Authors
Marc Holzer
Dean Holzer (MPA, PhD University of Michigan) is Dean of
the School of Public Affairs and Administration, and Board of
Governors Professor of Public Affairs and Administration,
at Rutgers University’s Newark Campus. He is a Fellow of
the National Academy of Public Administration and a Past
President of the American Society of Public Administration.
Since 1975, he has directed the National Center for Public
Performance, and he is the founder and editor-in-chief of the
journals Public Performance and Management Review and Public Voices, and is the
co-founder/co-editor of the Chinese Public Administration Review. He has also
recently founded the Public Performance Measurement and Reporting Network. His
research, service, and teaching has been honored by awards from the National
Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, the American Society
of Public Administration, and the Chinese Public Administration Society. He has
published well over one hundred books, monographs, chapters and articles.
Richard W. Schwester
Professor Schwester (MA, PhD Rutgers University) is an
Associate Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice at
the City University of New York. His research interests include
the use of technology in government, e-government, prison
privatization, critical incidents, and inter-local shared services. Some of Professor Schwester’s most recent work appears
in Public Budgeting and Finance, Public Performance and
Management Review, Public Administration Quarterly,
International Journal of Public Administration, and the International Journal of
Organization Theory and Behavior.
Public Administration: An Introduction
iii
PREFACE
We have written a textbook that is distinct from the dozens of public administration
texts now in the academic marketplace. Our vision is a unique blend of substance
and style—a text that is both informative and enlivening, capturing the evolving nature of the field.
A unique aspect of this volume vis-à-vis other textbooks is the extensive use of
visuals. Artwork depicts bureaucratic issues, reinforcing each chapter’s themes
and creating an informative and aesthetically engaging textbook. Charts, graphs,
diagrams, and illustrations add dimensions to the text’s overviews of public
administration.
Of course, this text covers the traditional, essential elements of public administration such as organizational theory, human resource management, leadership, program evaluation, budgeting, and the politics of public administration. But it strives
to do so in a contemporary way, addressing, for example, the changing role of intergovernmental relations in Chapter 6, including the federalist structure as well
as interlocal shared services and regional consolidation initiatives.
Public performance is treated as an indispensable subfield of public administration. Chapter 7 is devoted to performance-related topics such as knowledge sharing and training, total quality management, performance measurement, and the
social aspects of organizational performance. Although these topics may be present
throughout traditional texts, they are usually scattered over several chapters, underemphasizing the importance of public performance. Given the current economic
climate, a focus on efficiency and effectiveness is increasingly important in the field
of public administration.
The emergence of e-government and the growing role of technology in public administration are introduced in Chapter 12. Technology has and will continue to
change the way we interact and transact business with government on a daily
basis. This chapter delves into emerging technologies of knowledge management,
Geospatial Information Systems (GIS), the use of Internet applications as participatory and service delivery media, 311 call centers, and computer mapping
programs.
As a departure from the more orthodox model typical of other texts, Chapter 13 of
this book examines the field of public administration and public service through
the lens of popular culture. Countering the all-too-common image of bumbling bureaucrats, this chapter demonstrates that dedicated public servants add a great deal
of value to the services government has promised its citizens. This chapter also provides helpful resources for people interested in engaging with government and professional networks that address critical quality-of-life issues.
iv
PREFACE
Each chapter is complemented by key terms and supplementary readings. Beyond
those “standard” resources that are present in any introductory text, video cases
and simulations offer a gateway to engaging students, encouraging them to immerse themselves in virtual problem solving experiences—testing theory and skills
through real-time practical applications. Students are challenged to evaluate the
actions and decisions of public administrators and elected officials based on the
theoretical models and best practices provided in the specific chapter. These cases
focus on single and multisector issues that allow for the best collaborative thinking
of those students evaluating the problem. The simulations, also tailored to each
chapter topic, offer students a place to apply theory to practice in a decisionmaking role rather than in an evaluative one as is with the case studies. Students
will deal with issues related to unemployment, budgeting, the environment, crime,
and education. These computer- and Internet-based learning tools allow students
to test their decision-making skills and to evaluate the results of those decisions in
a pure learning environment—applying theory to practice. All of the electronic resources are free to the user—avoiding additional costs to students and representing a sample of similarly accessible resources on the Web, YouTube, and other
media outlets.
This text, then, is very much a dynamic learning system rather than a static volume. We expect that it will not only enliven the teaching of public administration
but will markedly improve the learning experience and help motivate students of
public service to become problem-solving public servants.
Our thanks to the team that helped us construct this text and whose research
and critiques improved it immensely: Dan Bromberg, Peter Hoontis, Iryna
Illiash, Jyldyz Kasymova, Anna Bolette Lind-Valdan, Emily Michaud, Yetunde
Odugbesan, and Ginger Swiston.
This book could not have been completed without the assistance of a number of
dedicated individuals. In particular, we wish to thank Harry Briggs, Elizabeth
Granda, Angela Piliouras, Stacey Victor, and Jim Wright.
Public Administration: An Introduction
v
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
Public Administration:
An Indispensable Part of Society . . . . . . . . 2
Government Requires Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
What Do We Get for All of These Resources? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
How Government Is Organized to Deliver Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
How Government Serves Others. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
What, Then, Is Public Administration?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Key Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
CHAPTER 2
Organizational Theory
and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Theories of Managerial Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
The Classical Management Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
The Neo-Classical School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
The Human Side of Organizational Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Contemporary Organizational Theories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Structural Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Systems Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
W. Edwards Deming and Japanese Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Organizational Economic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Organizational Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
National Performance Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
CHAPTER 3
Managing Human Resources . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Human Resources Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Productive Human Resource Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Cultivating and Maintaining a High-Quality Diverse Workforce . . . . . . . 91
Creating a Quality Work Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
CHAPTER 4
Public Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
How Decisions Are Made . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
The Nature of Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Theoretical Models of Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Dysfunctions in Decision Making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Public Administration: An Introduction
vii
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
CHAPTER 5
Politics and Public Administration . . . . 172
The Intersection of Politics and Administration . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Reform and Neutrality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
The Reality of Bureaucratic Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Checking Bureaucratic Discretion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Case Citations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
CHAPTER 6
Intergovernmental Relations . . . . . . . . . . 198
The Layers of Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
The Idea of Federalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Interlocal Shared Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Improving Performance via Intragovernmental
and Intergovernmental Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 7
Public Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Improving Government Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
The Importance of Knowledge Sharing and Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Total Quality Management: Customer Focus
and Responsive Public Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Issues in Organizational Responsiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Measuring Performance to Improve Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
The Role of Privatization in Government Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
CHAPTER 8
Program Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
What is Program Evaluation? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
How to Collect Empirical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Conducting Evaluations and the Importance of Stakeholders . . . . . . . 266
Ethical Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
CHAPTER 9
Public Budgeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Budgeting Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Public Administration: An Introduction
ix
The Federal Budget Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Types of Budgets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Where Do Governments Get This Money? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Theories of Budgeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
CHAPTER 10
Public-Sector Leadership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Leading People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Management Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Prevailing Leadership Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Types of Leadership Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
CHAPTER 11
Ethics and Public Administration . . . . . 348
Administrative Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
What Are Ethics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Bureaucracy and Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Formal Rules and Bureaucratic Discretion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
x
TABLE OF CONTENTS
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Electronic Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
CHAPTER 12
Technology and
Public Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
High Tech Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Technology Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
The Network and Its Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Knowledge Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
The Basics: Database Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Convergence and Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
The Connected Society: Trends and
Opportunities Facing Public Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
CHAPTER 13
Public Service and
Popular Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Public Servants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
The Image of the Public Servant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
The Real Public Servant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Capturing the Attention of Youth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Public Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Public Administration: An Introduction
xi
Networks and Professional Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Key Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
CHAPTER 14
The Future of
Public Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
The Evolution of Public Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Governance Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Performance Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
Citizen Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Globalization: The Internationalization of
Public Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
E-Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Transparency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Key Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Supplementary Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
xii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Public Administration:
An Introduction
Public Administration: An Introduction
xiii
CHAPTER 1
Public Administration:
An Indispensable
Part of Society
This chapter introduces the reader to the foundational
elements of government and public administration. It reviews
many of the essential characteristics of government, such as
revenue collection, government expenditures, and government
workforce. It also presents an overview of the services that
government provides and how those services affect citizens
on a daily basis. Furthermore, this chapter constructs a
working definition of public administration and discusses key
concepts that are essential to the field.
