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We all experience emotional hijacking in our life for whatever reasons. Tell us about your experience with Emotional Hijacking or someone else experience that you witness.

a -What Happened?

b -What was the trigger?

c -What was the impact of the emotional hijacking?

d -How to avoid such a situation?

Because learning changes everything. ®
Chapter 2
Interpersonal
Communication
and Emotional
Intelligence
© 2021 McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.
No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill.
Learning Objectives
1
2.1
Describe the interpersonal communication process
and barriers to effective communication.
2.2
Explain how emotional hijacking can hinder effective
interpersonal communication.
2.3
Explain how self-awareness impacts the
communication process.
2.4
Describe how self-management impacts the
communication process.
2.5
Explain and evaluate the process of active listening.
© McGraw Hill
Learning Objectives
2
2.6
Describe and demonstrate effective questions for
enhancing listening and learning.
2.7
Explain strategies to sight-read the nonverbal
communication of others.
2.8
Identify common communication preferences based
on motivational values.
2.9
Explain how extroversion-introversion impacts
interpersonal communication.
2.10
Explain the role of civility in effective interpersonal
communication and the common types of incivility in
the workplace.
© McGraw Hill
Understanding the Interpersonal
Communication Process
1
Interpersonal Communication Process
•
Sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages
between two or more people.
•
The exchange of simultaneous and mutual messages to
share and negotiate meaning between those involved.
•
Meaning
•
Encoding
•
Decoding
© McGraw Hill
Figure 2.1 The Interpersonal
Communication Process
Access the text alternative for slide images.
© McGraw Hill
Understanding the Interpersonal
Communication Process
2
One goal of interpersonal communication is to arrive
at shared meaning.
•
The people involved in interpersonal communication
attain the same understanding about ideas, thoughts, and
feelings.
© McGraw Hill
Understanding the Interpersonal
Communication Process
3
Physical noise
Physiological noise
Semantic noise
Psychological noise
© McGraw Hill
Understanding the Interpersonal
Communication Process
4
Physical Noise
Physiological Noise
•
•
Internal noise.
•
Ex., illness, hearing
problems, and memory
loss.
•
External noise that
makes a message
difficult to hear or
otherwise receive.
Ex., loud sounds.
© McGraw Hill
Understanding the Interpersonal
Communication Process
5
Semantic Noise
Psychological Noise
•
Communicators apply
different meanings to the
same words or phrases.
•
•
Especially when strong
emotions are involved.
© McGraw Hill
Interference due to
attitudes, ideas, and
emotions experienced
during an interpersonal
interaction.
Understanding the Interpersonal
Communication Process
6
Filter of Lifetime Experiences
•
Accumulation of knowledge, values, expectations, and
attitudes based on prior personal experiences.
•
© McGraw Hill
The more shared experiences, the easier communication is.
Emotional Hijacking
Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
•
Understanding and managing emotions to serve goals.
•
Empathizing and effectively handling relationships with
others.
•
Single best predictor of workplace performance .
Emotional Hijacking
•
A situation in which emotions control our behavior
causing us to react without thinking.
© McGraw Hill
Figure 2.3
Emotional
Hijacking
Access the text alternative for slide images.
© McGraw Hill
Domains of Emotional Intelligence
© McGraw Hill
Self-awareness
Self-management
Empathy
Relationship
management
Self-Awareness
Self-Awareness
•
The foundation for emotional intelligence.
•
Involves accurately understanding your emotions as they
occur and how they affect you.
•
Particularly important for stressful and unpleasant
situations.
•
© McGraw Hill
Triggers.
Table 2.1 Low versus High Self-Awareness Thoughts
1
Low SelfAwareness
Thoughts
Jeff: Latisha needs to learn
how to trust people. She’s
not being fair to me and she
needs to understand the
constraints I’m facing.
Jeff ignores and deflects
his feelings to focus on
what he perceives as
Latisha’s misperceptions.
High SelfAwareness
Thoughts
Jeff: I’m bothered that she
doesn’t trust my motives.
Typically, I feel disrespected
when others don’t trust my
motives. Sometimes, I lash
out in these circumstances.
