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‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬
‫وزارة التعليم‬
‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Education
Saudi Electronic University
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 324
Public Management (MGT 324)
Due Date: 21/07/2022 @ 23:59
Course Name: Public Management
Student’s Name:
Course Code: MGT324
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: Summer Semester
CRN: 50277
Academic Year:2021-22-2nd
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name: Dr. Showkat Khalil Wani
Students’ Grade: /15
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
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The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced
for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No
pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Learning Outcomes:
1. Define the fundamental theories of public sector management.
2. Describe the simple and complex issues pertaining to public management
Assignment Question(s): This Assignment is a report-based assignment. Use the
following headings to complete the Assignment.
References are very much important.
1. Introduction: (Read Chapter 1) (5 Marks)
The introduction part must highlight / answer the follow points.
a. Concept of Public Administration. (1 Mark)
b. Highlight the essential characteristics of government. (2 Marks)
c. Presents an overview of the services that government provides and how those services
affect citizens on daily basis. (2 Marks)
2. Administrative and organizational theory. (Read Chapter 2) (5Marks)
a. Summarize various classical and neo-classical management theories (Specifically
Max Weber’s idea of bureaucracy, Frederick Taylor’s assembly-line approach to
managing organizations, as well as Herbert Simon’s skepticism of these
approaches). (2 Marks)
b. Discuss the following. (1 Mark each)
i.
Structural theory.
ii.
Systems theory.
iii.
Organizational economic theory.
3. Read Chapter 3 and write an essay in about 500-600 words on the following topic.
(5Marks)
“Productive Human resource management and cultivating and maintaining a highquality diverse workforce in public sector organizations”
Support your answers for each part of the assignment with proper references.
Answers
1. Answer2. Answer3. Answer-
Ch 1: Public Administration:
An Indispensable Part of
Society
“The care of human life and happiness…
is the first and only legitimate object
of good government.”
THOMAS JEFFERSON
Third President of the United States
(1743–1846)
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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OVERVIEW
• Introductions
• Syllabus Review
• Public Administration – History
• Essential Characteristics
• Truths and Myths
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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INTRODUCTION
Who are public servants?
Identify three people who you think serve the public, including
their professions and how they serve the public.
• What do all these people have in common? What is their common
interest/goal?
• How does government serve and affect its citizens on a daily basis through
these professions?
‫ﻣن ھم اﻟﻣوظﻔون اﻟﻌﻣوﻣﯾون؟‬
‫ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ذﻟك‬، ‫ﺣدد ﺛﻼﺛﺔ أﺷﺧﺎص ﺗﻌﺗﻘد أﻧﮭم ﯾﺧدﻣون اﻟﺟﻣﮭور‬
.‫ﻣﮭﻧﮭم وﻛﯾف ﯾﺧدﻣون اﻟﺟﻣﮭور‬
‫ أھداﻓﮭم اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ؟‬/ ‫ﻣﺎذا ﻋن ھؤﻻء اﻟﻧﺎس ﻟدﯾﮭم ﻣن اﻟﻘواﺳم اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ؟ ﻣﺎ ھﻲ اھﺗﻣﺎﻣﺎﺗﮭم‬
‫ﻛﯾف ﺗﺧدم اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﻣواطﻧﯾﮭﺎ وﺗؤﺛر ﻋﻠﯾﮭم ﺑﺷﻛل ﯾوﻣﻲ ﻣن ﺧﻼل ھذه اﻟﻣﮭن؟‬
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Government from an Organizational Perspective
• Federal
• State
• Municipal
‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﻣن ﻣﻧظور ﺗﻧظﯾﻣﻲ‬
‫•اﺗﺣﺎدﯾﺔ • دوﻟﺔ • ﺑﻠدﯾﺔ‬
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Government from a Financial Perspective
• Sources
‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﻣن ﻣﻧظور ﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫• ا ﻟ ﻣ ﺻ ﺎد ر‬
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Government from a Financial Perspective
• Uses
‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﻣن ﻣﻧظور ﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫• اﻻﺳﺗﺧداﻣﺎت‬
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Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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Government Services and Accountability
• Nonprofit
‫اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ واﻟﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ‬
‫• ﻏﯾر رﺑﺣﯾﺔ‬
• Private
‫• ﻧﺷر‬
• Role of the Public Administrator
‫• دور اﻟﻣﺳؤول اﻟﻌﺎم‬
‫• ﺣﻘﺎﺋق وأﺳﺎطﯾر اﻟﺑﯾروﻗراطﯾﺎت‬
• Truths and Myths of Bureaucracies
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IN-CLASS EXERCISE
Harness the Power of Public Service
(Exercise 1.3)
President Bill Clinton addresses Rutgers University students
regarding the value of public service and civic engagement.
Harness the Power of Public Service – September 29, 2009
•
What key messages would you deliver concerning the importance of public
service?
(1.3 ‫اﻻﺳﺗﻔﺎدة ﻣن ﻗوة اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ )اﻟﺗﻣرﯾن‬
‫اﻟرﺋﯾس ﺑﯾل ﻛﻠﯾﻧﺗون ﯾﺧﺎطب طﻼب ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ روﺗﺟرز‬
.‫ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻌﻠق ﺑﻘﯾﻣﺔ اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ واﻟﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ اﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ‬
2009 ‫ ﺳﺑﺗﻣﺑر‬29 – ‫ﺗﺳﺧﯾر ﻗوة اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫• ﻣﺎ ھﻲ اﻟرﺳﺎﺋل اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺳﺗرﺳﻠﮭﺎ ﺑﺧﺻوص أھﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ؟‬
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WRAP-UP
Public Administration:
An Indispensible Part of Society
:‫اﻹدارة اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺟزء ﻻ ﻏﻧﻰ ﻋﻧﮫ ﻣن اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ‬
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What is Public Administration?
•
What are the Essential Characteristics of
Government?
•
What are the Truths and Myths?
‫• ﻣﺎ ھﻲ اﻹدارة اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ؟‬
‫• ﻣﺎ ھﻲ اﻟﺧﺻﺎﺋص اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﻛوﻣﺔ؟‬
‫• ﻣﺎ ھﻲ اﻟﺣﻘﺎﺋق واﻟﺧراﻓﺎت؟‬
Preparation for next class: Read Chapter 2
2 ‫ اﻗرأ اﻟﻔﺻل‬: ‫اﻟﺗﺣﺿﯾر ﻟﻠﺻف اﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ‬
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public administration : – as formation and implementation of public
policy – academic and professionals fields – the implementation of policy
for government
‫ ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬- ‫ اﻟﻣﺟﺎﻻت اﻷﻛﺎدﯾﻣﯾﺔ واﻟﻣﮭﻧﯾﺔ‬- ‫ ﻣﺛل ﺗﺷﻛﯾل وﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬- :‫اﻹدارة اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
• public policy ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬
Action taken by government to achieve a particular goal or purpose
‫اﻹﺟراءات اﻟﻣﺗﺧذه ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﻟﺗﺣﻘﯾق ھدف أو ﻏرض ﻣﻌﯾن‬
• Policy process ‫ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬
steps involved in making public policy that structure and guide political
decisions for which people disagree because they have conflicting interests,
values, and purposes
‫اﻟﺧطوات اﻟﻣﺗﺿﻣﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻧﻊ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺑﻧﻲ وﺗوﺟﮫ اﻟﻘرارات اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﺧﺗﻠف اﻟﻧﺎس ﺑﺷﺄﻧﮭﺎ ﻷن‬
‫ﻟدﯾﮭم ﻣﺻﺎﻟﺢ وﻗﯾم وأھداف ﻣﺗﺿﺎرﺑﺔ‬
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‫ﺧطوات ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت ‪Steps of Policy process:‬‬
‫ﺗﻌرﯾف اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺻﯾﺎﻏﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت‬
‫اﻋﺗﻣﺎد اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬
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‫‪Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﯾﯾم اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت‬
‫ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت‬
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Essential characteristic of government: :‫اﻟﺳﻣﺔ اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬
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collection revenue
government work force
government expenditures
universal interest.
political balance
rule of law.
‫ﺗﺣﺻﯾل اﻹﯾرادات‬
‫اﻟﻘوى اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻧﻔﻘﺎت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺗوازن اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ‬
.‫ﻗواﻋد اﻟﻘﺎﻧون‬
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Who are public servants : :‫ﻣن ھم اﻟﻣوظﻔون اﻟﻌﻣوﻣﯾون‬
• who are commitment to continues improvement for example : policy officer ,
health officer , firefighters
‫ رﺟﺎل اﻹطﻔﺎء‬، ‫ اﻟﻣﺳؤول اﻟﺻﺣﻲ‬، ‫ ﻣﺳؤول اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬:‫• اﻟذﯾن ﯾﻠﺗزﻣون ﺑﺎﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﯾل اﻟﻣﺛﺎل‬
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Government-Bashing: Seven Myths:
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Government exerts too much control over our lives.
When government steps in to fix a problem, they never get it right. They should
just
leave business to fix itself.
Government can’t do anything right.
Small government is good government.
Government is more secretive and less answerable to the people than business.
Anything government can do, business can do better.
:‫ ﺳﺑﻌﺔ أﺳﺎطﯾر‬:‫ﺗﻘرﯾﻊ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬
.‫ﺗﻣﺎرس اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﺳﯾطرة ﻛﺑﯾرة ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﯾﺎﺗﻧﺎ‬
‫ ﯾﺟب ﻋﻠﯾﮭم ﻓﻘط‬.‫ ﻓﺈﻧﮭﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻔﮭﻣﮭﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺷﻛل اﻟﺻﺣﯾﺢ أﺑدًا‬، ‫ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﺗﺗدﺧل اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﻹﺻﻼح ﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬
.‫ﺗرك اﻟﻌﻣل ﻹﺻﻼح ﻧﻔﺳﮫ‬
.‫ﻻ ﺗﺳﺗطﯾﻊ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﻓﻌل أي ﺷﻲء ﺑﺷﻛل ﺻﺣﯾﺢ‬
.‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ اﻟﺻﻐﯾرة ھﻲ ﺣﻛوﻣﺔ ﺟﯾدة‬
.‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ أﻛﺛر ﺳرﯾﺔ وأﻗل ﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ أﻣﺎم اﻟﻧﺎس ﻣن اﻷﻋﻣﺎل‬
.‫ ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻸﻋﻣﺎل أن ﺗﻔﻌل ﻣﺎ ھو أﻓﺿل‬، ‫أي ﺷﻲء ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻠﺣﻛوﻣﺔ اﻟﻘﯾﺎم ﺑﮫ‬
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Ch 2: Organizational
Theory And Management
“When in charge, ponder; when in trouble,
delegate; when in doubt, mumble.”