2
CHAPTER 1
“The care of human life and happiness…
“Management is the science of which
is the first and only legitimate object
organizations are but experiments.”
of good government.”
JOHN CONSTABLE
THOMAS
JEFFERSON
English Romantic
Painter
Third President
of the United States
(1776-1837)
(1743–1846)
Environmental Police Unit Officers with the Department of Sanitation of
New York take precautions when dealing with hazardous waste.
Postal Workers Mural
Public Administration: An Indispensible Part of Society
3
GOVERNMENT REQUIRES RESOURCES
There is no question that government spends a great deal of money. And theoretically—just like any other organization—the government must make money before
it can spend money. So, where does government get its money and how does it
spend it? How does this process affect people on a daily basis? These are just some
of the questions we will answer in this introductory chapter.
Let’s start with the basics. Like all organizations, the government typically must
take in money before expending it. In rare situations, government can spend money
it did not collect; that will be discussed in Chapter 9, “Public Budgeting.” Unlike
organizations in the private or nonprofit sectors, government has the power to tax.
Taxation, one of the federal government’s constitutional rights under the founding
documents of the United States, is necessary to support the three branches of government, particularly the executive branch with its wide
array of functions. State constitutions extend that taxing
“What made you
power to states, which then authorize counties, cities,
choose this career
towns, villages, and special districts to levy taxes.
is what made me
go into politics—a
chance to serve, to
make a difference.
It is not just a job.
It is a vocation.”
Governments are considered sovereign bodies, holding the
highest authority in a specific region; therefore, government is granted unique powers under which it may implement its authority. Taxation is one of those unique powers.
Unlike companies, which make money by selling a product
or a service, the government takes in funds by taxing its citTONY BLAIR
izenry. These taxes are collected by local, state, and federal
Prime Minister of
GreatBritain
agencies and pay for a broad range of services that meet
citizens’ daily needs. The nature of these needs will be discussed throughout this chapter, but first we will sketch out the amount of money
government spends on a yearly basis.
In 2007 (the latest year for which the actual state and local spending figures
were available at the time this book was written) the federal, state, and local
governments in the United States spent over $4 trillion. Federal spending represented about 63 percent of all spending by governments. The U.S. federal government spent about $2.7 trillion, and state and local governments spent about
$1.6 trillion.
To understand the impact that government spending has on the economy of the
United States, it is sometimes helpful to use economic terms. One often-used term
for gauging the nation’s economy is the gross domestic product (GDP). The GDP is
a measure based on the amount of goods and services produced within the borders
of the United States. There are numerous ways to measure this figure, but the most
straightforward is simply to add together the total amount of money spent on pro-
4
CHAPTER 1
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
5
U.S. Supreme Court
Department of
Justice
Department of
the Interior
Department of
Labor
Department of
Defense
Independant Establishments
and
Government Corporations
Department of
State
Department of
Education
Department of
Transportation
Department of
Energy
Source: Washburn University School of Law, U.S. Federal Resources, www.washlaw.edu/doclaw/orgchart/mainog.html.
Department of
Commerce
Department of
Agriculture
Federal Judicial Center
Drug Control Policy
Trade Representative
Department of
Treasury
Department of
Health and
Human Serv.
Department of
Veterans
Affairs
Department of
Housing and
Urban Dev.
Sentencing Commission
U.S. Tax Court
Court of Military Appeals
Science & Technology
The White House
Congr. Budget Office
Court International Trade
Environmental Quality
OMB
Technology Assesment
Library of Congress
U.S. Court of Appeals
The President
Executive Office of the President
GPO
GAO
Judicial
Branch
Executive
Branch
The Constitution
Legislative
Branch
FIGURE 1.1 – U.S. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
ducing these goods and services. Understandably, one may think that the GDP
measures only the private sector’s economic activity; in reality, however, public sector activity makes up a large percentage of the GDP. Federal, state, and local government spending was approximately 32 percent of the U.S. GDP in 2007 (see
FIGURE 1.2 – TOTAL GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES (IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
State and Local
Government Expenditure:
$1591.1
Federal Government Outlays:
$2730.2
Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 200. “Budget of the U.S.
Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy09/hist.html.
FIGURE 1.3 – GOVERNMENT SPENDING AS A PERCENTAGE OF GDP (IN BILLIONS
OF DOLLARS)
GDP of the United States (2007) in current dollars: $13,667.5
Government Spending = 32% of GDP:
$4,321.3
$9,346.3
Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 200. “Budget of the U.S.
Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy09/hist.html.
6
CHAPTER 1
Figures 1.2 and 1.3). It is important to remember that government not only provides an array of services with the money it spends but that such spending contributes significantly to the health and stability of the nation’s economy.
To spend trillions of dollars, governments need to take in as much money every
year—a feat that is accomplished through both taxation and fee-based services.
Among the various taxes government collects from its citizens is the sales tax, which
is typically levied by states. Sales taxes are encountered at most retail stores when a
good is sold to the final customer in a transaction. A majority of states do not tax food
purchases, and many other goods and services such as medical care, landscaping,
salon, and taxi and courier services are exempt from taxation in some states. In 2008
sales taxes ranged from zero in states such as New Hampshire and Alaska to 7.25
percent in California; county or local sales taxes often add to those taxes at the cash
register. Other common levies—including the income tax, property tax, inheritance
tax, and excise tax—are used to create the revenue needed to provide the public services that citizens expect and demand. In addition, tolls on roads, bridges, and tunnels are considered a direct tax for the use of integrated transportation networks.
A large part of government funding at the federal level comes from employment taxes,
FIGURE 1.4 – COMPOSITION OF SOCIAL INSURANCE AND RETIREMENT RECEIPTS,
2000–2007
Railroad retirement/pension fund: Railroad social security equivalent account:
Trust Funds:
$1.952.000
$2,309,000
Hospital Insurance:
$184.908,000
Disability insurance (Off-Budget):
$92,188,000
Trust funds (Off-Budget):
$542,901,000
Total1: $824,258,000
Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 2008. “Budget of the U.S.
Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy09/hist.html. Note: Unless
otherwise noted, all receipts shown in this figure are trust funds and on-budget.
1
On-budget and off-budget.
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
7
which are directed toward specific social programs that generally provide support for
citizens when they have reached the age of retirement or are disabled. Among the programs covered by payroll taxes are Social Security benefits and Medicaid and Medicare
insurance. Employees also contribute to U.S. unemployment insurance and to the pension funds of the federal workforce. These revenue sources are collected and used in a
FIGURE 1.5 – 2007 TOTAL GOVERNMENT RECEIPTS (IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
State and Local Government
Non-Interest Receipts:
$1,420.5
Federal Government Receipts:
$2,568.2
Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 2008. “Budget of the U.S.
Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy09/hist.html.
FIGURE 1.6 – 2007 GOVERNMENT RECEIPTS BY SOURCE (IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
Excise Taxes:
$65,069
Other:
$99,878
Individual Income Taxes:
$1,163,472
Social Insurance and
Retirement Receipts:
$869,607
Corporation income Taxes:
$370,243
Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 2008. “Budget of the U.S.
Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy09/hist.html.
8
CHAPTER 1
different manner than other revenue sources: They are earmarked, or set aside, as
trust funds for the benefit of those who paid in (see Figure 1.4). The money put in by
users will be taken out by users when they are in need of various insurance programs.