Jeff recognizes that he
feels distrusted and
disrespected by what
Latisha said. He also
recognizes that he often
says things he later
regrets in these
situations.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.1 Low versus High Self-Awareness Thoughts
2
Low SelfAwareness
Thoughts
Latisha: This is ridiculous.
Jeff promised me that I’d be
working on family-friendly
HR policies. How can he go
back on his word so
quickly?
Latisha overreacts to
Jeff’s words and actions
because she is not
aware of how past
disappointments are
affecting how she is
judging Jeff.
High SelfAwareness
Thoughts
Latisha: I feel afraid and
confused. Jeff doesn’t seem
to care if I have challenging
work. I’ve felt this way
before at other jobs. I
wonder how my past
experiences are impacting
how I’m judging Jeff.
Latisha notices that how
she feels about Jeff is
affected by previous,
similar events. She
knows she should be
careful not to let those
events make her rush to
judgment.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.2 Emotional Intelligence Dimensions, Related
Impacts on Interpersonal Communication, and
Strategies for Improvement
1
EQ Dimension
Impact on Interpersonal Communication
Self-awareness
Low self-awareness
Unaware of own emotional states and related impacts on
communication.
Unaware of triggers that lead to emotional hijacking and
making judgmental, rash, or unfair comments.
Unaware of strengths and weaknesses of own
communication abilities.
High self-awareness
Aware of own emotional states and related impacts on
communication.
Aware of triggers and related tendencies to say the wrong
thing.
Aware of strongest communication skills.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.2 Emotional Intelligence Dimensions, Related
Impacts on Interpersonal Communication, and
Strategies for Improvement
2
EQ Dimension
Impact on Interpersonal Communication
Self-management Low self-management
Unable to control impulses.
Frequently vent frustrations without a constructive work purpose.
Spend a higher percentage of work conversations on small talk,
gossip, and non-work-related issues.
React defensively and with a me-first attitude when threats are
perceived.
High self-management
Control emotional impulses that are not aligned with work and
relationship goals.
Discuss frustrations in the context of solving problems and improving
relationships.
Spend a higher percentage of work conversations on work-related
topics with a focus on solutions.
When threats are perceived, seek to de-escalate interpersonal
tensions and resolve issues at hand.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.2 Emotional Intelligence Dimensions, Related
Impacts on Interpersonal Communication, and
Strategies for Improvement
3
EQ Dimension
Impact on Interpersonal Communication
Empathy
Low empathy
Fail to listen carefully to others.
Direct conversations to topics that are important to self.
Avoid volunteering to help others with their work assignments.
Engage in a me-first approach to work with colleagues.
High empathy
Attempt to understand the feelings, perspectives, and needs
of others.
Direct conversations to topics that focus on the needs of
others and self.
Volunteer advice or help to others as appropriate.
Show a sincere interest in others: their efforts, their ideas, and
their successes.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.2 Emotional Intelligence Dimensions, Related
Impacts on Interpersonal Communication, and
Strategies for Improvement
4
EQ Dimension
Impact on Interpersonal Communication
Relationship
management
Low relationship management
Focus exclusively on the task at hand without paying attention to
rapport-building.
Remain silent to avoid discussions about differences of opinions, or
attempt to silence the dissenting opinions of others.
Provide indirect and vague feedback and ideas to others.
Disregard feedback and constructive criticism.
Discourage dissent.
Respond to others only when it’s convenient.
High relationship management
Build rapport with others to focus on collaboration.
Speak out constructively about differences of opinion.
Provide direct and constructive feedback to others.
Accept and even welcome feedback and constructive criticism.
Encourage contrarian views.
Respond to others when it’s convenient for them.
© McGraw Hill
Self-Management
What Is Self-Management?
•
Ability to use awareness of your emotions to stay flexible
and to direct your behavior positively.
•
Involves the discipline to hold off on current urges to meet
long-term intentions.
•
Involves responding productively and creatively to
negative feelings.
•
© McGraw Hill
Mitigating information.