JAMES H. BOREN
Author; Founder of the International Association
of Professional Bureaucrats, 1970
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OVERVIEW
• Review Last Class – Key Topics
• Key Terms – Organization Theory
• Historical Perspective of Organization Theory
• Public Administration – Major Contributors
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INTRODUCTION
X-Y Theory Questionnaire
(Exercise 2.2)
Score the statements on a scale of 0 to 5.
• Is your current work situation X or Y ?
(2.2 ‫ )ﺗﻣرﯾن‬X-Y‫اﺳﺗﺑﯾﺎن ﻧظرﯾﺔ‬
.5 ‫ إﻟﻰ‬0 ‫ﺳﺟل اﻟﻌﺑﺎرات ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﯾﺎس ﻣن‬
‫ ؟‬Y‫ أم‬X ‫• ھل وﺿﻊ ﻋﻣﻠك اﻟﺣﺎﻟﻲ‬
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EVOLUTION OF ORG THEORY
Classical Era
Neo-Classical Era
Humanizing Theory
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Taylor
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Simon
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Parker-Follett
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Weber
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Merton
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Maslow
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Gullick & Urwick
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Waldo
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McGregor
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Fayol
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Selznick
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Barnard
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The Contemporary Theories
‫اﻟﻧظرﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﻌﺎﺻرة‬
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Structural
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Systems
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Quality
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Economic
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Culture
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NPR(National Performance Review)
‫• اﻟﮭﯾﻛﻠﻲ‬
‫• أﻧظﻣﺔ‬
‫• ﺟودة‬
‫• اﻗﺗﺻﺎدي‬
‫• اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫• ﻣراﺟﻌﺔ اﻻداء اﻟوطﻧﻲ‬
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IN-CLASS EXERCISE
Managerial Priorities
(Exercise 2.1)
Rate the most important managerial qualities.
• Discuss your results with the person next to you.
(2.1 ‫اﻷوﻟوﯾﺎت اﻹدارﯾﺔ )اﻟﺗﻣرﯾن‬
.‫ﻗﯾم أھم اﻟﺻﻔﺎت اﻹدارﯾﺔ‬
.‫• ﻧﺎﻗش ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺟك ﻣﻊ اﻟﺷﺧص اﻟﻣﺟﺎور ﻟك‬
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WRAP-UP
Organizational Theory and Management
•
The Evolution of Organizational Theory
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Major Contributors
Preparation for next class: Read Chapter 3
‫اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻧظﯾﻣﯾﺔ واﻹدارة‬
‫• ﺗطور اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻧظﯾﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫• ﻛﺑﺎر اﻟﻣﺳﺎھﻣﯾن‬
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Discuss the human side of organizational management.
• Theory X and theory Y
•
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Theory X:
Assumes that individuals dislike work, and they avoid it whenever possible. This
makes intense supervision necessary, because workers typically shun
responsibility and are frequently incapable of solving problems.
‫ ﻷن اﻟﻌﻣﺎل ﻋﺎدة ً ﻣﺎ‬، ‫ ھذا ﯾﺟﻌل اﻹﺷراف اﻟﻣﻛﺛف ﺿرورﯾًﺎ‬.‫ وأﻧﮭم ﯾﺗﺟﻧﺑوﻧﮫ ﻛﻠﻣﺎ أﻣﻛن ذﻟك‬، ‫ﯾﻔﺗرض أن اﻷﻓراد ﻻ ﯾﺣﺑون اﻟﻌﻣل‬
.‫ﯾﺗﺣﻣﻠون اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺔ وﻏﺎﻟﺑًﺎ ﻣﺎ ﯾﻛوﻧون ﻏﯾر ﻗﺎدرﯾن ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬
•
Under Theory X, workers are motivated by:
Economic factors, threats, and punishment. This theory represents a classical
Weberian closed model, which is reminiscent of a quasi-military structure.
:‫ﯾﺗم ﺗﺣﻔﯾز اﻟﻌﻣﺎل ﻣن ﺧﻼل‬X، ‫ﺑﻣوﺟب اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ‬
، ‫ ﺗﻣﺛل ھذه اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ ﻧﻣوذًﺟﺎ ﻣﻐﻠﻘًﺎ وﯾﺑﯾرﯾًﺎ ﻛﻼﺳﯾﻛﯾًﺎ‬.‫اﻟﻌواﻣل اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ واﻟﺗﮭدﯾدات واﻟﻌﻘﺎب‬
.‫اﻟذي ﯾذﻛرﻧﺎ ھﯾﻛل ﺷﺑﮫ اﻟﻌﺳﻛرﯾﺔ‬
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Theory Y :
is an open model that assumes that individuals enjoy work and embrace
responsibility, and that most people are capable of self-direction and prefer not to be
micromanaged. Theory Y further assumes that individuals possess the ingenuity to
solve complex problems through creative means
‫ وأن ﻣﻌظم اﻟﻧﺎس‬، ‫• ھو ﻧﻣوذج ﻣﻔﺗوح ﯾﻔﺗرض أن اﻷﻓراد ﯾﺗﻣﺗﻌون ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻣل وﯾﺗﺣﻣﻠون اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺔ‬
‫ ﻛذﻟك أن اﻷﻓراد ﯾﻣﺗﻠﻛون ﺑراﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت‬Y ‫ ﺗﻔﺗرض ﻧظرﯾﺔ‬.‫ﻗﺎدرون ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺗوﺟﯾﮫ اﻟذاﺗﻲ وﯾﻔﺿﻠون ان ﻻﯾﻛوﻧون ﻣﺻﻐرﯾن‬
.‫اﻟﻣﻌﻘدة ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟوﺳﺎﺋل اﻹﺑداﻋﯾﺔ‬
According to this theory, management should afford its workers the latitude to
achieve individual goals through self-directed efforts. This will help to achieve
organizational goals
‫ ھذا ﺳوف ﯾﺳﺎﻋد‬.‫ ﯾﺟب ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹدارة ﻣﻧﺢ ﻋﻣﺎﻟﮭﺎ اﻟﺣق ﻓﻲ ﺗﺣﻘﯾق اﻷھداف اﻟﻔردﯾﺔ ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﺟﮭود اﻟذاﺗﯾﺔ‬، ‫وﻓﻘًﺎ ﻟﮭذه اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺣﻘﯾق اﻷھداف اﻟﺗﻧظﯾﻣﯾﺔ‬
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Theory Y, as it offers more realistic assumptions regarding human nature and
human motivation. Theory X places a premium on “external controls,” while
Theory Y relies heavily on “self-direction.” In other words, the difference between
Theories X and Y is “the difference between treating people like children and
treating them as mature adults” Theory X assumptions are less helpful, and
Theory Y styles of management that recognize delegation of authority, job
enlargement, and participation must receiver greater attention
Theory ‫ ﺗﺿﻊ‬.‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ ﺗوﻓر اﻓﺗراﺿﺎت أﻛﺛر واﻗﻌﯾﺔ ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻌﻠق ﺑﺎﻟطﺑﯾﻌﺔ اﻟﺑﺷرﯾﺔ واﻟدواﻓﻊ اﻟﺑﺷرﯾﺔ‬Y ، ‫• اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ‬
ØŒ ‫ وﺑﻣﻌﻧﻰ آﺧر‬.”‫ﺑﺷدة ﻋﻠﻰ “اﻟﺗوﺟﯾﮫ اﻟذاﺗﻲ‬Theory Y ‫ ﺑﯾﻧﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﺗﻣد‬، “‫ﻋﻼوة ﻋﻠﻰ “ﻋﻧﺎﺻر اﻟﺗﺣﻛم اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ‬X
‫ھو “اﻟﻔرق ﺑﯾن ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻧﺎس ﻣﺛل اﻷطﻔﺎل وﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺗﮭم ﻛﺑﺎﻟﻐﯾن ﻧﺎﺿﺟﯾن” ﺗﻌﺗﺑر‬Y ‫و‬Theory X ‫ﻓﺈن اﻟﻔرق ﺑﯾن‬
‫ﻧﻣط ﻓﻲ اﻹدارة اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﺗرف ﺑﺗﻔوﯾض اﻟﺳﻠطﺔ وﺗوﺳﯾﻊ اﻟوظﺎﺋف‬Y ‫ ﻧظرﯾﺔ‬، ‫أﻗل ﻓﺎﺋدة‬X ‫اﻓﺗراﺿﺎت ﻧظرﯾﺔ‬
‫واﻟﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ ﺑﺎھﺗﻣﺎم أﻛﺑر‬
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The contemporary theories : ‫اﻟﻧظرﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﻌﺎﺻرة‬
1. Structural ‫اﻟﮭﯾﻛﻠﻲ‬
• Structural Theory assumes that organizations are rational in that they function
to accomplish specific goals and objectives
‫• ﺗﻔﺗرض اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﮭﯾﻛﻠﯾﺔ أن اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺎت ﻋﻘﻼﻧﯾﺔ ﻣن ﺣﯾث أﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﻌﻣل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺣﻘﯾق أھداف وﻏﺎﯾﺎت ﻣﺣددة‬
2. Systems ‫اﻟﻧظم‬
• Systems theory is based on the premise that the organization is comprised of
several interconnected parts Systems theory looks at the organization in terms
of inputs, processes, outputs, and feedback mechanisms
‫• ﺗﺳﺗﻧد ﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﻧظم إﻟﻰ ﻓرﺿﯾﺔ أن اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ ﺗﺗﺄﻟف ﻣن ﻋدة أﺟزاء ﻣﺗراﺑطﺔ ﺗﻧظر ﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﻧظم إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ ﻣن‬
‫ﺣﯾث اﻟﻣدﺧﻼت واﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت واﻟﻣﺧرﺟﺎت وآﻟﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻐذﯾﺔ اﻟراﺟﻌﺔ‬
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• Inputs refer to an organization’s resources,
• Processes refer to what an organization does with its resources,
• Outputs are the goods or services that an organization produces.