Government funds also come from fees. These fees make up a smaller portion of a
government’s income and tend to be more significant on the state and local levels.
Fees are charged for access to certain desirable locations, such as public beaches or
state parks. Fees may also be charged for obtaining a driver’s license, a passport, or
FIGURE 1.7 – 2008 U.S. MILITARY SPENDING VS. THE WORLD
(IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS AND % OF WORLD TOTAL)
Latin America
$39
3%
Russia
$70
5%
Middle East/
N. Africa
$82
5%
Central/ Sub-Saharan
South Asia
Africa
$30
$10
2%
1%
East Asia /
Austrailia
$120
United States
$711
48%
8%
China
$122
8%
Europe
$289
20%
2008 Total Military Spending: $1.473 Trillion
Source: Global Issues. 2010. “World Military Spending.” http://www.globalissues.org/article/75/world-military-spending#WorldMilitarySpending.
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
9
to get a building permit for an addition to a house or to build in a certain location.
Figures 1.5 and 1.6 indicate the total extent of government revenue.
What exactly does the public sector spend money on? A large portion of federal expenditures go toward defense and other international programs. In 2007 the U.S.
Department of Defense (DoD) had a budget of about $600 billion. Half of the entire world’s military expenditures are spent by the United States alone (see Figure
1.7). In comparison to other expenditures made by the federal government, DoD
spending accounts for about 22 percent of the federal budget. Another large portion
of the federal government’s spending goes toward the insurance programs mentioned earlier, such as Social Security and Medicare. Because the government is required by law to pay for such programs, they are often referred to as mandatory
expenditures. In 2007 the federal government spent about $1 trillion on Social Security and Medicare. That accounts for almost 40 percent of the federal budget. In
total, funds spent on defense, Social Security, and Medicare make up about 60 percent of all federal expenditures.
Federal spending makes up about 65 percent of all government expenditures, with
state and local governments accounting for the other 35 percent. In 2007 state and
local government budgets in the United States exceeded $1.5 trillion—money used by
government to provide a range of services its citizens access on a daily basis. This
spending contributes significantly to the country’s economy and employment, and it
allows government to provide selected services that would otherwise be challenging to
provide on a private basis. Figure 1.8 shows a breakdown of all government spending.
FIGURE 1.8 – 2007 TOTAL GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES BY MAJOR CATEGORY
(IN BILLIONS OF DOLLARS)
Other Federal:
$223.2
State and Local:
$1,568.6
Net Interest:
$259.5
Defense and International:
$581.1
Federal Payments
for Individuals
(including Social
Security
and Medicare):
$1688.8
Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 2008. “Budget of the U.S.
Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy09/hist.html.
10
CHAPTER 1
The federal, state, and local governments in the United States employed about 23
million people in 2007. Millions of others were employed to fill public sector positions via contractual relationships with private organizations: management consultants, temporary workers, technicians, and the like. According to the Bureau of
Labor Statistics (BLS) as of September 2007, this amounts to approximately 17 percent of all employed individuals in the United States, not including farm payroll
(BLS 2007). According to Paul Light, the Paulette Goddard Professor of Public
Service at New York University and the former director of Governmental Studies at
the Brookings Institution, as of 2002 the number of people employed by federal
contracts was about 8 million (Light 2003). This underscores the importance of
government employment in relationship to the U.S. economy.”
The federal government, while the largest single government employer, employs far
fewer people than the combined state and local governments throughout the nation.
In addition, over the past several decades, the federal labor force has been decreasing steadily, while the state and local labor forces have been increasing in size. In
1980, for example, the federal government employed more than 4.9 million people
(military and civilian); nine years later, its ranks peaked at nearly 5.3 million employees. Since then, the federal government has been scaling back the size of its labor
force. As a percentage of the U.S. workforce, it declined from about 5 percent in 1989
to 3 percent in 2007, meaning more than a million jobs were shed in less than 20
FIGURE 1.9 – GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT AND PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION, 2007
Total U.S. Population (2007): 301,621,000
Government Employees =
7.8% of Total U.S. Population:
23,665,000
Source: U.S. Government Printing Office, Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 2008. “Budget of the U.S.
Government: Historical Tables Fiscal Year 2009.” http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy09/hist.htm.
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
11
years. At the same time, state and local levels have been behaving in just the opposite manner. In 1980 state and local governments employed nearly 13.4 million people. This number increased to over 19 million in 2007, accounting for about 14
percent of the total U.S. workforce. Although state and local governments increased
their labor force by about 6 million people over three decades, in comparison to the
growth of the U.S. population, this number is not out of proportion, and as a percent
of the total workforce it constitutes about 13 percent. Thus, total government employment (federal, state, local) has stayed somewhat consistent—on average—since
1980, representing about 17 percent of the total workforce, with a high in 1980 of
18.4 percent. It is now (as of 2007) about 16 percent of the entire workforce. Figure
1.9 summarizes personnel figures for local, state, and federal governments.
Clearly, a significant portion of the U.S. workforce is employed by the government.
FIGURE 1.10 – FEDERAL GOVERNMENT CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES BY FUNCTION,
DECEMBER 2007
Other and Unallocable
Libraries
Other Education*
Space Research & Technology
Postal Service
Nat Defense/International Relations
Natural Resources
Housing and Community Development
Parks and Recreation
Social Insurance Administration
Hospitals
Health
Public Welfare
Water Transport & Terminals
AirTransportation
Highways
Correction
Police
Judicial and Legal
Other Government Administration
Financial Administration
0
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Governments Division Employment and Payroll. 2010. “Historical Data”
http://www2.census.gov/govs/apes/07fedfun.pdf.
*Includes Department of Education and the National Science Foundation, plus parts of the Bureau of Indian
Affairs.
12
CHAPTER 1
What do all of these people do? On the state and local levels it is more challenging to
identify how the numbers break down exactly, but on the federal level we can classify employees by their designated function. Figure 1.10 illustrates that the two largest
employee categories, by far, are National Security and the U.S Postal Service.
What Do We Get for All
of These Resources?
Citizens of the United States come in contact with government on a daily basis—often
without even realizing it. From the moment you wake up in the morning, government
helps ensures your health, safety, and well-being. It continues to do so while you sleep.
In the morning you expect to wake to your alarm clock rather than some pesky
noise such as a lawnmower, construction, or a barking dog. Typically, you will not
hear such noises because government helps to regulate such activities. In New York
City, for example, construction activity is not allowed to begin until 7:00 a.m. Likewise, a citizen may not use equipment such as a lawnmower or a leaf blower before
7:00 a.m. Such policies go a long way toward fostering respect among neighbors.
In addition to noise ordinances, thousands of other ordinances facilitate the creation and maintenance of a livable
“And so, my fellow
environment. They range from how citizens should deal
Americans, ask not
with waste removal to whether or not they may purchase
what your country
and use fireworks. Ordinances—enforced by public sercan do for you; ask
vants—help to establish reasonable norms by which we
what you can do
conduct our daily activities.
for your country.”
Beyond municipal ordinances, broader laws and regulaJOHN F. KENNEDY
tions help us function in our daily activities. The simple act
35th President of the
United States
of obeying a stop sign may seem commonplace—and sensible—but what might happen if we did not have laws in
place that require us to drive in a certain manner? Government has codified these
very basic rules of the road. We know that drivers must stop their vehicles when approaching a red light and slow down when approaching a yellow light. These rules
allow traffic to flow in an organized manner.