Table 2.3 Low versus High Self-Management Thoughts
and the Use of Mitigating Information
1
Low SelfManagement
Thoughts
Jeff: If Latisha is going to
treat me like I’m the bad
guy, then maybe I should
just turn her over to
someone else so I don’t
have to worry about her.
Jeff assumes the worst
about Latisha’s comments,
thus allowing his frustration
with her to grow. He
considers an action that is
extreme.
High SelfManagement
Thoughts
Jeff: Latisha is probably
reacting this way because
she cares so much about
family-friendly policies,
which helps the
employees of this
company. She is eager to
contribute.
Jeff assumes a positive
explanation for Latisha’s
actions (mitigating
information), thus shortcircuiting his feelings from
frustration and perhaps
moderating anger.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.3 Low versus High Self-Management Thoughts
and the Use of Mitigating Information
2
Latisha: There’s no way I can
This thought process reflects
Low SelfManagement change anything. Jeff will assign pessimism. Latisha neither
me to another project and that’s thinks of other options
Thoughts
High SelfManagement
Thoughts
© McGraw Hill
that. I’m stuck in another deadend internship.
available to her for working on
parental leave policies nor
assumes that other work tasks
will provide her with rewarding
challenges.
Latisha: I want to express to Jeff my
desire to work on a meaningful
project. We can discuss how my
approach to employee-friendly
policies and quality-of-life issues
could be applied to another project.
And we could discuss how I can still
spend some time working on better
parental leave policies in a way that
does not require cash commitments
during this budget crunch.
This thought process reflects
optimism. Latisha considers
how she can approach Jeff
and constructively discuss
options that are good for her
and the company.
Empathy
Developing Empathy
•
Empathy is the “ability to accurately pick up on emotions
in other people and understand what is really going on
with them.”
•
Listening.
•
Sight-reading nonverbal communication.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.4
Most
Important
Skills for
Managers
© McGraw Hill
Skills
Category
1. Oral communication
Communication
2. Listening skills
Communication
3. Adaptability
Teamwork
4. Written communication
Communication
5. Presentation skills
Communication
6. Value opinions of others
Teamwork
7. Integrity
Leadership
8. Follow a leader
Teamwork
9. Drive
Leadership
10. Cross-cultural sensitivity
Teamwork
11. Quantitative analysis
Technical
12. Qualitative analysis
Technical
13. Innovation and creativity
Leadership
14. Core business knowledge
Technical
15. Ability to inspire others
Leadership
Source: Graduate Management Admission Council. (2017). Corporate recruiters survey report 2017. Reston, VA: GMAC
Active Listening
What Is Active Listening?
•
“A person’s willingness and ability to hear and understand.”
Active Listening Components
•
Paying attention.
•
Holding judgment.
•
Reflecting.
•
Clarifying.
•
Summarizing.
•
Sharing.
© McGraw Hill
Active Listening
1
Paying Attention
•
Involves devoting your whole attention to others and
allowing them enough comfort and time to express
themselves completely.
•
As others speak to you, try to understand everything they
say from their perspective.
•
Requires active nonverbal communication.
© McGraw Hill
Active Listening
2
Holding Judgment
•
People will share their ideas and feelings with you only if
they feel safe.
•
Particularly important in tense and emotionally charged
situations.
•
Demonstrate a learner mind-set rather than a judger
mind-set.
© McGraw Hill
Holding Judgment
1
Learner Mind-Set
•
You show eagerness to hear others’ ideas and
perspectives and listen with an open mind.
•
You do not have your mind made up before listening fully.
© McGraw Hill
Holding Judgment
2
Judger Mind-Set
•
People have their minds made up before listening
carefully to others’ ideas, perspective, and experiences.
•
Judgers view disagreement rigidly, with little possibility of
finding common ground.
© McGraw Hill
Holding Judgment
3
Learner Statements
•
Be willing to hear different opinions.
Judger Statements
•
Closed off to hearing people out.
•
Shut down honest conversations.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.5 Judger Statements vs. Learner
Statements
1
Judger
Statements
Lisa: You’re basing your
conclusions on just a few
people you’ve talked to. Why
aren’t you concerned about
finding out more about the
costs?