• Feedback mechanisms are the means by which an organization collects and
analyzes data regarding the impacts of its outputs
، ‫ﺗﺷﯾر اﻟﻣدﺧﻼت إﻟﻰ ﻣوارد اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ‬
، ‫ﺗﺷﯾر اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت إﻟﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﮫ اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ ﺑﻣواردھﺎ‬
.‫اﻟﻣﺧرﺟﺎت ھﻲ اﻟﺳﻠﻊ أو اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧﺗﺟﮭﺎ اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ‬
‫آﻟﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻐذﯾﺔ اﻟراﺟﻌﺔ ھﻲ اﻟوﺳﯾﻠﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺟﻣﻊ ﺑﮭﺎ اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ وﺗﺣﻠل اﻟﺑﯾﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺂﺛﺎر ﻣﺧرﺟﺎﺗﮭﺎ‬
•
•
•
•
3. Quality ‫اﻟﺟودة‬
• In order for an agency or organization to increase its effectiveness and
productivity
‫• ﻣن أﺟل وﻛﺎﻟﺔ أو ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ ﻟزﯾﺎدة ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯾﺗﮭﺎ وإﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺗﮭﺎ‬
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4. Economic ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬
• Organizational economic theory is strives to ensure that worker interests coincide with
the organization’s interests
‫• ﺗﺳﻌﻰ اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻧظﯾﻣﯾﺔ ﺟﺎھدة ﻟﺿﻣﺎن ﺗواﻓق ﻣﺻﺎﻟﺢ اﻟﻌﻣﺎل ﻣﻊ ﻣﺻﺎﻟﺢ اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ‬
5. Culture ‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬
• Organizational culture refers to shared notions that bind together members of an
organization some of which include:
:‫ ﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ ﯾﺷﻣل‬، ‫• ﺗﺷﯾر اﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺗﻧظﯾﻣﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﻔﺎھﯾم اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗرﺑط أﻋﺿﺎء اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ‬
• Group norms and values.
• A guiding mission and formal rules that dictate what is and is not appropriate behavior.
• Climate and environment.
• Shared skills and modes of thinking.
.‫ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ اﻟﻘواﻋد واﻟﻘﯾم‬
.‫ﻣﮭﻣﺔ إرﺷﺎدﯾﺔ وﻗواﻋد رﺳﻣﯾﺔ ﺗﻣﻠﻲ ﻣﺎ ھو اﻟﺳﻠوك اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب واﻟﻐﯾر اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳب‬
.‫اﻟﻣﻧﺎخ واﻟﺑﯾﺋﺔ‬
.‫اﻟﻣﮭﺎرات اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ وطرق اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر‬
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•
•
•
•
6. NPR National Performance Review‫اﺳﺗﻌراض اﻷداء اﻟوطﻧﻲ‬
• Given the public pressure on government organizations to perform more
effectively
‫• إﻋطﺎء اﻟﺿﻐوط اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺎت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ ﻷداء أﻛﺛر ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬
That government should:‫ﯾﺟب ﻋﻠﻰ ھذه اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬
• Act as a catalyst ‫اﻟﻌﻣل ﺑﻣﺛﺎﺑﺔ ﺣﺎﻓز‬
• Empower rather than simply serve ‫اﻟﺗﻣﻛﯾن ﺑدﻻً ﻣن ﻣﺟرد ﺗﻘدﯾم اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ‬
• Be competitive ‫ﺗﻛون ﻣﻧﺎﻓﺳﺔ‬
• Be mission-driven as opposed to rule-driven
• Be results-oriented ‫أن ﺗﻛون ﻣوﺟﮭﺔ ﻧﺣو اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬
• Be customer-driven ‫ﯾﺣرﻛﮭﺎ أو ﯾﻘودھﺎ اﻟﻌﻣﻼء‬
• Be enterprising ‫أن ﺗﻛون ﻣﻐﺎﻣرة‬
• Anticipate social problems ‫ﺗﺳﺗﺑق اﻟﻣﺷﺎﻛل اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ‬
• Be decentralized ‫أن ﺗﻛون ﻻﻣرﻛزﯾﺔ‬
• Be market-oriented ‫أن ﺗﻛون ﻣوﺟﮭﺔ ﻧﺣو اﻟﺳوق‬
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• Organization theory and 7s model organizational perspective 7s
‫• ﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ وﻧﻣوذج اﻟﻣﻧظور اﻟﺗﻧظﯾﻣﻲ‬
1. Shared values ‫اﻟﻘﯾم اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ‬
2. Strategy – bureaucracy ‫ اﻟﺑﯾروﻗراطﯾﺔ‬- ‫اﻻﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺔ‬
3. System policies and procedures ‫ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت واﺟراءات اﻟﻧظﺎم‬
4. Style ‫ اﻻﺳﻠوب‬- Style of leadership ‫اﺳﻠوب اﻟﻘﯾﺎدة‬
5. Staffing – HR , training , managing and motivating ‫ اﻟﻣوارد اﻟﺑﺷرﯾﺔ واﻟﺗدرﯾب واﻹدارة واﻟﺗﺣﻔﯾز‬- ‫اﻟﻣوظﻔون‬
6. Skills ‫اﻟﻣﮭﺎرات‬
7. Structure ‫اﻟﺑﻧﺎء أو اﻟﮭﯾﻛل‬
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•
The Principles of Scientific Management, revolutionized the idea of optimizing
productivity.
Ø The first principle encompasses the adoption of laws and formulas to determine the most
efficient ways of completing tasks.
Ø Studying the capabilities of workers. By doing so, management can better identify the
inherent strengths and limitations of each worker and offer special training to maximize his
other capabilities.
Ø Fusing together of work procedures and specialized training.
Ø An equal division of labor is advantageous, given the fact that management can better
supervise its workers, thereby ensuring adherence to standard procedures.
‫ أﺣدﺛت ﺛورة ﻓﻲ ﻓﻛرة ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻹﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺔ‬، ‫• ﻣﺑﺎدئ اﻹدارة اﻟﻌﻠﻣﯾﺔ‬
.‫ ﯾﺷﻣل اﻟﻣﺑدأ اﻷول اﻋﺗﻣﺎد ﻗواﻧﯾن وﺻﯾﻎ ﻟﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟطرق اﻷﻛﺛر ﻓﻌﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﻹﻧﺟﺎز اﻟﻣﮭﺎم‬Ø
‫ ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻺدارة ﺗﺣدﯾد ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﻘوة واﻟﻘﯾود اﻟﻣﺗﺄﺻﻠﺔ ﻟﻛل ﻋﺎﻣل ﺑﺷﻛل أﻓﺿل وﺗﻘدﯾم ﺗدرﯾب‬، ‫ ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﻘﯾﺎم ﺑذﻟك‬.‫ دراﺳﺔ ﻗدرات اﻟﻌﻣﺎل‬Ø
.‫ﺧﺎص ﻟﺗﻌظﯾم ﻗدراﺗﮫ اﻷﺧرى‬
.‫ دﻣﺞ إﺟراءات اﻟﻌﻣل واﻟﺗدرﯾب اﻟﻣﺗﺧﺻص‬Ø
‫ وﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ﺿﻣﺎن‬، ‫ ﺑﺎﻟﻧظر إﻟﻰ ﺣﻘﯾﻘﺔ أن اﻹدارة ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﺗﺷرف ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻣﺎﻟﮭﺎ ﺑﺷﻛل أﻓﺿل‬، ‫ ﻣن اﻟﻣﻔﯾد ﺗﻘﺳﯾم اﻟﻌﻣل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗدم اﻟﻣﺳﺎواة‬Ø
.‫اﻻﻟﺗزام ﺑﺎﻹﺟراءات اﻟﻘﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬
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Barnard discusses eight types of worker incentives:
• Material inducements
• Personal nonmaterial opportunities
• Desirable physical conditions of work
• Ideal benefactions
• Habit and attitude conformity
• Opportunity for participation
• Associational attractiveness
• Condition of communion
:‫ﯾﻧﺎﻗش ﺑﺎرﻧﺎرد ﺛﻣﺎﻧﯾﺔ أﻧواع ﻣن ﺣواﻓز اﻟﻌﻣﺎل‬
‫•اﻟﺣواﻓز اﻟﻣﺎدﯾﺔ‬
‫•اﻟﻔرص اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ ﻏﯾر اﻟﻣﺎدﯾﺔ‬
‫•ظروف اﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﻣﺎدﯾﺔ اﻟﻣرﻏوﺑﺔ‬
‫•اﻻﺳﺗﺣﻘﺎﻗﺎت اﻟﻣﺛﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬
‫•ﻣطﺎﺑﻘﺔ اﻟﻌﺎدة واﻟﻣوﻗف‬
‫•ﻓرﺻﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ‬
‫•ﺟﺎذﺑﯾﺔ اﻟﺗراﺑطﯾﺔ‬
‫•ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺷرﻛﺔ‬
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MECHANISTIC VS. ORGANIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
Mechanistic
Organization Form/ Management System
Conditions
Organic Organization Form/Management
System
Stable
Changing
Distribution of tasks
Specialized differentiation of functional tasks
into which the problems and tasks facing a
concern as a whole are broken down
Contributive nature of special knowledge
and experience to the common task of the
concern
Nature of individual
task
The abstract nature of each individual
The “realistic” nature of the individual
task, which is pursued with techniques
task, which is seen as set by the total
and purposes more or less distinct
situation of the concern
from those of the concern as a whole:
i.e., the functionaries tend to pursue the
technical improvements of means, rather than
the accomplishment of the
ends of the concern
Who (re)defines tasks
The reconciliation, for each level in the
The adjustment and continual redefinition
hierarchy, of these distinct performances by
of individual tasks through interaction
the immediate superiors, who are also, in turn, with others
responsible for seeing that each is relevant in
his own special part of the main task
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Task scope
The precise definition of rights and
obligations and technical methods
attached to each functional role
The shedding of “responsibility” as a
limited field of rights, obligations and
methods (problems may not be posted
upwards, downwards or sideways as
being someone else’s responsibility)
How is task
conformance ensured
The translation of rights and
The spread of commitment to the
obligations and methods into the
concern beyond any technical definition
responsibilities of a functional position
Structure of control,
authority and
communication
Hierarchic, Contractual
Network, Presumed Community
of Interest
Locating of
knowledge
Reinforcement of the hierarchic
structure
by the location of knowledge of
actualities
exclusively at the top of the
hierarchy, where the final
reconciliation of distinct tasks and
assessment of relevance is made
Lateral; i.e., between people of different
rank, resembling consultation rather
than command
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Communication
between members
of concern
Vertical; i.e., between superior
and subordinate
Lateral; i.e., between people of
different rank, resembling
consultation rather than command
Governance for
operations &
working behavior
Instructions and decisions issued
by superiors
Information and advice rather than
instructions and decisions
Values
Insistence on loyalty to the
concern and obedience to
superiors as a condition of
membership
Commitment to the concern’s task
and to the “technological ethos” of
material progress and expansion is
more highly valued than loyalty and
obedience
Prestige
Greater importance and prestige
attaching to internal (local) than
to general (cosmopolitan)
knowledge, experience, and skill
Importance and prestige attach to
affiliations and expertise valid in the
industrial and technical and
commercial milieus external to the
firm
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Ch 3: Managing
Human Resources
“No duty the Executive had to perform
was so trying as to put the right man
in the right place.”
THOMAS JEFFERSON
Third President of the United States
(1743–1846)
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OVERVIEW
• Review Last Class – Key Topics
• Define Human Resources Management
• Identification, Recruitment, and Retention Strategies
• Public Service Motivation
• Strategies to Build a Motivated Workforce
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INTRODUCTION
What motivates you?