What about water consumption? It seems like second nature to turn on a water
faucet and get a glass of cold drinkable water, or to request a glass of water with
your meal while dining at a restaurant. Although we typically do not think about the
cleanliness and safety of this water, it is clear that somebody must. That is why we
rely on government. The federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting a national standard for drinking water and ensuring that none
of the 90 different types of banned contaminants taint our water system. In total,
the United States has over 170,000 water systems and on average delivers about
100,000 gallons of water annually to each residence (EPA 2010). Most Americans
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
13
rarely think about the complexity of this infrastructure and the amount of support
and control required to keep the supply of drinkable water safe and easily accessible. It is important to remember, though, that access to clean, safe water is not
cheap; according to the United Nations (2010), nearly 20 percent of the world’s
population does not benefit from having clean drinking water.
The government not only establishes these ordinances, laws, and regulations but
also serves as a major provider of services such as public education. From the moment you enter kindergarten until you graduate at the end of your senior year of
high school, the U.S. education system provides the tools you need to become a responsible adult. Throughout the United States in any given year, there are about
50 million school-age children attending elementary, middle, or high schools—a
total of 97,000 public schools. To maintain such an expansive system requires a
great deal of pooled resources in the form of public sector budgets.
While children are at school, adults are generally at work. Although we may rarely think
twice about the dangers that might occur at the workplace, the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) does. This federal agency is charged with ensuring that
any given workplace provides a safe and healthy environment for all its employees.
Since OSHA’s creation in 1971, on-the-job injuries have decreased by 61 percent and fatalities by 44 percent. A decrease on such a large scale cannot happen without a great
deal of planning and work. In 2006 OSHA inspected over 35,000 workplaces. In addition to the federal government, many state agencies conduct inspections, and an additional 58,000 were completed on the state level that same year. Although most of us are
not concerned with work-related injuries on a daily basis, it is important to remember
that one of the main reasons we can afford to be so complacent about workplace safety
is the government’s vigilance in ensuring our protection.
Water Tunnel Is Spectacular Feat
of Engineering—and Hard Work
Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani
Mayor’s WINS Address, Sunday, August 16, 1998 (New York City, 1998)
“New York City has always been a place where seemingly impossible things are made
possible—in business, art, literature and so many other realms—because no other
City can match the ambition, hard work, and perseverance of our people. This Thursday [August 13, 1998], these qualities were on full display in Central Park for the
opening of the Third Water Tunnel—which represents the culmination of decades of
hard work and sacrifice by thousands of New Yorkers.”
14
CHAPTER 1
There are literally thousands of additional programs, services, and interventions that
government initiates and that we encounter every day. Some of the key public sector
services are listed in the section that follows. Although we might not access many on
a daily basis, the safety net they provide allows us to go about our daily routines.
How Government Is Organized
to Deliver Services
The Interstate Highway System
“Although the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1944 authorized designation of a ‘National System of Interstate Highways,’ the legislation did not authorize an initiating program to build it. This act started the initial design of the system, but it was
not until the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 that the system started to be constructed. Currently, the Interstate System is 46,876 miles long. The final estimate
of the cost of the Interstate System was issued in 1991. It estimated that the total
cost would be $128.9 billion, with a Federal share of $114.3 billion.”
(Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration,
“Frequently Asked Questions,” http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/interstate/faq.htm.)
Federal Housing Administration
“The Federal Housing Administration, generally known as ‘FHA,’ is the largest government insurer of mortgages in the world. A part of the United States Department
of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), FHA provides mortgage insurance on
single-family, multifamily, manufactured homes and hospital loans made by FHAapproved lenders throughout the United States and its territories. While borrowers must meet certain requirements established by FHA to qualify for the insurance,
lenders bear less risk because FHA will pay the lender if a homeowner defaults on
his or her loan. FHA has insured over 37 million home mortgages and 47,205 multifamily project mortgages since 1934. Currently, FHA has 5.2 million insured single-family mortgages and 13,000 insured multifamily projects in its portfolio.”
(Source: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, “Federal Housing
Administration Overview,” http://portal.hud.gov/portal/page/portal/HUD/federal_housing_administration.)
Consumer Protection
“If you exercise your right to receive a free credit report, use the National Do Not
Call Registry to block unwanted telemarketing calls, or refer to product warranties,
care labels in your clothes, or stickers showing the energy costs of home appliances,
you are taking advantage of laws enforced by the FTC’s [Federal Trade Commission’s] Bureau of Consumer Protection. The Bureau of Consumer Protection works
to protect consumers against unfair, deceptive, or fraudulent practices in the marketplace. The Bureau conducts investigations, sues companies and people who viPublic Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
15
olate the law, develops rules to protect consumers, and educates consumers and
businesses about their rights and responsibilities. The Bureau also collects complaints about consumer fraud and identity theft and makes them available to law
enforcement agencies across the country.”
(Source: Federal Trade Commission, “About the Bureau of Consumer Protection,”
www.ftc.gov/bcp/about.shtm.)
National Weather Service
“The National Weather Service is a component of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA is an Operating Unit of the U.S. Department of Commerce…. The National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather,
hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories,
adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. NWS data and products form a national information database and infrastructure which can be used by other governmental
agencies, the private sector, the public, and the global community.”
(Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National
Weather Service, “About NOAA’s National Weather Service,” www.nws.noaa.
gov/admin.php.)
Federal Student Financial Aid Programs
“Federal Student Aid’s core mission is to ensure that all eligible individuals benefit
from federal financial assistance—grants, loans and work-study programs—for education beyond high school. The programs we administer comprise the nation’s
largest source of student aid. Every year we provide more than $100 billion in new
aid to nearly 14 million postsecondary students and their families. Our staff of 1,100
is based in 10 cities in addition to our Washington headquarters.”
(Source: Federal Student Aid, “About Us,” http://studentaid.ed.gov/PORTALSWebApp/students/english/aboutus.jsp.)
EXERCISE 1.1
Create a New Government (Simulation)
Working as a team, create a new governing body for your university using the strategy established to create the Iraqi National Assembly as highlighted in the following simulation. Establish a list of the key principles upon which this new
governance structure is based, and explain why each principle is important.
Sarah Kavanagh and Javaid Khan, “A Good Government Is Hard to Build,”
The New York Times: The Learning Network, March 30, 2005,
http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2005/03/30/a-good-government-is-hard-tobuild
16
CHAPTER 1
Food and Drug Safety Programs
“FDA [the Food and Drug Administration] is an agency within the Department of
Health and Human Services and…is responsible for protecting the public health by
assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products
that emit radiation. The FDA is also responsible for advancing the public health by
helping to speed innovations that make medicines and foods more effective, safer,
and more affordable; and helping the public get the accurate, science-based information they need to use medicines and foods to improve their health.”
(Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug
Administration, “Centers and Offices,” www.fda.gov/AboutFDA/CentersOffices/default.htm.)
Federal Emergency Response
“FEMA’s mission is to support our citizens and first responders to ensure that as a
nation we work together to build, sustain, and improve our capability to prepare for,
protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate all hazards.”
“FEMA has more than 3,700 full time employees. They work at FEMA headquarters in Washington D.C., at regional and area offices across the country, the Mount
Weather Emergency Operations Center, and the National Emergency Training Center in Emmitsburg, Maryland. FEMA also has nearly 4,000 standby disaster assistance employees who are available for deployment after disasters. Often FEMA
works in partnership with other organizations that are part of the nation’s emergency management system. These partners include state and local emergency management agencies, 27 federal agencies and the American Red Cross.”
(Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, “About FEMA,” http://www.fema.gov/about/index.shtm#0.)
AMTRAK
“As the nation’s intercity passenger rail operator, Amtrak connects America in
safer, greener and healthier ways. With 21,000 route miles in 46 states, the District of Columbia and three Canadian provinces, Amtrak operates more than 300
trains each day—at speeds up to 150 mph—to more than 500 destinations. Amtrak
also is the operator of choice for state-supported corridor services in 15 states and
for four commuter rail agencies.”
(Source: AMTRAK, “Amtrak Information and Facts,” www.amtrak.com/
servlet/ContentServer/Page/1241256467960/1237608345018.)