This statement implies Jeff is not
concerned about costs and isn’t
open to learning more. This will
likely lead to defensiveness.
Learner
Statements
Lisa: I don’t know much
about continuous feedback
systems. What have you
learned from the people
you’ve talked to?
This statement is neutral and
shows a desire to learn about
Jeff’s experiences and thoughts.
This positions Lisa well to ask
tough questions later on in a
constructive manner.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.5 Judger Statements vs. Learner
Statements
2
Judger
Statements
Jeff: I spend a lot of time talking to
HR directors and know which ones
are best at helping their employees
stay engaged and productive. Don’t
you think HR professionals would
know more about this than people
with a finance background?
This statement begins
with an I’m right, you’re
wrong message. It
directly calls into question
the competence of the
listener. Many listeners
would become defensive.
Learner
Statements
Jeff: I’ve learned several things
from HR directors about continuous
feedback systems….I need to learn
more about the financial
implications. Based on what I’ve
told you, what are your thoughts
about the cost-effectiveness?
This statement reflects a
learning stance and
shows a cooperative
approach moving
forward.
© McGraw Hill
Reflecting
Thinking about the ideas and emotions of others.
To make sure you really understand others, you
should frequently paraphrase what you’re hearing.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.6 Reflecting Statements
Types of Effective
Reflecting
Statements
Examples
It sounds to me like…
Lisa: It sounds to me like you think we should replace
annual performance reviews with continuous
performance reviews because continuous reviews
improve employee performance and morale.
So, you’re not happy
with…
Jeff: So, you’re not happy with this transition unless we
carefully evaluate all of the costs, is that right?
Is it fair to say that you
think…
Lisa: Is it fair to say that you think we should make this
change even if we don’t know all the costs?
Let me make sure I
understand…
Jeff: Let me make sure I understand your view. Are you
saying that we can understand the costs better by…?
© McGraw Hill
Clarifying
Making sure you have a clear understanding of what
others mean.
Double-checking that you understand the
perspectives of others and asking them to elaborate
and qualify their thoughts.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.7 Clarifying Statements
Types of Effective
Clarifying
Statements
Example
What are your
thoughts on…?
Lisa: What are your thoughts on considering other ways of
conducting annual reviews more effectively?
Could you repeat
that?
Jeff: Could you repeat what you just said about evaluating
the costs of continuous reviews?
I’m not sure I
understand…
Lisa: I’m not sure I understand why the problems with our
current annual review process mean that we should move
away from annual reviews. Do you know of companies that
are using annual reviews more effectively than we are?
Could you explain
how…?
Jeff: Could you explain how you would calculate the costs
of a continuous review system?
What might be your
role in…?
Lisa: What roles will Steve and Lisa have in helping us
understand what employees think of the current review
process?
© McGraw Hill
Summarizing and Sharing
Summarizing
•
Restate major themes so that you can make sense of the
big issues from the perspective of the other person.
•
Active listening also involves sharing your own
perspectives and feelings.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.8 Summarizing Statements
Types of Effective
Summarizing
Statements
Example
So, your main
concern is…
Jeff: So, your two main concerns are that moving to a
continuous review process will be costly and impractical.
The software and time needed in the process will cost far
more than what we invest in an annual review process.
Also, it may be difficult to get all employees to participate
often in this process. Is that right?
It sounds like your
key points are…
Lisa: It sounds like you have a few key points. Continuous
feedback systems improve morale and performance at
each of the companies you’ve learned about. Also, your
contacts at these companies think evaluating the costs of
the software is easy, but evaluating the costs of time
invested by employees is not possible. Is that correct?
© McGraw Hill
Recognizing Barriers to Effective
Listening
Barriers
•
Lack of time.
•
Lack of patience and attention span.
•
Image of leadership.
•
Communication technology.
•
Fear of bad news or uncomfortable information.
•
Defending.
•
Me too statements.
•
Giving advice.
© McGraw Hill
Figure 2.4 Defensive and Nondefensive
Replies
The Defensive Reply (Judgmental Stance):
Actually, I know a lot about how performance
review systems affect employees. In fact, I’m
in a far better position to evaluate whether
new systems make financial sense.