(Exercise 3.1)
Complete the sentences with the first words that come to
mind.
(3.1 ‫ﻣﺎ اﻟذي ﯾﺣﻔزك؟ (اﻟﺗﻣرﯾن‬
.‫أﻛﻣل اﻟﺟﻣل ﺑﺎﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎت اﻷوﻟﻰ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗﺑﺎدر إﻟﻰ اﻟذھن‬
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HR Management
•
A Definition – Tactical & Strategic
“Leadership is all about people. It is not about organizations. It is not
about plans. It is not
about strategies. It is all about people–
motivating people to get the job done.
You have to be people-centered.”
COLIN POWELL
U.S. Army General;
Former Secretary of State
‫ ï»» ﯾﺗﻌﻠق‬.‫ ï»» ﯾﺗﻌﻠق اﻷﻣر ﺑﺎﻟﺧطط‬.‫ ï»» ﯾﺗﻌﻠق اﻷﻣر ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺎت‬.‫”اﻟﻘﯾﺎدة ھﻲ ï»›Ù„ ﺷﻲء ﻋن اﻟﻧﺎس‬
‫ ﻋﻠﯾك أن ﺗﻛون‬.‫ ﺗﺣﻔﯾز اﻟﻧﺎس ﻋﻠﻰ إﻧﺟﺎز اﻟﻣﮭﻣﺔ‬- ‫ اﻷﻣر ﻛﻠﮫ ﯾﺗﻌﻠق ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺎس‬.‫اﻷﻣر ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺎت‬
“.‫ﻣﺗﻣرﻛًزا ﺣول اﻟﻧﺎس‬
‫ﻛوﻟﯾن ﺑﺎول‬
.‫ﺟﻧرال ﺑﺎﻟﺟﯾش اﻷﻣرﯾﻛﻲ‬
‫وزﯾر اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ اﻟﺳﺎﺑق‬
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Recruitment
• External Strategies
• Internal Strategies
‫ﺗوظﯾف‬
‫• اﻻﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺎت اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ‬
‫• اﻻﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺎت اﻟداﺧﻠﯾﺔ‬
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Development
• Supervision
• Training
‫ﺗطوﯾر‬
‫• إﺷراف‬
‫• ﺗدرﯾب‬
• Motivating
‫• ﺗﺣﻔﯾز‬
‫• اﻟﺗﻘﯾﯾم‬
• Evaluating
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At the lowest level of the hierarchy of needs are ‫ﻓﻲ أدﻧﻰ ﻣﺳﺗوى ﻣن اﻟﺗﺳﻠﺳل اﻟﮭرﻣﻲ ﻟﻼﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت‬
physiological needs, which deal with anything that is necessary to sustain life.
ً ‫اﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت ﻓﺎﯾﺳﻠوﺟﯾﺔ أو ﻣﺎدﯾﺔ واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗﻌﺎﻣل ﻣﻊ اي ﺷﻲ ﺿروري ﻟﻠﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺣﯾﺎة أو ﻟﻠﺑﻘﺎء ﺣﯾﺎ‬
Safety needs refer not only to personal security but also the desire for an “ordered” and “predictable
world” .This includes job security, financial security, and emotional security.
‫ وﯾﺷﻣل ذﻟك اﻷﻣن‬، “‫ﺿﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟرﻏﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ “ﻋﺎﻟم ﻣﻧظم” Ùˆ “ﯾﻣﻛن اﻟﺗﻧﺑؤ ﺑﮫ‬
ً ‫ ﺑل ﺗﺷﯾر أﯾ‬، ‫ﻻ ﺗﺷﯾر ﻣﺗطﻠﺑﺎت اﻟﺳﻼﻣﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻷﻣن اﻟﺷﺧﺻﻲ ﻓﺣﺳب‬
.‫اﻟوظﯾﻔﻲ واﻷﻣن اﻟﻣﺎﻟﻲ واﻷﻣن اﻟﻌﺎطﻔﻲ‬
love emerges in the hierarchy. love refers to acceptance, friendship, affection, and a sense of
belonging ‫ اﻟﺣب ﯾﺷﯾر إﻟﻰ اﻟﻘﺑول واﻟﺻداﻗﺔ واﻟﺣﻧﺎن واﻟﺷﻌور ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺗﻣﺎء‬.‫ظﮭر اﻟﺣب ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﺳﻠﺳل اﻟﮭرﻣﻲ‬
esteem needs, which are divided into two subgroups. The first refers to one’s desire to be
recognized as strong, confident, and autonomous—in other words, feeling independent is central in
this case. The second encompasses a desire for prestige and appreciation—in other words,
anything that enhances one’s self-image.
– ‫ ﯾﺷﯾر اﻷول إﻟﻰ رﻏﺑﺔ اﻟﻔرد ﻓﻲ أن ﯾﺗم اﻻﻋﺗراف ﺑﮫ ﺑﺎﻋﺗﺑﺎره ﻗوﯾًﺎ وواﺛﻘًﺎ وﻣﺳﺗﻘًﻼ‬.‫ واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧﻘﺳم إﻟﻰ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺗﯾن ﻓرﻋﯾﺗﯾن‬، ‫اﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﺗﻘدﯾر‬
‫ أي ﺷﻲء ﯾﻌزز‬، ‫ وﺑﻌﺑﺎرة أﺧرى‬- ‫ ﯾﺷﻣل اﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ رﻏﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻛﺎﻧﺔ واﻟﺗﻘدﯾر‬.‫ أن اﻟﺷﻌور ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺗﻘﻼل أﻣر أﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬، ‫ﺑﻣﻌﻧﻰ آﺧر‬
.‫ﺻورة اﻟﻔرد اﻟذاﺗﯾﺔ‬
self-actualization entails fulfilling one’s inherent potential
‫ﺗﺣﻘﯾق اﻟذات ﯾﺳﺗﻠزم ﺗﺣﻘﯾق إﻣﻛﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﻔرد اﻟﻛﺎﻣﻧﺔ‬
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Herzberg two factor hypothesis: ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻠﯾن ﻟﻔرﺿﯾﺎت ھرزﺑرج‬
Based on this, he developed the theory that people’s job satisfaction depends on two
kinds of factors.
.‫ طور ﻧظرﯾﺔ أن اﻟرﺿﺎ اﻟوظﯾﻔﻲ ﻟدى اﻟﻧﺎس ﯾﻌﺗﻣد ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧوﻋﯾن ﻣن اﻟﻌواﻣل‬، ‫ ﺑﻧﺎًء ﻋﻠﻰ ذﻟك‬1. Factors for satisfaction (motivators / satisfiers) and
2. Factors for dissatisfaction (hygiene factors / dissatisfiers).
(‫ اﻟرﺿﺎ‬/ ‫ ﻋواﻣل اﻟرﺿﺎ )اﻟدواﻓﻊ‬.1
.(‫ ﻋدم اﻟرﺿﺎ‬/ ‫ وﻋواﻣل ﻋدم اﻟرﺿﺎ )ﻋواﻣل اﻟﺻﺣﺔ‬.2
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Employee Assistance
• Prevention
‫ﻣﺳﺎﻋدة اﻟﻣوظف‬
‫• اﻟوﻗﺎﯾﺔ‬
‫• ﺗدﺧل ﻗﺿﺎﺋﻲ‬
• Intervention
‫• ﺗﻘدﯾم اﻟﻣﺷورة‬
• Counseling
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Culture
• Creating Affirmative Culture
• Team Work
‫ﺣﺿﺎره‬
‫• ﺧﻠق ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ إﯾﺟﺎﺑﯾﺔ‬
‫• اﻟﻌﻣل ﺑروح اﻟﻔرﯾق اﻟواﺣد‬
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IN-CLASS EXERCISE
Exercise in Counseling
(Exercise 3.4)
Create your own model counseling
session script to present to
the class.
(3.4 ‫ﺗﻣرﯾن ﻓﻲ اﻻﺳﺗﺷﺎرة )ﺗﻣرﯾن‬
‫ﻗم ﺑﺈﻧﺷﺎء ﻧص ﻧﻣوذج ﺟﻠﺳﺔ اﻻﺳﺗﺷﺎرة اﻟﺧﺎص ﺑك ﻟﺗﻘدﯾﻣﮫ‬
‫إﻟﯾﮫ‬
.‫اﻟﻔﺻل‬
‫• ھل ﯾﺗم ﺗﺣﻘﯾق أھداف ﺗﻘﯾﯾﻣﺎت اﻷداء؟‬
• Are the goals of performance
appraisals being met?
• Are the objectives of employee
counseling being fulfilled?
‫• ھل ﯾﺗم ﺗﺣﻘﯾق أھداف إرﺷﺎد اﻟﻣوظﻔﯾن؟‬
‫• ھل ﯾﺗﺑﻊ اﻟﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻟﻧﺻﻲ اﻟﺧﺎص ﺑك إرﺷﺎدات ﺗﻘدﯾم‬
‫اﻟﻣﺷورة اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻣوظﻔﯾن؟‬
• Does your script follow the
guidelines for effective employee
counseling?
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WRAP-UP
Managing Human Resources
A Definition
‫إدارة اﻟﻣوارد اﻟﺑﺷرﯾﺔ‬
‫• ﺗﻌرﯾف‬
•
A Strategy for Recruitment – Retention
•
A Strategy for Motivating
‫ اﻻﺣﺗﻔﺎظ‬- ‫• اﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺗوظﯾف‬
‫• اﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﺣﻔﯾز‬
Preparation for next class: Read Chapter 4
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The traditional human resource elements of : ‫ﻋﻧﺎﺻر اﻟﻣوارد اﻟﺑﺷرﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ‬
1. Hiring the right workers to achieve an organization’s goals
2. Training and developing workers
3. Rewarding workers using monetary, as well as nonmonetary, psychological
rewards
‫ ﺗوظﯾف اﻟﻌﻣﺎل اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﯾن ﻟﺗﺣﻘﯾق أھداف اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ‬.1
‫ ﺗدرﯾب وﺗطوﯾر اﻟﻌﻣﺎل‬.2
‫ ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺄة اﻟﻌﻣﺎل ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﻣﻛﺎﻓﺂت اﻟﻧﻘدﯾﺔ وﻏﯾر اﻟﻧﻘدﯾﺔ‬.3
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Human resource management systems have additional concerns.