United States Post Office
“The United States Postal Service delivers more mail to more addresses in a larger
geographical area than any other post in the world. We deliver to more than 150
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
17
million homes, businesses and Post Office boxes in every state, city, town and borough in this country. Everyone living in the U.S. and its territories has access to
postal services and pays the same postage regardless of his or her location.”
(Source: United States Postal Service, “Postal Facts 2010,” www.usps.com/communications/newsroom/postalfacts.htm.)
Organizational Chart of Municipality—City of Burlington,
New Jersey
“The City of Burlington operates in accordance with the Mayor-Council form of government. The Mayor is the chief executive of the municipality, while the legislative
powers of the City are exercised by the Common Council. The Common Council
consists of seven members, three at-large Councilpersons and one from each of the
four wards, who shall serve for a term of four years. Various boards, committees,
and departments comprise other areas of the City’s government.”
FIGURE 1.11 – CITY OF BURLINGTON ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
CITIZENS
GOVERNING
BODY
A D M I N I S T R A T I O N
MRYOR
COMMON
COUNCIL
BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATOR
MUNICIPAL
CLERK
PUBLIC
SRFETY
DEPT.
PUBLIC
RFFAIRS
DEPT.
LRW
DEPT.
ENGINEERING
DEPT,
HOUSING &
COMMUNITY
DEVT. DEPT.
PUBLIC
WORK
DEPT.
FINANCE
DEPT.
OFFICES
Director
Director
Municipal
Attorney
Director
Director
Director
CFO
Director
Municipal
Court
Tax Rsseesor
Police
Recreation
Prosecutor
Construction
code
Enforcement
Public
Works
Div.
Treasury
Court
Administration
Municipal
Court Judge
Fire
Chirtf
Div.
Public
Relations
[Events]
Public
Defender
Planning &
Zoning
Water
Utility
Div.
Revenue
Fire
Prevention
Div.
Health &
Vital
Statistics
Special
Counsel
Landlord
Registration
Sewer &
Drainage
Div.
Nuisance
Inspection
Public Bldgs.
& Grounds
Div.
Animal
Control
City
Boat
Ramp
Energy
Mgmt.
Historic
Preservation
Commission
Communications
Housing
Programs
& Grants
Tr
affic
Maintenance
Div.
Governing Body
Admin. Departments
Divisions
Recycling
Source: City of Burlington, New Jersey, USA Website. 2008. “The Administration: City Government, Departments & Divisions Organization Chart.” www.burlingtonnj.us/Organiz.html.
18
CHAPTER 1
How Government Serves Others
It is clear that government affects us on a daily basis, but it is important to remember that government not only serves the individual; it lends its resources to a
number of efforts that aid the common good.
Government support for the not-for-profit sector is one example of the public sector
promoting the common good. The not-for-profit sector or nonprofit sector is generally viewed as the charitable arm of American society. What differentiates it from the
private sector? Unlike for-profit companies, organizations in the nonprofit sector are
not driven to increase revenue by an economic bottom line. Rather, they are driven
by a unique mission upon which all of their organizational programs and activities are
focused. Nonprofit organizations typically try to limit their spending on administrative functions and use the bulk of their funding for mission-specific activities.
According to the Urban Institute (2010), about 1.4 million nonprofit organizations account for
5.2 percent of the national GDP. Nonprofit organizations range widely in size and scope of activities. Some nonprofits provide arts, culture, education, envi“The call to service
ronmental monitoring, health care, human services and seemingly
is one of the
endless lists of services that promote the common good. Not only
highest callings
do nonprofits give to the community, they also enable citizens to
give of their time and energy to others. The Bureau of Labor Stayou will hear and
tistics (2010) estimates that approximately 27 percent of adults
your country
(more than 60 million individuals) volunteered at a nonprofit orcan make.”
ganization in 2009. To some degree, many people believe that
LEE H. HAMILTON
nonprofits hold society together.
Former U.S.
Congressman;
How does this have anything to do with government? The
Vice Chairman, 9/11
government supports the nonprofit sector in two primary
Commission
ways: First, it has created a special tax status for nonprofit
organizations that allows them to operate outside of the typical tax structure. Second, government makes direct contributions to nonprofit organizations through
grant funding for specific programs.
The special tax status developed by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) for public
charities—known as 501(c)(3)—provides nonprofit organizations with an exemption from paying federal income tax. It also ensures that all individuals who make
contributions to such organizations can deduct those donations from their own income. To qualify as an exempt organization, nonprofits must follow certain rules.
According to the guidelines listed on the IRS website, they must be organized
specifically for an exempt purpose, as outlined in the following text:
The exempt purposes set forth in section 501(c)(3) are charitable, religious,
educational, scientific, literary, testing for public safety, fostering national
or international amateur sports competition, and preventing cruelty to
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
19
children or animals. The term charitable is used in its generally accepted
legal sense and includes relief of the poor, the distressed, or the underprivileged; advancement of religion; advancement of education or science;
erecting or maintaining public buildings, monuments, or works; lessening
the burdens of government; lessening neighborhood tensions; eliminating
prejudice and discrimination; defending human and civil rights secured
by law; and combating community deterioration and juvenile delinquency.
(IRS.gov, “Exempt Purposes—Internal Revenue Code Section 501(c)(3),”
updated December 7, 2009, www.irs.gov/charities/charitable/article/
0,,id=175418,00.html).
Furthermore, IRS rules indicate that nonprofit organizations cannot be owned by
any private shareholder or individual, and the goal of such organizations cannot be
to increase the wealth of such a person or persons. In addition, to meet this exempt
status, nonprofit organizations cannot exist to promote a
specific political campaign, and they must restrict their lob“No one is useless
bying and advocacy activities.
in this world who
lightens the
burden of it for
someone else.”
Aside from granting a special tax status to not-for-profit
charitable organizations, government also contributes a
great deal of money outright to the nonprofit sector. In
2005 the U.S. government provided about $18 billion in
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
American Statesman;
direct payments to nonprofits; that translates into about
Ambassador; Patriot
30 percent of all revenue for nonprofit organizations in
2005 (Wing, Pollack, and Blackwood 2008). Some of the
recipients of these funds are well-known organizations and typically have a strong
presence in our communities. For instance, the Boys and Girls Clubs of America
received about $81 million in 2005. Their mission is to “enable all young people, especially those who need us most, to reach their full potential as productive, caring,
responsible citizens” (www.bgca.org). For over 40 years, the community-based organization Experience Works, originally called Green Thumb, Inc., has received
about $85 million in government dollars to “improve the lives of older people
through employment, community service, and training” (www.experienceworks.
org). By promoting the nonprofit sector, government is strengthening the fabric of
American civil society.
Another effort by government to enhance the common good is the promotion of research. Although this may sound like an abstract concept that rarely affects the lives
of everyday people, it is just the opposite. One of the main avenues through which
research funding has a broad public impact is the National Institutes of Health, or
the NIH. The NIH was formed in 1887 and is now composed of 27 different research
institutions and groups. It is one of the largest funders of scientific research worldwide. In 2007 the NIH made over 47,000 research awards at a total cost of about
$20 billion. Over its history, the NIH has provided funding for groundbreaking dis20
CHAPTER 1
Accountability
Accountability in the public sector most often boils down to dual aspects: accountability for what and accountability to whom. Typically, accountability is a political
construction. Public managers are accountable to their legislative counterparts. The
delegation of power takes place when Congress assigns its constitutional Article I,
Section 8 powers to the executive branch. Clause 18 of this section specifies that Congress has the power “to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or office
thereof.” While the courts have shifted back and forth on the issue of congressional
delegation, it is clearly stated in the “delegation doctrine” that Congress can delegate
its power to the executive branch as long as the power is accompanied by sufficient
standards or guidelines so the executive branch is controlled by Congress. Therefore,
the chief executive is accountable to the legislature from which power was granted.