Original Statement:
I spend a lot of time
talking to HR
directors and know
which ones are best
at helping their
employees stay
engaged and
productive. Don’t you
think HR
professionals would
know more about
this than people with
a finance
background?
© McGraw Hill
What the
Listener Hears
(Decodes): You
don’t know
what you’re
talking about.
The Nondefensive Reply (Learning Stance):
I think you’re right that we need to pay
attention to what other HR directors have
learned. Have they told you about the costs of
these performance review systems?
Or
I want to know how we can determine the
costs of transitioning to a continuous review
system. What have you learned from HR
directors you know about evaluating these
costs?
Asking the Right Questions
A crucial skill is the ability to ask the right questions.
Good questions reflect the learner mind-set, and
poor questions reflect a judger mind-set.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.9 Questions That Reflect the
Judger Mind-Set and the Learner Mind-Set
Judger Mind-Set
Learner Mind-Set
How come this doesn’t work?
How is this useful or beneficial?
Who is responsible for this mess?
What can we do about this?
Why can’t you get it right?
Going forward, what can we learn
from this?
Can’t you try a better approach?
What are you trying to accomplish?
Why don’t you focus on helping
customers?
How will customers react?
Are you sure this approach will
really meet your goals and
objectives?
How well does this approach meet
your goals and objectives?
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.10 Types of Effective Questions
Types of
Questions
Rapportbuilding
1
Examples
• How was your trip to the human resources
conference?
• What did you learn about at the last Chamber of
Commerce event?
These questions, when asked sincerely, provide an
opportunity for asker and listener to bond through
understanding one another. They also break the ice for a
substantive conversation about the business issues at
hand.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.10 Types of Effective Questions
Types of
Questions
Funnel
2
Examples
• So, how do you think we should go about researching what
our employees think about performance reviews?
• How do you think we can capture the employees’
perspectives about continuous review systems?
• What types of survey questions will help us understand their
thoughts about continuous review systems?
• Could you give me a word-by-word example of how you’d
capture that in a survey question?
These questions progressively break down a problem into
manageable pieces, starting with a large, open-ended question
and moving to increasingly specific and tactical questions. Once
broken into smaller pieces, the asker and listener are more likely
to achieve shared meaning and move toward finding solutions.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.10 Types of Effective Questions
Types of
Questions
Probing
3
Examples
• How often do you receive complaints about the annual
performance review process?
• What concerns do supervisors have?
• What ideas do employees have for making the review
process fairer?
• Do you ever hear supervisors or employees talk about how to
make the process more goal-oriented?
• Other than the frequency of reviews, what are some other
explanations for why employees make these complaints?
These iterations of questions about the causes, consequences,
and scope of group guest complaints attempt to look at the
problem from every angle. This approach is effective at
identifying root causes and best solutions.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.10 Types of Effective Questions
Types of
Questions
Solutionoriented
4
Examples
• How can we find out which software vendors offer the
most attractive performance review features?
• What are your ideas for ensuring that employees
provide continuous feedback to one another?
• What are some best practices in making performance
reviews candid and honest, yet also rewarding and
productive?
These questions form the basis for identifying options
about how to move forward. Ideally, solution-oriented
questions are open, we-oriented, and offer help to others.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.11 Types of Counterproductive
Questions
1
Types of
Questions
Leading
Examples
• Would you agree that employee engagement and
productivity should be our priorities?
• I’m sure you think it’s a good idea to keep costs under
control, right?
These questions are meant to lead the listener to agree
with or adopt the perspective of the asker. Many listeners
will resent feeling pressured into the views of others.
Also, this approach will not lead to a learning
conversation.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.11 Types of Counterproductive
Questions
2
Types of
Questions
Disguised
Statements
Examples
• Why do you insist on focusing on costs instead of
benefits?
• Don’t you think you’re jumping to conclusions by paying
attention to the opinions of only a few of your close
contacts?