.‫ﻧظم إدارة اﻟﻣوارد اﻟﺑﺷرﯾﺔ ﻟدﯾﮭﺎ ﻣﺧﺎوف إﺿﺎﻓﯾﺔ‬
Key among those concerns, notes Naff (1993), are:
-Creating and maintaining a diverse workforce
-Affording workers a measure of power in the workplace
-Enabling workers to fulfill and balance both work and family responsibilities
-Enabling workers to hold their managers accountable for merit principles
-Taking into account different ways of motivating workers; and
-Identifying ways of fostering a culture of cooperation and teamwork in the
workplace
: ‫ ھﻲ‬، (1993) ‫ ﺗﻼﺣظ ﻧﺎف‬، ‫ﻣن ﺑﯾن ﺗﻠك اﻟﻣﺧﺎوف‬
‫إﻧﺷﺎء واﻟﺣﻔﺎظ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘوى اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ اﻟﻣﺗﻧوﻋﺔ‬‫ ﺗزوﯾد اﻟﻌﻣﺎل ﺑﻘدر ﻣن اﻟﻘوة ﻓﻲ ﻣﻛﺎن اﻟﻌﻣل‬‫ ﺗﻣﻛﯾن اﻟﻌﻣﺎل ﻣن ﺗﺣﻘﯾق اﻟﺗوازن ﺑﯾن ﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺎت اﻟﻌﻣل واﻷﺳرة‬‫ ﺗﻣﻛﯾن اﻟﻌﻣﺎل ﻣن ﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ ﻣدﯾرﯾﮭم ﻋن ﻣﺑﺎدئ اﻟﺟدارة‬‫ و‬.‫ ﻣراﻋﺎة اﻟطرق اﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﺗﺣﻔﯾز اﻟﻌﻣﺎل‬‫ ﺗﺣدﯾد طرق ﺗﻌزﯾز ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺗﻌﺎون واﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻛﺎن اﻟﻌﻣل‬‫ﻓﯾﮫ ﻧظرﯾﺗﯾن ﻟﺗﺷﺟﯾﻊ اﻟﻣوظﻔﯾن‬
1- Maslow’s needs hierarchy
2- Herzberg two factor hypothesis
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Ch 4: Public Decision
Making
“Decision-making processes hold
the key to understanding organizations.”
HERBERT A. SIMON
Economist; Nobel Prize Winner
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OVERVIEW
• Review Last Class – Key Topics
• Decision Making: The Definition, Importance, and Impact
• The Process
• Theoretical Models
• Citizen Involvement
• The Dysfunctions
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INTRODUCTION
The Nature of Decision Making
• Definition
‫طﺑﯾﻌﺔ اﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرار‬
‫•ﺗﻌرﯾف‬
• Importance
‫•أھﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫•آﺛﺎر‬
• Implications
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• Decision making : choosing one course of action among other competing courses of
actions ‫ اﺧﺗﯾﺎر ﻣﺳﺎر واﺣد ﻟﻠﻌﻣل ﻣن ﺑﯾن ﻣﺳﺎرات أﺧرى ﻣﺗﻧﺎﻓﺳﺔ ﻣن اﻹﺟراءات‬:‫ﺻﻧﻊ اﻟﻘرار‬
• step 1: comparing what happening and what should be happening , explain the
problem before looking its solutions
• step2: define possible causes
• step3: effective objectives should be specific ,measurable , indicate who ,what, where
,when and how much
• step 4: use brainstorming to help generate ideas in the fields of advertising
• step 5 and 6 : evaluating each course of action against the objective allows the
decision make choose the best course of action
• step 7: comparing the consequences with the objectives and see what is the positive
and negative
‫ وﺷرح اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ ﻗﺑل اﻟﻧظر ﻓﻲ ﺣﻠوﻟﮭﺎ‬، ‫ ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﻣﺎ ﯾﺣدث وﻣﺎ ﯾﺟب أن ﯾﺣدث‬:1 ‫اﻟﺧطوة‬
‫ ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻷﺳﺑﺎب اﻟﻣﺣﺗﻣﻠﺔ‬:2 ‫اﻟﺧطوة‬
‫ وأﺷر إﻟﻰ ﻣن وﻣﺎذا وأﯾن وﻣﺗﻰ وﻛﯾف‬، ‫ ﯾﺟب أن ﺗﻛون اﻷھداف اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺣددة وﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﯾﺎس‬:3 ‫اﻟﺧطوة‬
‫ اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﻌﺻف اﻟذھﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺎﻋدة ﻓﻲ ﺗوﻟﯾد اﻷﻓﻛﺎر ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﺎﻻت اﻹﻋﻼن‬:4 ‫اﻟﺧطوة‬
‫ ﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﻛل ﻣﺳﺎر ﻋﻣل ﻣﻘﺎﺑل اﻟﮭدف اﻟﻣﺳﻣوح ﻻﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرار ﺑﺎﺧﺗﯾﺎر أﻓﺿل ﻣﺳﺎر ﻟﻠﻌﻣل‬:6 ‫ و‬5 ‫اﻟﺧطوة‬
‫ ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﻣﻊ اﻷھداف وﻣﻌرﻓﺔ ﻣﺎ ھﻲ اﻹﯾﺟﺎﺑﯾﺔ واﻟﺳﻠﺑﯾﺔ‬:7 ‫اﻟﺧطوة‬
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DECISION MAKING THEORETICAL MODELS
‫ﻧﻣﺎذج اﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرارات اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ‬
1. Rational Model : 1- grounded in economic principles 2- cost and values
2. Administrative Model : describe how decision are actually made
3. Implicit Favorite Model : the decision neither rational nor objective and unbiased
4. Garbage Can Model: depends in the problem ,political and policy stream steer – the
decision making process
5. Participatory Model: assumes that a diverse group of individuals will act in
consultation capacity
‫ اﻟﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ واﻟﻘﯾم‬-2 ‫ ﺗرﺗﻛز ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻣﺑﺎدئ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‬-1 :‫اﻟﻧﻣوذج اﻟﻌﻘﻼﻧﻲ‬
•
‫ ﯾﺻف ﻛﯾف ﯾﺗم اﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرار ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬:‫اﻟﻧﻣوذج اﻹداري‬
•
‫ اﻟﻘرار ﻻ ﻋﻘﻼﻧﻲ وﻻ ﻣوﺿوﻋﻲ وﻏﯾر ﻣﺗﺣﯾز‬:‫اﻟﻧﻣوذج اﻟﻣﻔﺿل اﻟﺿﻣﻧﻲ‬
•
‫ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ ﺻﻧﻊ اﻟﻘرار‬- ‫ ﯾﻌﺗﻣد ﻓﻲ ﺗوﺟﯾﮫ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت واﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬:‫ﻧﻣوذج ﻋﺑوات اﻟﻘﻣﺎﻣﺔ‬
•
‫ ﯾﻔﺗرض أن ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣﺗﻧوﻋﺔ ﻣن اﻷﻓراد ﺳوف ﺗﻌﻣل ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﺎل اﻟﺗﺷﺎور‬:‫اﻟﻧﻣوذج اﻟﺗﺷﺎرﻛﻲ‬
•
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The Dysfunctions
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IN-CLASS EXERCISE
The Town of Twin Creeks Considers a New Law
(Exercise 4.1)
Explore the political, personal, administrative, and economic
issues involved with the pending decision to eliminate
motorized vehicles on the town’s 100-acre lake.
http://www.col.ed.org/cur/sst/sst170.txt
( 4.1 ‫ﺑﻠدة ﺗوﯾن ﻛرﯾك ﺗدرس ﻗﺎﻧوﻧًﺎ ﺟدﯾدًا )اﻟﺗﻣرﯾن‬
‫اﺳﺗﻛﺷف اﻟﻘﺿﺎﯾﺎ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ واﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ واﻹدارﯾﺔ واﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ اﻟﻣرﺗﺑطﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘرار اﻟﻣﻌﻠق ﻹزاﻟﺔ اﻟﻣرﻛﺑﺎت اﻵﻟﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
.‫ ﻓدان‬100 ‫ﺑﺣﯾرة ﺗﺑﻠﻎ ﻣﺳﺎﺣﺗﮭﺎ‬
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WRAP-UP
Public Decision Making
‫اﺗﺧﺎذ اﻟﻘرار اﻟﻌﺎم‬
• Process
‫• ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺟﺔ‬
• Models
‫• ﻋﺎرﺿﺎت ازﯾﺎء‬
‫• اﻻﺧﺗﻼﻻت‬
• Dysfunctions
Preparation for next class: Read Chapter 5
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Ch 5: Politics and
Public Administration
“A theory of public administration means
in our time a theory of politics also.”
JOHN GAUS
Political Scientist; Public Administration Expert
(1894–1969)
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OVERVIEW
• Review Last Class – Key Topics
• The Nature of Politics and Administration
• Bureaucratic Politics
• The Iron Triangle
• The Role of Discretion in Administration
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INTRODUCTION
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Intersection of Politics and Administration
‫ﺗﻘﺎطﻊ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ واﻹدارة‬
•
Spoils System: Andrew Jackson
‫ أﻧدرو ﺟﺎﻛﺳون‬:‫ﻧظﺎم اﻟﻐﻧﺎﺋم‬
•
‫ وودرو وﯾﻠﺳون‬:‫اﻟﻣﺻﻠﺣون‬
•
•
Reformers: Woodrow Wilson
•
Legislation: The Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883 ‫ ﻗﺎﻧون ﺑﻧدﻟﺗون ﻟﻠﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﻌﺎم‬:‫• اﻟﺗﺷرﯾﻌﺎت‬
1883
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Bureaucratic Politics – The Realism
“There is no doubt that the development of the administrative
agency in response to modern legislative and administrative
need has placed severe strain on the separation-of-powers
principle in its pristine formulation.”
BYRON WHITE
Football Player; Supreme Court Justice
(1917–2002)
‫”ï»» ﺷك ﻓﻲ أن ﺗطوﯾر اﻟوﻛﺎﻟﺔ اﻹدارﯾﺔ اﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﺎﺟﺔ اﻟﺗﺷرﯾﻌﯾﺔ واﻹدارﯾﺔ اﻟﺣدﯾﺛﺔ ﻗد ﻓرض‬
.”‫ﺿﻐطﺎ Ù‹ ﺷدﯾدا Ù‹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺑدأ ﻓﺻل اﻟﺳﻠطﺎت ﻓﻲ ﺻﯾﻐﺗﮫ اﻷﺻﻠﯾﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﯾرون واﯾت‬
‫ﻻﻋب ﻛرة ﻗدم؛ ﻣﺣﻛﻣﺔ اﻟﻌدل اﻟﻌﻠﯾﺎ‬
(1917-2002)
•
•
The Politics School
Wilson vs. Simon
‫• ﻣدرﺳﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬
‫• وﯾﻠﺳون ﻣﻘﺎﺑل ﺳﺎﯾﻣون‬
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Bureaucratic Discretion – Administrative Law
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• The relationship within them [iron triangles] is symbiotic; that is, each member of the
triangle gets something that it needs from other members. The agency gets
appropriations and new programs from the subcommittee, and the subcommittee gets
support and information from the agency. The interest groups get policies and
benefits from both the subcommittee and the agency, and the subcommittee gets
support, information, and campaign contributions … from the interest groups.