In a 2000 article for Public Administration Review, David Rosenbloom highlights
the dimensions of accountability implemented to link public administration to a constitutional framework. Traditionally, the executive branch was seen as being under
the purview of the executive (president) in a top-down accountability scheme. However, as Rosenbloom points out, this is not in line with the U.S. constitutional framework or with the interpretations handed down by the Supreme Court over the years.
As Congress delegates its power, Congress provides oversight for that delegated
power. Rosenbloom (2000) cites four acts passed by Congress to ensure this constitutional accountability: the Administrative Procedures Act, the Federal Advisory
Committee Act (FACA), the Negotiated Rulemaking Act, and the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act.
Other observers divide accountability into a number of schemes and categories such
as Bureaucratic, Legal, Professional and Political (Romzek and Dubnick 1987).
Robert Behn (2001), in his text Rethinking Democratic Accountability, provides further insight into the question of professional accountability. Behn argues that accountability among public administrators should be based on their performance. He
claims that systems of accountability should not be set up to deter behavior; they
should be set up to provide incentives for desirable behavior (Behn 2001).
Implementation
Implementation is a concept that seems straightforward initially but raises many
questions upon further examination. When, for instance, does implementation
(continued)
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
21
(continued)
begin? Who is responsible for implementation? Can the implementers change the
mode of implementation? We look to the formation of the term implementation from
the classic text by Pressman and Wildavsky (1973), Implementation. They write, “Implementation, to us, means just what Webster and Roget say it does: to carry out, accomplish, fulfill, produce, complete.” They authors state that it is a policy that is being
implemented, but they go further, providing a context for implementation. Implementation must have a clear goal; otherwise, it is difficult to determine the success
of the implementation efforts. The challenge in defining implementation in this manner is that often the environment and conditions change. While initially stipulated
with a clear goal, the process may change due to the environment in which the implementation is taking place. Ultimately, “implementers become responsible both
for the initial conditions and for the objectives toward which they are supposed to
lead” (Pressman and Wildavsky 1973).
Those responsible for implementation are sometime referred to as “street-level bureaucrats”—a term coined by Lipsky (1980). These men and women are implementing state policies; they are responsible for providing everyday services, including
police, education, and waste disposal. Lipsky believes this aspect of implementation
has grave consequences for society. He writes, “Thus, in a sense, street-level bureaucrats implicitly mediate aspects of constitutional relationships of citizens to the
state. In short, they hold the key to a dimension of citizenship.”
According to Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., the verb implement means to “CARRY OUT, ACCOMPLISH; especially: to give practical effect to
and ensure of actual fulfillment by concrete measures.”
coveries throughout the scientific community (NIH, 2010). Since 1998 NIH research has contributed to increased prevention of type 2 diabetes, advanced treatments for breast cancer, and new knowledge about the transmission and
suppression of HIV/AIDS. Table 1.1 summarizes some of the scientific breakthroughs made possible by NIH funding (NIH, 2009). This research—funded or
conducted by the NIH—has saved millions of lives. Many other federal agencies
have made similar advancements that dramatically improve our quality of life, including for example the National Science Foundation (2010), the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (2010), and the National Office of Public Health
Genomics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010).
In a world that becomes smaller each day in a technological sense—with, for instance, the ability to transmit information from the United States to China in a mat22
CHAPTER 1
TABLE 1.1 – THE NIH ALMANAC—HISTORICAL DATA
Year Discoveries
1998 Results from a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored clinical trial showed
that women at high risk of developing breast cancer who took the drug tamoxifen
had 49 percent fewer cases of breast cancer than those who did not. Tamoxifen
was hailed as the first drug to prevent breast cancer in women at high risk for the
disease.
1999 A team of investigators led by a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) grantee discovered that a subspecies of chimpanzees native to west
Africa are the origin of HIV-1, the virus responsible for the global AIDS pandemic.
2000 Researchers supported by National Institute of General Medical Sciences
(NIGMS) demonstrated that a simple and inexpensive change in basic surgical
procedures—giving patients more oxygen during and immediately after surgery—
can cut the rate of wound infections in half, thus saving millions of dollars in hospital costs by helping to prevent postsurgical wound infection, nausea, and
vomiting.
2001 A team composed of scientists from National Human Genome Research Institute
(NHGRI) and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS),
grantees of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and National Institute on Aging (NIA), and others demonstrated that adult stem cells isolated
from mouse bone marrow could become functioning heart muscle cells when injected into a damaged mouse heart. The new cells at least partially restored the
heart’s ability to pump blood.
2002 People with elevated levels of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood had nearly
double the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), according to a team of scientists supported by NIA and NINDS. The findings, in a group of participants in NHLBI’s
long-running Framingham Study, are the first to tie homocysteine levels measured several years before with a later diagnosis of AD and the other dementias,
providing some of the most powerful evidence yet of an association between high
plasma homocysteine and later significant memory loss.
2003 Researchers supported by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) found a
gene called 5-HTT that influences whether people become depressed when faced
with major life stresses such as relationship problems, financial difficulties and
illness. The gene by itself does not cause depression, but it does affect how likely
people are to get depressed when faced with major life stresses. Another study led
by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) researchers
found that this same gene affects drinking habits in college students. These studies are major contributions toward understanding how a person’s response to their
environment is influenced by their genetic makeup.
(continued)
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
23
TABLE 1.1 – THE NIH ALMANAC—HISTORICAL DATA
(continued)
Year Discoveries
2004 An international clinical trial concluded that women should consider taking letrozole after five years of tamoxifen treatment to continue to reduce the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. This advance in breast cancer treatment will improve
the outlook for many thousands of women. NCI supported the U.S. portion of the
study, which offered one more example of the ability to interrupt the progression
of a cancer using a drug that blocks a crucial metabolic pathway in the tumor cell.
2005 An HIV/AIDS vaccine developed by scientists at NIAID’s Dale and Betty Bumpers
Vaccine Research Center moved into its second phase of clinical testing in October. This vaccine contains synthetic genes representing HIV subtypes found in
Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia that account about 85 percent of HIV infections worldwide.
2006 NCI-funded research spanning nearly two decades helped lead to U.S. Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) approval for a vaccine to prevent cervical cancer, a
disease that claims the lives of nearly 4,000 women each year in the United States.
It is the first cancer vaccine approved by the FDA.
2007 An experimental vaccine—originally created and tested over the past two decades
by NIAID scientists—appears safe and effective in preventing hepatitis E, a sometimes deadly viral disease prevalent in developing countries. A clinical trial involving nearly 2,000 healthy adults in Nepal, where the virus is widespread, found
that the vaccine was nearly 96 percent effective in preventing hepatitis E during
a follow-up period of about two years.
Source: National Institutes of Health, “The NIH Almanac—Historical Data,” September 1, 2009,
www.nih.gov/about/almanac/historical/chronology_of_events.htm.
ter of seconds—one must also consider the common good outside U.S. borders.
Since the 1980s, globalization has increased at a particularly rapid pace, resulting
in both positive and negative effects. Globalization has changed how Americans do
business and has turned a national economy into a global economy. It has opened
up markets for American products and has allowed for the importation of less expensive goods from developing markets—i.e., China, India, Brazil.
At the same time, U.S. citizens have also witnessed how globalization might affect
their health and safety. Foodborne illnesses such as mad cow disease have traveled
across borders. H1N1 and avian flu strains have entered the United States with relative ease. Globalization has made it easier for terrorists to attack American interests both within and outside the borders of the United States. This new global
environment stresses the need for the U.S. government to increase national security while improving defensive measures on an international scale as well.
24
CHAPTER 1
FIGURE 1.12 – NET COST OF OPERATIONS (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
N E T C O S T O F O P E R A T I O N S (Dollars in Thousands)
$117.152
(1.3%)
$1,386,054
(14.9%)
$459,065
(4.9%)
$1,303,047
(14.0%)
Objective
Peace and Security
Governing Justly and Democratically
Investing in People
Economic Growth
Humanitarian Assistance
Operating Unit Management
$3,000,895
(32.3%)
$3,029,681
(32.6%)
Total
$ 9,295,894
Source: USAID Policy. 2007. “Analysis of USAID’s Financial Statements. Overview of Financial Position.”
www.usaid.gov/policy/afr07/mda_0400.html.
One of the federal government’s most powerful tools in the international arena
is the United States Agency for International Development, or USAID. Created
in 1961 with the primary responsibility of providing long-range social and economic assistance, USAID has a vision of “accelerat[ing] the advance of democracy, prosperity and human well-being in developing countries.” According to
the agency, its mission is to facilitate “human progress in developing countries
by reducing poverty, advancing democracy, building market economies, promoting security, responding to crises, and improving quality of life. Working
with governments, institutions, and civil society, we assist individuals to build
their own futures by mobilizing the full range of America’s public and private
resources through our expert presence overseas” (USAID 2008). To accomplish
that mission, USAID has five strategic goals around which it organizes its operations: Peace and Security, Governing Justly and Democratically, Investing in
People, Economic Growth, and Humanitarian Assistance. As displayed in Figure
1.12, in FY 2007 the total net cost of USAID operations was about $9.3 billion,
and less than 2 percent of that was spent on management. More than $8 billion
was spent on foreign aid.
Since its inception in 1961, USAID has revolutionized the concept of foreign assistance programs. According to the USAID website:
•
More than 3 million lives are saved every year through USAID immunization programs.
•
Oral rehydration therapy, a low cost and easily administered solution
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
25
EXERCISE 1.2
Jennifer Government: NationStates (Simulation)
In this nation-building simulation game, students take charge of a country and test
their ability to improve its performance. Your decisions may reduce crime, improve
educational achievement, lift people out of poverty, and accelerate economic growth.
But improving performance is dependent upon the performance metrics you chose
to establish. After completing the simulation, students will summarize the plan of action they have taken, justify those actions, and assess the outcomes of their decisions. In groups of three to five students, compare their strategies and results.
Jennifer Government: NationStates, www.nationstates.net
developed through USAID programs in Bangladesh, is credited with
saving tens of millions of lives around the globe.
26
•
There were 58 democratic nations in 1980. By 1995, this number had
jumped to 115 nations.
•
Life expectancy in the developing world has increased by about 33
percent, smallpox has been eradicated worldwide, and as of 2009, the
number of the world’s chronically undernourished has been reduced
by 50 percent.
•
The United Nations Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade, in
which USAID played a major role, resulted in 1.3 billion people receiving safe drinking water sources, and 750 million people receiving
sanitation for the first time.
•
With the help of USAID, 21,000 farm families in Honduras have been
trained in improved land cultivation practices that have reduced soil
erosion by 70,000 tons.
•
Agricultural research sponsored by the United States sparked the
“Green Revolution” in India. These breakthroughs in agricultural technology and practices resulted in the most dramatic increase in agricultural yields and production in the history of humankind, allowing
nations like India and Bangladesh to become nearly food self-sufficient.
•
In the past 50 years, infant and child death rates in the developing
world have been reduced by 50 percent, and health conditions around
the world have improved more during this period than in all previous
human history.
•
Early USAID action in southern Africa in 1992 prevented massive
famine in the region, saving millions of lives.
CHAPTER 1
•
Literacy rates are up 33 percent worldwide in the last 25 years, and
primary school enrollment has tripled in that period.
(Source: www.usaid.gov/policy/afr08/afr08_brochure.pdf)
Some observers may question the amount of money the U.S. government spends on
foreign assistance. Some may think that money can be better spent within the borders of the United States. Ultimately, the answers to those questions remain a political decision. Nevertheless, it is clear that without U.S. assistance, the world
would be a much different place. Whether through supporting the nonprofit community, investing in research, or providing assistance to the international community, federal government support enhances the quality of life as we know it. But
what about local governments? What efforts can we identify that improve the quality of our lives on a local level?
Governments around the country continually take innovative initiatives to deliver
public services as promised in their charters, by their elected officials, and by the
appointed public servants who are committed to continuous improvement. For example, the city of Chicago makes enormous investments in police services. In 2002
the Chicago Police Department (CPD) launched the Citizen and Law Enforcement
Analysis and Reporting (CLEAR) program. CLEAR is a broad database of crime
statistics. The data are, in general, openly accessible through websites and provide
both police officers and citizens detailed crime information in response to their inquiries. CLEAR data are displayed utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. Citizens may engage
“Government is a
the system in multiple ways: First, they can report incitrust, and the
dents through CLEAR. According to the website, those reofficers of the
ports “should be criminal, quality of life or neighborhood
government are
disorder in nature, which affects more than one person and
trustees; and both
should be addressed by the police, city services and the
the trust and the
community” (Chicago Police Department 2008). Second,
trustees are
citizens may sign up to receive regular updates of crime stacreated for the
tistics within a certain area. Areas can be defined by ward,
benefit of the
beat, district, etc. Finally, citizens can form block groups,
people.”
such as those associated with small, geographically defined
HENRY CLAY
communities, or they can be represented as vertical block
American Statesman
groups for residents of one building. Once a block group is
formed, data about that specific block will then be posted
in the CLEAR database. The database can also be useful to police officers. According to Governing magazine, police officer Brian Joseph Tierney claimed it has
helped him deal with criminals as he walks the beat: “It’s very deflating to them,”
he says, “when some character finds out that I know he’s lying to me because I was
able to pull up his picture with the touch of a finger.” Tierney’s experience must be
felt by others. Crime in Chicago has been decreasing by about 6 percent each year
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
27
since the system was initiated in 2002. Based upon Chicago’s success, similar systems are being implemented throughout the United States.
Public Services Are Provided by
Dedicated Public Servants
It is ironic that the many deeply personal services of government, only a few of
which have been described here, are often provided by anonymous public servants
who rarely gain personal recognition. That is the government with which most
Americans are familiar—a bureaucracy staffed by civil servants with no faces and no
names. Every day millions of public servants provide the services that make our
lives more secure, healthy, and vibrant.
Dr. Rajiv Jain is the Chief of Staff and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
(MRSA) Program Director within the Department of Veterans Affairs. Jain received
his Doctor of Medicine from Saurashtra University in India. He then continued his
training at the University of Connecticut and at the University of Virginia Hospital
in Charlottesville, Virginia. He has won many awards for his outstanding work dealing with MSRA.
In the United States, about 100,000 people die each year from infections contracted
during hospital stays. MRSA is one of the major causes of those infections. Dr. Jain’s
work has led to the reduction of MRSA-caused infections by about 60 percent. If implemented throughout the United States, his techniques would reduce the number of
deaths by about 60,000 people and decrease the number of infections (which has now
reached about 2 million) by 1.2 million. Many other medical personnel—though unrecognized—are helping him implement this program: “I think the [Service to America] award should really go to the people [working in the hospitals] because, although
we came up with the idea, they are the ones carrying it out every day” (Lu 2009). What
was originally intended to be a short stint at Veterans Affairs has turned into 29 years—
a dedicated life of serving the public. Jain believes, “The fact that you are serving the
public to me is absolutely the icing on the cake” (Service to America 2008).
EXERCISE 1.3
Harness the Power of Public Service (Video)
President Bill Clinton addresses Rutgers University students regarding the value of
public service and civic engagement. Access the following website and watch the
video. What key messages would you deliver concerning the importance of public
service? Augment your answer with information from other videos on this site that
deal with the impact of public service on community building.
Rutgers Newark Public Service, “Harness the Power of Public Service,”
September 29, 2009, www.youtube.com/RUPubServe
28
CHAPTER 1
Rarely do we acknowledge a particular public servant who keeps our community
safe or teaches our children on a daily basis. World War II veteran Osceola L.