.‫ أي أن ﻛل ﻋﺿو ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺛﻠث ﯾﺣﺻل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲء ﯾﺣﺗﺎﺟﮫ ﻣن اﻷﻋﺿﺎء اﻵﺧرﯾن‬.‫• اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ داﺧﻠﮭﺎ ]ﻣﺛﻠﺛﺎت اﻟﺣدﯾد[ ھﻲ ﺗﻛﺎﻓﻠﯾﺔ‬
‫ وﺗﺣﺻل اﻟﻠﺟﻧﺔ اﻟﻔرﻋﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟدﻋم واﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت ﻣن‬، ‫ﺗﺣﺻل اﻟوﻛﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺧﺻﺻﺎت وﺑراﻣﺞ ﺟدﯾدة ﻣن اﻟﻠﺟﻧﺔ اﻟﻔرﻋﯾﺔ‬
‫ وﺗﺣﺻل اﻟﻠﺟﻧﺔ اﻟﻔرﻋﯾﺔ‬، ‫ ﺗﺣﺻل ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت اﻟﻣﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺎت وﻓواﺋد ﻣن ﻛل ﻣن اﻟﻠﺟﻧﺔ اﻟﻔرﻋﯾﺔ واﻟوﻛﺎﻟﺔ‬.‫اﻟوﻛﺎﻟﺔ‬
.‫ ﻣن ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت اﻟﻣﺻﺎﻟﺢ‬… ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟدﻋم واﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت وإﺳﮭﺎﻣﺎت اﻟﺣﻣﻼت‬
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IN-CLASS EXERCISE
Tobacco Settlement Distribution Simulation
(Exercise 5.1)
A $2.5 billion settlement from a tobacco company is awarded to the State.
In your roles, determine how it would be distributed in your state.
Remember: No decision = No money
(5.1 ‫ﻣﺣﺎﻛﺎة ﺗوزﯾﻊ ﺗﺳوﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺑﻎ (اﻟﺗﻣرﯾن‬
.‫ ﻣﻠﯾﺎر دوﻻر ﻣن ﺷرﻛﺔ اﻟﺗﺑﻎ ﻟﻠدوﻟﺔ‬2.5 ‫ﯾﺗم ﻣﻧﺢ ﺗﺳوﯾﺔ ﺑﻘﯾﻣﺔ‬
.‫ ﺣدد ﻛﯾف ﺳﯾﺗم ﺗوزﯾﻌﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ وﻻﯾﺗك‬، ‫ﻓﻲ أدوارك‬
‫ ﻻ ﻗرار = ﻻ ﻣﺎل‬:‫ﺗذﻛر‬
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WRAP-UP
Politics and Public Administration
‫اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ واﻹدارة اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
• The Spoils System
‫• ﻧظﺎم اﻟﻐﻧﺎﺋم‬
‫• اﻹﺻﻼح اﻟﺗﺷرﯾﻌﻲ‬
• The Legislative Reform
‫• اﻟﻣﺛﻠث اﻟﺣدﯾدي واﻟﺗﻘدﯾر‬
• The Iron Triangle and Discretion
Preparation for next class: Read Chapter 6
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• Spoils system: is practice in which a political party after winning an election gives
government civil service jobs to support friends as reward for working toward victory
‫ ھو ﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺔ ﯾﻘوم ﻓﯾﮭﺎ أي ﺣزب ﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ ﺑﻌد ﻓوزه ﻓﻲ اﻻﻧﺗﺧﺎﺑﺎت ﺑﻣﻧﺢ وظﺎﺋف اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ ﻟدﻋم‬:‫• ﻧظﺎم اﻟﻐﻧﺎﺋم‬
‫اﻷﺻدﻗﺎء ﻛﻣﻛﺎﻓﺄة ﻟﻠﻌﻣل ﻧﺣو اﻟﻧﺻر‬
• The politics school : is that politics is very much a part of administration
‫ ھﻲ أن اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ ﺟزء ﻛﺑﯾر ﻣن اﻹدارة‬:‫• ﻣدرﺳﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ‬
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Ch 6: Intergovernmental
Relations
“We’re hearing how Pennsylvania municipalities
are furloughing employees, cutting services
or taking other drastic measures to pay
their bills…If they shared services, the
financial pain would not be so great.”
KEN KLOTHEN
Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development
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• Intergovernmental Relations: refer to the collaborative dynamic, or working
relationships, that exist among all levels of government—national, state, and local.
– ‫ ﺗﺷﯾر إﻟﻰ اﻟﺗﻌﺎوﻧﯾﺔ اﻟدﯾﻧﺎﻣﯾﻛﯾﺔ أوﻋﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﻣوﺟودة ﺑﯾن ﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﻣﺳﺗوﯾﺎت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬:‫• اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ‬
.‫اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ واﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ واﻟﻣﺣﻠﯾﺔ‬
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OVERVIEW
• Review Last Class – Key Topics
‫• اﻟﻔﯾدراﻟﯾﺔ‬
• Federalism
‫• اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ‬
• Shared Government
‫• ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻷداء‬
• Improving Performance
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INTRODUCTION
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Federalism – The Models
Layer Cake
‫اﻟﻔﯾدراﻟﯾﺔ‬
‫طﺑﻘﺔ ﻛﯾك‬
‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت‬
‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﺣﻠﯾﺔ‬
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• The layer cake model envisions separate and distinct areas of authority between the
national, state, and local governments.
‫• ﯾﺗﺻور ﻧﻣوذج طﺑﻘﺔ اﻟﻛﻌﻛﺔ ﻣﺟﺎﻻت ﻣﻧﻔﺻﻠﺔ وﻣﻣﯾزة ﻟﻠﺳﻠطﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ وﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت واﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺎت‬
.‫اﻟﻣﺣﻠﯾﺔ‬
• For example, this model assumes that the national government is primarily
responsible for defending the nation, engaging in international diplomacy, and
regulating interstate commerce.
‫ واﻟﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ‬، ‫ ﯾﻔﺗرض ھذا اﻟﻧﻣوذج أن اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ ﻣﺳؤوﻟﺔ ﺑﺷﻛل أﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻋن اﻟدﻓﺎع ﻋن اﻷﻣﺔ‬، ‫• ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﯾل اﻟﻣﺛﺎل‬
.‫ وﺗﻧظﯾم اﻟﺗﺟﺎرة ﺑﯾن اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت‬، ‫اﻟدﺑﻠوﻣﺎﺳﯾﺔ اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ‬
• State governments are primarily responsible for overseeing education and
infrastructure such as building bridges and roads.
.‫• ﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت ﻣﺳؤوﻟﺔ ﺑﺷﻛل أﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻋن اﻹﺷراف ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺗﻌﻠﯾم واﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺣﺗﯾﺔ ﻣﺛل ﺑﻧﺎء اﻟﺟﺳور واﻟطرق‬
• Local governments, which include county and municipal governments, are
responsible for public safety, emergency services, and waste removal
‫ ﻣﺳؤوﻟﺔ ﻋن اﻟﺳﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ وﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟطوارئ وإزاﻟﺔ‬، ‫ واﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺷﻣل ﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﻘﺎطﻌﺎت واﻟﺑﻠدﯾﺎت‬، ‫• اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﺣﻠﯾﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻧﻔﺎﯾﺎت‬
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Federalism – The Models
Marble Cake
‫ﻛﻌﻛﺔ اﻟرﺧﺎم‬
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The marble cake model assumes that there are few hard-and-fast lines of distinction
as to what constitutes national, state, or local responsibilities. Like a marble cake,
governmental responsibilities are, at times, swirled or mixed
‫ﯾﻔﺗرض ﻧﻣوذج اﻟﻛﻌﻛﺔ اﻟرﺧﺎﻣﯾﺔ أن ھﻧﺎك اﻟﻘﻠﯾل ﻣن ﺧطوط اﻟﺗﻣﯾﯾز اﻟﺛﺎﺑت واﻟﺳرﯾﻊ ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻌﻠق ﺑﻣﺎ ﯾﺷﻛل اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺎت‬
‫ ﻣﻠﺗوﯾﺔ أو‬، ‫ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌض اﻷﺣﯾﺎن‬، ‫ ﺗﻛون اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺎت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ‬، ‫ ﻣﺛل اﻟﻛﻌﻛﺔ اﻟرﺧﺎﻣﯾﺔ‬.‫اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ أو اﻟوﻻﺋﯾﺔ أو اﻟﻣﺣﻠﯾﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺧﺗﻠطﺔ‬
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Federalism – The Models
Picket Fence
‫ﺳﯾﺎج اﻻﻋﺗﺻﺎم‬
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The picket fence model of the federalist system is characterized by close fiscal
relationships among the national, state, and local governments. These fiscal
relationships emerged given the national government’s strong tax base, one that
is less affected by the hills and valleys of a fluctuating economy
‫ﯾﺗﻣﯾز ﻧﻣوذج ﺳﯾﺎج اﻻﻋﺗﺻﺎم ﻟﻠﻧظﺎم اﻟﻔﯾدراﻟﻲ ﺑﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ وﺛﯾﻘﺔ ﺑﯾن اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ وﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت‬
ً ‫ ﻗﺎﻋدة أﻗل ﺗﺄﺛرا‬، ‫ ظﮭرت ھذه اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿوء ﻗﺎﻋدة ﺿرﯾﺑﯾﺔ ﻗوﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺣﻛوﻣﺔ اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ‬.‫واﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﺣﻠﯾﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻼل واﻟودﯾﺎن ﻓﻲ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎد اﻟﻣﺗﻘﻠب‬
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‫‪Shared Government‬‬
‫اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ أو ﻣﺧرﺟﺎت اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ اﻟﻣﺣﺗﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺗوﻓﯾر ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﻛﺎﻟﯾف‬
‫ﺗوﺣﯾد اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻻﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫اﻧﺧﻔﺎض ﻋبء ﺿرﯾﺑﺔ اﻟﻣﻣﺗﻠﻛﺎت‬
‫ﺗﺣﺳﯾن ﻛﻔﺎءة وﻓﻌﺎﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺣد ﻣن ازدواﺟﯾﺔ اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ‬
‫‪Expertise‬‬
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‫‪Services‬‬
‫–‬
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‫‪Equipment‬‬
‫–‬
‫‪Personnel‬‬
Types of shared service : ‫أﻧواع اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ‬
1- sharing personal : Sharing personnel is a straightforward concept. Smaller
governmental units such as municipalities
‫ اﻟوﺣدات اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ اﻷﺻﻐر ﻣﺛل اﻟﺑﻠدﯾﺎت‬.‫ ﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ اﻟﻣوظﻔﯾن ھو ﻣﻔﮭوم واﺿﺢ‬: ‫• اﻟﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ اﻟﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ‬
2-sharing equipment: a partner model in which ownership is shared by each community
owning an individual part of the entire piece of equipment
‫ ﻧﻣوذج ﺷرﯾك ﯾﺗم ﻓﯾﮫ ﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ ﻛل ﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻠﻛﯾﺔ ﯾﻣﺗﻠك ﺟزًءا ﻓردﯾًﺎ ﻣن ﻗطﻌﺔ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣﻌدات‬:‫• ﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ اﻟﻣﻌدات‬
3-sharing internal services = service : Sharing internal services is ideal when the service
function requires little interaction with the public
ً ‫ ﺗﻌد ﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟداﺧﻠﯾﺔ ﻣﺛﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﺗﺗطﻠب وظﯾﻔﺔ اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ ﺗﻔﺎﻋًﻼ ﺑﺳﯾ‬:‫• ﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟداﺧﻠﯾﺔ = اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ‬
‫طﺎ ﻣﻊ‬
‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬
4- sharing external services = expertise : External services refer to agreements in which
one governmental unit consents to provide essential services to another that no longer
provides such services
‫ ﺗﺷﯾر اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻻﺗﻔﺎﻗﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗواﻓق ﻓﯾﮭﺎ إﺣدى اﻟوﺣدات اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ‬:‫• ﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ = اﻟﺧﺑرة‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘدﯾم اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ أﺧرى ﻟم ﺗﻌد ﺗوﻓر ھذه اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت‬
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Improving Government Performance
• Intra Government Competition
‫ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻷداء اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﻲ‬
‫• ﻣﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ داﺧﻠﯾﺔ ﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ‬
• Inter Government Competition
‫• اﻟﻣﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ‬
‫• اﻟﺧﺻﺧﺻﺔ‬
• Privatization
‫• اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ‬
• Shared Services
Privatization: employing the private sector or nonprofit sector to do work of government
‫ ﺗوظﯾف اﻟﻘطﺎع اﻟﺧﺎص أو اﻟﻘطﺎع ﻏﯾر اﻟرﺑﺣﻲ ﻟﻠﻘﯾﺎم ﺑﺄﻋﻣﺎل اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ‬:‫اﻟﺧﺻﺧﺻﺔ‬
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IN-CLASS EXERCISE
The Road to the Real Salt Lake Stadium Deal
(Exercise 6.2)
What are the factors in this case that are important to our
discussion on inter-governmental relationships?