Fletcher (Ozzie) is a public servant whose career spans 60 years. Not only did he
serve as an officer in the New York Police Department for 24 years, but he continued to work another 15 years as a teacher in the New York City Public Schools and
then went on to become a community relations specialist in
the Brooklyn District Attorney’s office. He was honored
“We know that
with a Sloan Public Service Award, at which time the
government
can’t
Brooklyn District Attorney stated: “Ozzie Fletcher’s long
solve all our
and distinguished career epitomizes what it means to be a
problems—and
we
public servant” (Fund for the City of New York 2009, p. 2).
don’t want it to.
In Ozzie’s own words, “Everything I have done is a continBut we also know
uum of the kind of public service I believe in. I have had
that there are
the opportunity to work with such a wonderful diversity of
some things we
people—something that was not possible when I was growcan’t do on our
ing up. It is important to connect generations to each other;
otherwise we lose perspective on the meaning of what came
own. We know that
before and what lies ahead, and how to achieve a less conthere are some
tentious world” (Fund for the City of New York 2009).
things we do better
Bureaucracy—Functional or Not?
together.”
BARACK OBAMA
Bureaucracy is the structure within which virtually all gov44th President of the
ernment organizations operate and is characteristic of
United States
large, private concerns, as well. The concept of a bureaucracy is to ensure that goods and services can be produced
or provided in the most efficient manner possible. Max Weber (1922/2004), an
eminent German sociologist and organizational theorist, defined bureaucracy as
having the following characteristics:
I.
Jurisdictional boundaries—which are typically prescribed by laws or administrative regulations.
II. Hierarchy—which ensures an ordered system where superiors monitor
subordinates.
III. Reliance on written documents (or the preservation of files).
IV. Expertly trained managers.
V. The management of the organization subscribes to general rules, which
can be learned and applied uniformly more or less.
It has become commonplace to associate negative stereotypes with bureaucrats.
These are often perpetuated by groups seeking smaller government, politicians
looking to place blame, or citizens involved in uncomfortable interactions or transactions. But these stereotypes often have little basis in fact. The career officials who
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
29
work for government are typically productive, dedicated members of society. Politicians will often blame an incompetent bureaucracy when a policy fails but rarely
credit the same bureaucratic officials when a policy is successfully implemented.
A common claim is that those who work in the public sector receive too much money
for the amount of time that they work. This is especially common in discussions of
teachers. The assumption is that they work fewer hours a day than other professionals and have long vacations throughout the year and in the summer. But a recent
study by the Time Committee (2007)—established by the State of Hawaii Board of
Education—found that teachers in Hawaii work an extra 1,780 hours a year preparing for class, grading papers, attending school events, etc. Even if that figure is somewhat exaggerated, the study suggests that teachers are actually underpaid for the
amount of hours they spend working in a professional capacity (Joint Hawaii State
Teachers Association and Board of Education Time Committee 2007).
Not only do teachers spend more time working in a professional capacity than is
typically acknowledged, but they work in a far more turbulent environment than
many other professionals. During the 2006–2007 school year, students aged 12
to 18 were the victims of 1.7 million nonfatal crimes, and about 10 percent of
teachers in urban schools were threatened with harm or violence (National Center for Education Statistics 2009). In the 2003–2004 school year, more than
120,000 teachers reported being physically attacked by a student. That vulnera-
At Age 112, Montana Resident Reflects on
More Than a Century of Changes
WILLIAM MARCUS [PBS]: And who, of all those presidents, who’s your favorite?
WALTER BREUNING: Well, I think Roosevelt done the most when he created Social Security and made several changes. But, you know, the second war, if he hadn’t
opened up at that time, Roosevelt would have had a tough time.
WILLIAM MARCUS [PBS]: How would you counsel future generations to be a part
of their country?
WALTER BREUNING: Everybody learns from life what’s going on. And if they pay
attention to everything that people do, especially helping people, that’s one big thing.
A lot of people think they’re born for themselves; I don’t think that. I believe that
we’re here to help other people all the way through.
Source: PBS NewsHour, online transcript, February 16, 2009, www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/social_issues/jan-june09/walter_02–16.html.
30
CHAPTER 1
bility is not specific to teachers, however. In 2002, about 35 percent of social
workers reported being attacked. Other public servants such as police officers
and firefighters face even greater risk to their lives. On average about 62,000 police officers are assaulted and 95,000 firefighters are injured each year. The contributions provided by dedicated public professionals in dangerous settings
certainly deserve our appreciation.
What, Then, Is Public Administration?
Among the many depictions of the field of public administration (PA) is that of
the administrator as an impartial implementer. This view gained much of its credibility from some of the original scholars in the field of public administration, including Woodrow Wilson (1887/2004) and Frank Goodnow (1906/2004). Both
scholars viewed the field as being separate from the everyday clashes and compromises of politics. They defined a field in which politics and administration
could and should be separated from each other. Wilson held that “the business of
government is to organize the common interest against the special interest”
(1887/2004). Goodnow advocated for a distinction between the functions of the
politics and the administration of government, noting that politics had to do with
policies and the administration dealt with their execution (1906/2004). Although
this view of a “dichotomy” has long been disputed and is commonly viewed as
overly narrow and simplistic, its legacy still partly defines public administration.
An overly narrow understanding of public administration can be challenged quite
easily by examining the many facets of responsibility for the public administrator.
Although impartial implementer may be one legitimate role, it does not fully define
a field so vast and influential in its actions. In 1926 Leonard White—a renowned
public administration scholar—defined public administration as “the management
of men and materials in the accomplishment of the purpose of the state.” He went
on to say, “The objective of public administration is the most efficient utilization of
the resources at the disposal of officials and employees.” Absent from this definition, though, is the idea of democracy and social equity (White 1926/2004).
A narrower view of public administration is as public management, generally considered the management of organizations within the government or nonprofit sector. Unlike private management, public management is driven by its need to reach
its goals or mission rather than its need to make a profit. Public management’s inherent attachment to democratic principles affects the dynamics of management
policies. Public management has to do with some of the key responsibilities of the
executive as defined by Luther Gulick’s (1937/2004) formulation of PODSCORB—
Planning, Organizing, Directing, Staffing, Coordinating, Recruiting, and Budgeting. In the twenty-first century, public management also deals with broad
organizational objectives through strategic planning, budgeting, and human resource implementation.
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
31
The Encyclopedia Britannica Online defines public administration as “the implementation of government policies. Today public administration is often regarded as
including also some responsibility for determining the policies and programs of governments. Specifically, it is the planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and
controlling of government operations” (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/
482290/public-administration).
Since the 1930s, the field of public administration has changed significantly. One of
the largest changes came in the 1960s and 1970s with the ideas that grew out of the
New Public Administration movement. Eminent scholar H. George Frederickson
wrote: “The rationale for public administration is almost always better (more efficient or economical) management. New Public Administration adds social equity to
the classical objectives and rationale” (1971/2004). The concept of social equity—
and its adoption as an integral element of government’s mission—has transformed
the field of public administration.
Our own definition incorporates some of the classical and more recent concepts associated with public administration. We define public administration as the formation and implementation of public policy. It is an amalgamation of
management-based strategies such as planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. It incorporates behaviorally based practices adopted
from fields such as psychology and sociology. All of those strategies and practices
are utilized within a democratic framework of accountability. The formation and
implementation of policy, while formally controlled by government managers,
has since been expanded to include the nonprofit and for-profit communities.
32
CHAPTER 1
KEY TERMS
501(c)(3)
Private sector
Bureaucracy
Public administration (PA)
Employment taxes
Public management
Globalization
Public sector
Gross domestic product (GDP)
Sales taxes
Nonprofit sector
Taxation
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Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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