Think of your answer in terms of opportunities or threats.
‫اﻟطرﯾق إﻟﻰ ﺻﻔﻘﺔ ﻣﻠﻌب ﷼ ﺳوﻟت ﻟﯾك‬
‫ﻣﺎ ھﻲ اﻟﻌواﻣل اﻟﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻣﻧﺎﻗﺷﺗﻧﺎ ﺣول اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ؟‬
.‫ﻓﻛر ﻓﻲ إﺟﺎﺑﺗك ﻣن ﺣﯾث اﻟﻔرص أو اﻟﺗﮭدﯾدات‬
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WRAP-UP
Intergovernmental Relations
‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﯾﺔ اﻟدوﻟﯾﺔ‬
• Federalism
‫• اﻟﻔﯾدراﻟﯾﺔ‬
• Shared Services
‫• اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﺷﺗرﻛﺔ‬
‫• ﻣﻧﺎﻓﺳﺔ‬
• Competition
Preparation for next class: Read Chapter 7
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Ch 7: Public Performance
“An acre of performance is worth
a whole world of promise.”
WILLIAM DEAN HOWELLS
American Author
(1837–1920)
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OVERVIEW
• Review Last Class – Key Topics
• Improving Government Performance
• Total Quality Management
• Measuring to Improve
• Citizen Driven Performance Measurement
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TQM – Total Quality Management
‫ادارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
• TQM is defined as “an enterprise Lifestyle that emphasizes customer satisfaction,
excellent service and rapid adjustment
• To address ever-changing customer needs”
‫• ﯾﺗم ﺗﻌرﯾف إدارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﺄﻧﮭﺎ “أﺳﻠوب ﺣﯾﺎة ﻣؤﺳﺳﻲ ﯾرﻛز ﻋﻠﻰ رﺿﺎ اﻟﻌﻣﻼء واﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟﻣﻣﺗﺎزة واﻟﺗﻛﯾف اﻟﺳرﯾﻊ‬
” ‫• ﻟﺗﻠﺑﯾﺔ اﺣﺗﯾﺎﺟﺎت اﻟﻌﻣﻼء اﻟﻣﺗﻐﯾرة ﺑﺎﺳﺗﻣرار‬
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The Key Elements of TQM ‫اﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻر اﻟرﺋﯾﺳﯾﺔ ﻹدارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
1. Leaders must develop purposes of the organization.
2. All must learn the new philosophy—including upper management.
3. All must understand the purpose of inspection.
4. Continuously improve systems of production and service.
5. Implement modern training methods.
6. Teach leadership.
7. Eliminate fear, build trust.
8. Encourage worker education and self-amelioration.
9. Act to bring about the transformation.
.‫ ﯾﺟب ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﺎدة ﺗطوﯾر أﻏراض اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ‬.1
.‫ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ذﻟك اﻹدارة اﻟﻌﻠﯾﺎ‬- ‫ ﯾﺟب أن ﯾﺗﻌﻠم اﻟﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﻔﻠﺳﻔﺔ اﻟﺟدﯾدة‬.2
.‫ ﯾﺟب أن ﯾﻔﮭم اﻟﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﻐرض ﻣن اﻟﺗﻔﺗﯾش‬.3
.‫ اﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر ﻟﻧظم اﻹﻧﺗﺎج واﻟﺧدﻣﺔ‬.4
.‫ ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ أﺳﺎﻟﯾب اﻟﺗدرﯾب اﻟﺣدﯾﺛﺔ‬.5
.‫ ﺗﻌﻠﯾم اﻟﻘﯾﺎدة‬.6
.‫ وﺑﻧﺎء اﻟﺛﻘﺔ‬، ‫ اﻟﻘﺿﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺧوف‬.7
.‫ ﺗﺷﺟﯾﻊ ﺗﻌﻠﯾم اﻟﻌﻣﺎل وﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻟذات‬.8
.‫ اﻟﻌﻣل ﻹﺣداث اﻟﺗﺣول‬.9
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Assumptions: of TQM ‫ ﻣن إدارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬:‫اﻻﻓﺗراﺿﺎت‬
The Customer: TQM assumes that customer is paramount
‫إدارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺗﻔﺗرض أن اﻟﻌﻣﯾل ھو اﻟﮭدف اﻷﺳﻣﻰ‬
Continuous Improvement: include : ‫اﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣر وﯾﺷﻣل‬
1- enhance value to customer
2-reduce errors
3-improved productivity in the use of all resource
4- improved responsiveness and cycle time performance
‫ ﺗﻌزﯾز اﻟﻘﯾﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﻣﻼء‬-1
‫ﺗﻘﻠﯾل اﻷﺧطﺎء‬-2
‫ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻹﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ اﺳﺗﺧدام ﻛل اﻟﻣوارد‬-3
‫ ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻻﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ وأداء وﻗت اﻟدورة‬-4
Commitment and Leadership: upper management is essential for TQM
‫ اﻹدارة اﻟﻌﻠﯾﺎ ﺿرورﯾﺔ ﻹدارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬:‫ اﻻﻟﺗزام واﻟﻘﯾﺎدة‬Empowerment and Teamwork: assume that performance improvement can not occur
because of one personal efforts
‫ اﻟﺗﻣﻛﯾن واﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬‫اﻓﺗرض أن ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻷداء ﻻ ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﯾﺣدث ﺑﺳﺑب ﺟﮭود ﺷﺧﺻﯾﺔ واﺣدة‬
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INTRODUCTION
What is a PerformanceDriven Management
System?
•
•
Citizens – Customers – Clients –
Owners
Effectiveness – Efficacy – Equity
‫ﻣﺎ ھو ﻧظﺎم إدارة ﯾﺣرﻛﮭﺎ اﻷداء؟‬
– ‫ اﻟﻌﻣﻼء‬- ‫ اﻟﻌﻣﻼء‬- ‫• اﻟﻣواطﻧون‬
‫اﻟﻣﻼك‬
‫ اﻹﻧﺻﺎف‬- ‫ اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬- ‫• اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﯾﺔ‬
‫• اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾن‬
•
Administrators
‫• أرﺑﺎب اﻟﻌﻣل‬
•
Employers
‫• اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳون‬
•
Founders
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Improving Performance
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Improving Performance
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TQM – Total Quality Management
• History – W.E. Deming
‫إدارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﻛﻠﯾﺔ‬
‫ دﻣﯾﻧﻎ‬- W.E. ‫• اﻟﺗﺎرﯾﺦ‬
• The Key Elements
‫• اﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻر اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬
• Assumptions:
– The Customer
– Continuous Improvement
– Commitment and Leadership
– Empowerment and Teamwork
:‫اﻻﻓﺗراﺿﺎت‬
‫اﻟزﺑون‬
‫ﺗﺣﺳن ﻣﺳﺗﻣر‬
‫اﻻﻟﺗزام واﻟﻘﯾﺎدة‬
‫اﻟﺗﻣﻛﯾن واﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ‬
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Responsiveness
• The Value of Responsiveness
‫إﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫• ﻗﯾﻣﺔ اﻻﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬
“The only man I know who behaves sensibly
is my tailor; he takes my measurements each
time he sees me. The rest go on with their old measurements
and expect me to fit them.”
GEORGE BERNARD SHAW
Playright; Critic; Nobel Prize Winner
(1856–1950)
‫”اﻟرﺟل اﻟوﺣﯾد اﻟذي أﻋرﻓﮫ وﯾﺗﺻرف ﺑﺷﻛل ﻣﻌﻘول Ú¾Ùˆ ﺧﯾﺎطﺗﻲ Ø› ﯾﺄﺧذ ﻗﯾﺎﺳﺎﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ ï»›Ù„ ﻣرة‬
“.‫ اﻟﺑﻘﯾﺔ ﯾواﺻﻠون ﻗﯾﺎﺳﺎﺗﮭم اﻟﻘدﯾﻣﺔ وﯾﺗوﻗﻌون ﻣﻧﻲ أن أﻻﺋﻣﮭم‬.‫ﯾراﻧﻲ‬
‫ﺟورج ﺑرﻧﺎرد ﺷو‬
‫ﻣﺳرﺣﻲ اﻟﻧﺎﻗد؛ اﻟﺣﺎﺋز ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺎﺋزة ﻧوﺑل‬
(1856–1950)
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Responsiveness: is an important value of public organization and responsiveness is the extent to
which an organization promotes correspondence between decision of bureaucrats and community
‫ ھﻲ ﻗﯾﻣﺔ ﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻧظﯾم اﻟﻌﺎم واﻻﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ ھﻲ ﻣدى ﻗﯾﺎم اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺔ ﺑﺗﻌزﯾز اﻟﺗواﻓق أو اﻻﻧﺳﺟﺎم ﺑﯾن ﻗرار اﻟﺑﯾروﻗراطﯾﯾن واﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ‬:‫اﻻﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬
Barriers to Responsiveness and Solutions: Linking TQM’s Philosophy
‫ رﺑط ﻓﻠﺳﻔﺔ إدارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬:‫ﻋواﺋق اﻻﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ واﻟﺣﻠول‬
Problem 1: Interest Group Politics and Captive Bureaucracy.
TQM Solution 1: Establishing Interorganizational Teamwork and Training for External Customers.
.‫ ﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ اﻻھﺗﻣﺎم واﻟﺑﯾروﻗراطﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻘﯾدة‬:1 ‫اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬
‫ ﻟﻠﻌﻣﻼء اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﯾﯾن‬،‫ إﻧﺷﺎء اﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ اﻟﻣﺷﺗرك ﺑﯾن اﻟﻣﻧظﻣﺎت واﻟﺗدرﯾب‬:1 ‫ﺣل إدارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
Problem 2: Expertise and Information Distortion.
TQM Solution 2: Utilizing Vertical Teamwork and Empowerment
.‫ اﻟﺧﺑرة وﺗﺣرﯾف اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت‬:2 ‫اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬
‫ اﻻﺳﺗﻔﺎدة ﻣن اﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ اﻟرأﺳﻲ واﻟﺗﻣﻛﯾن‬:2 ‫ﺣل إدارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
Problem 3: Specialized Structure and Parochialism
TQM Solution 3: Utilizing Horizontal Teamwork and Preventing Variation in the Product and Process
‫ ھﯾﻛل ﻣﺗﺧﺻص وﺿﯾق ﻓﻲ اﻓق اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر‬:3 ‫اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ‬
‫ اﺳﺗﺧدام اﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ اﻷﻓﻘﻲ وﻣﻧﻊ اﻻﻧﺣراف او اﻻﺧﺗﻼف ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻧﺗﺞ واﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ‬:3 ‫ﺣل إدارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
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Performance Improvement Indicators
‫ﻣؤﺷرات ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻷداء‬
“What gets measured gets done,
what gets measured and fed back gets done well,
what gets rewarded gets repeated.”
JOHN E. JONES
American Attorney
‫ وﻣﺎ ﯾﺗم‬، ‫ وﻣﺎ ﯾﺗم ﻗﯾﺎﺳﮫ وﺗﻐذﯾﺗﮫ ﯾﺗم ﺗﻧﻔﯾذه ﺟﯾدًا‬، ‫”ﻣﺎ ﯾﺗم ﻗﯾﺎﺳﮫ ﯾﺗم إﻧﺟﺎزه‬
.”‫ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺄﺗﮫ ﯾﺗﻛرر‬
‫ﺟون إي ﺟوﻧز‬
‫ﻣﺣﺎﻣﻲ أﻣرﯾﻛﻲ‬
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Performance Improvement Indicators
‫ﻣؤﺷرات ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻷداء‬
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Input Indicators: Inputs reflect the quantity of resources appropriated to a government
organization, service, or program
‫ ﺗﻌﻛس اﻟﻣدﺧﻼت ﻛﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻣوارد اﻟﻣﺧﺻﺻﺔ ﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ أو ﺧدﻣﺔ أو ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺣﻛوﻣﻲ‬.‫ﻣؤﺷرات اﻟﻣدﺧﻼت‬
Output Indicators: They reflect the amount of work done or the number of services provided by
a government program
‫ وھﻲ ﺗﻌﻛس ﺣﺟم اﻟﻌﻣل اﻟﻣﻧﺟز أو ﻋدد اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻘدﻣﮭﺎ ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺣﻛوﻣﻲ‬.‫ﻣؤﺷرات اﻻﻧﺗﺎج‬
Outcome Indicators: These indicators capture the results (or quality) of the services provided
‫ ھذه اﻟﻣؤﺷرات ﺗدل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ )أو ﺟودة( اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت اﻟﻣﻘدﻣﺔ‬.‫ﻣؤﺷرات اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬
Efficiency Indicators: These indicators examine the extent to which a public organization or
program is performing in relation to service delivery costs
‫ ﺗﺑﺣث ھذه اﻟﻣؤﺷرات ﻓﻲ ﻣدى أداء ﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ أو ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻋﺎم ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻌﻠق ﺑﺗﻛﺎﻟﯾف ﺗﻘدﯾم اﻟﺧدﻣﺎت‬.‫ﻣؤﺷرات اﻟﻛﻔﺎءة‬
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‫ﻗﯾﺎس اﻻداء ﯾﺣرﻛﮭﺎ اﻟﻣواطن او ﺑواﺳطﺔ اﻟﻣواطن‬
‫‪Citizen Driven Performance Measurement‬‬
‫اﺳﺗﺑﯾﺎن او دراﺳﺔ اﻟﻣواطن‪ :‬ﻟﻠوﺻول إﻟﻰ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﻣواطﻧﯾن‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺑﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ذﻟك اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت اﻟﺳﻠﺑﯾﺔ وﻏﯾر اﻟﻧﺷطﺔ‬
‫ﺧط ھﺎﺗف اﻟﻣواطن اﻟﺳﺎﺧن‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﻣواطﻧﯾن اﻟذﯾن ھم ﻋﻠﻰ اﺳﺗﻌداد ﻟﻼﺗﺻﺎل‬
‫ﻣوﻗﻊ ﻣﺗﻔﺎﻋل او ﻓﻌﺎل‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻣواطﻧﯾن اﻟذﯾن ﯾﺷﻌرون ﺑﺎﻟراﺣﺔ ﻣﻊ اﺳﺗﺧدام أﺟﮭزة اﻟﻛﻣﺑﯾوﺗر‬
‫ﻏرﻓﺔ دردﺷﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﻧﺗرﻧت‪:‬‬
‫ﻟﻠﻣواطﻧﯾن اﻟذﯾن ﻟدﯾﮭم إﻣﻛﺎﻧﯾﺔ اﻟوﺻول إﻟﻰ اﻹﻧﺗرﻧت واﻟذﯾن ھم ﻋﻠﻰ اﺳﺗﻌداد ﻟﻠﻣﺷﺎرﻛﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت اﻟﺗرﻛﯾز‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﻗﺎدة اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ واﻟﻣواطﻧﯾن‬
‫ﻓرﯾق اﻻداء اﻟﻣواطن‬
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‫‪Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society‬‬
IN-CLASS EXERCISE
City of Deficitprone–Improving Public
Performance (Simulation)
(Exercise 7.1)
Identify unrealized opportunities for productivity improvements
and the obstacles to them.
(‫ ﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻷداء اﻟﻌﺎم (ﻣﺣﺎﻛﺎة‬- ‫ﻣدﯾﻧﺔ ﻣﻌرﺿﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺟز‬
.‫ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟﻔرص ﻏﯾر اﻟﻣﺣﻘﻘﺔ ﻟﺗﺣﺳﯾن اﻹﻧﺗﺎﺟﯾﺔ واﻟﻌﻘﺑﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﺗرﺿﮭﺎ‬
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WRAP-UP
Public Performance
• Why Measure?
‫أداء ﻋﺎم‬
‫• ﻟﻣﺎذا اﻟﻘﯾﺎس؟‬
• TQM
‫• إدارة اﻟﺟودة اﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
• Performance Management
Strategies
‫• اﺳﺗراﺗﯾﺟﯾﺎت إدارة اﻷداء‬
‫ اﻗرأ اﻟﻔﺻل اﻟﺛﺎﻣن‬:‫اﻟﺗﺣﺿﯾر ﻟﻠﺻف اﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ‬
Preparation for next class: Read
Chapter 8
Public Administration: An Indispensable Part of Society
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Designing a Performance Measurement System ‫ﺗﺻﻣﯾم ﻧظﺎم ﻗﯾﺎس اﻷداء‬
Developing a performance measurement system need not be complex
A system of measuring performance requires that one understand what an organization or program is trying to
achieve, who its clients are, and what level of service is being delivered at the time.
‫ﺗطوﯾر ﻧظﺎم ﻗﯾﺎس اﻷداء ﻻ ﯾﺣﺗﺎج إﻟﻰ أن ﯾﻛون ﻣﻌﻘدًا‬
.‫ وﻣﺳﺗوى اﻟﺧدﻣﺔ اﻟذي ﯾﺗم ﺗﻘدﯾﻣﮫ ﻓﻲ ذﻟك اﻟوﻗت‬، ‫ وﻣن ھم ﻋﻣﻼﺋﮭﺎ‬، ‫ﯾﺗطﻠب ﻧظﺎم ﻗﯾﺎس اﻷداء أن ﯾﻔﮭم اﻟﻣرء ﻣﺎ ﺗﺣﺎول ﻣﻧظﻣﺔ أو ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﺣﻘﯾﻘﮫ‬
•
•
The seven specific steps are:
1. Identifying a program to measure
2. Designing a purpose statement
3. Classifying program inputs, outputs, outcomes, and efficiency indicators
4. Setting performance targets
5. Monitoring performance
6. Reporting performance results
7.Concluding with analysis and action
‫ ﺗﺣدﯾد ﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻟﻠﻘﯾﺎس‬.1
‫ ﺗﺻﻣﯾم ﺑﯾﺎن اﻟﻐرض‬.2
‫ وﻣؤﺷرات اﻟﻛﻔﺎءة‬، ‫ اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‬، ‫ اﻟﻣﺧرﺟﺎت‬، ‫ ﺗﺻﻧﯾف ﻣدﺧﻼت اﻟﺑرﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬.3
‫ ﺗﺣدﯾد أھداف اﻷداء‬.4
‫ ﻣراﻗﺑﺔ اﻷداء‬.5
‫ ﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﺗﻘﺎرﯾرﻋن ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ اﻷداء‬.6
‫ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ذﻟك اﻟﺗﺣﻠﯾل واﻟﻌﻣل‬.7
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Ch 8: Program
Evaluation
“Evaluation is the process of determining
the merit, worth, and value of things.”
MICHAEL SCRIVEN
Evaluation Theorist
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