These are not real questions. They are statements that
say you are close-minded on this issue. This flaw-finding
approach will cause many listeners to become defensive
and/or avoid sharing their real thoughts. Many listeners
will view disguised statements as underhanded and
manipulative, since they are often attempts to get the
listeners to acknowledge their own faults.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.11 Types of Counterproductive
Questions
3
Types of
Questions
Crossexamination
Examples
• Just now, you said annual reviews don’t work because
they don’t happen often enough. Yet, last week, you
said the real reason our annual reviews fail is not
because of how often they occur, but because they
don’t involve setting goals. So, what’s the real reason
annual reviews don’t work?
This cross-examination question will put most listeners on
the defensive. It may score points for the asker, but it will
move the conversation away from learning and toward a
battle of messages.
© McGraw Hill
Perspective-Getting and Note-Taking
Approach
•
In the body of your notes, write their comments and
points of view.
•
In the margins of your notes, write your reactions, your
ideas, and your questions.
•
Document shortly after the end of your conversation.
© McGraw Hill
Avoiding the Traps of Empathy
Givers
•
Frequently help others out in the workplace, sometimes at
the expense of their individual performance.
•
Three potential barriers to performance associated with
empathy:
•
Timidity.
•
Availability.
•
Emotional concern for others.
© McGraw Hill
Sight-Reading Nonverbal Communication
and Building Rapport
Learning to Sight-Read
•
Consciously practice each day.
•
Pay attention to congruence.
•
Sight-read in clusters, not in isolation.
•
Sight-read in context.
© McGraw Hill
Nonverbal Signals
Eyes
Smiles and Nods
Hands and Arms
Touch
© McGraw Hill
Left: Caia Images/Glow Images ; Right: Image Source/Getty Images
Relationship Management
Relationship Management
•
Using your awareness of emotions and those of others to
manage interactions successfully.
•
Adapting communication to the preferred styles of others
and ensuring civility in the workplace.
© McGraw Hill
Differences in Communication
Preferences Based on Motivational Values
Relationship Awareness Theory
•
Nurturing (identified as blue in this model).
•
Directing (identified as red).
•
Autonomizing (identified as green).
Motivational Value System (MVS)
•
Blend of these primary motives and refers to the
frequency with which these values guide their actions.
© McGraw Hill
Motivational Value Systems
1
Blue MVS
•
Most often guided by motives to protect others, help
others grow, and act in the best interests of others.
Red MVS
•
Most often guided by concerns about organizing people,
time, money, and other resources to accomplish results.
© McGraw Hill
Motivational Value Systems
2
Green MVS
•
Most often concerned about making sure business
activities have been thought out carefully and the right
processes are put into place to accomplish things.
Hubs
•
Professionals who are guided almost equally by all
three of these MVSs.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.12 Motivational Value Systems
1
Blues (Altruistic and Nurturing)
blank
Primary concerns
Protection, growth, and welfare of others
Preferred work environment
Open, friendly, helpful, considerate; being needed and
appreciated; ensuring others reach their potential
People feel best when…
Helping others in a way that benefits them
People feel most rewarded when…
Being a warm and friendly person who is deserving of
appreciation for giving help
People want to avoid being
perceived as…
Selfish, cold, unfeeling
Triggers of conflict
When others compete and take advantage; are cold
and unfriendly; are slow to recognize helpful efforts on
their behalf
Overdone strengths
Trusting, gullible; devoted, subservient; caring,
submissive
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.12 Motivational Value Systems
2
Reds (Assertive and Directing)
blank
Primary concerns
Task accomplishment; use of time, money, and any
other resources to achieve desired results
Preferred work environment
Fast-moving, competitive, creative, progressive,
innovative, verbally stimulating; potential for personal
advancement and development
People feel best when…
Providing leadership and direction to others
People feel most rewarded
when…
Acting with strength and ambition, achieving excellence,
and leading and directing others
People want to avoid being
perceived as…
Gullible, indecisive, unable to act
Triggers of conflict
When others are too forgiving and don’t fight back; don’t
provide clear expectations about rewards
Overdone strengths
Confident, arrogant; persuasive, abrasive; competitive,
combative
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.12 Motivational Value Systems
Greens (Analytical and Autonomizing)
3
blank
Primary concerns
Assurance that things have been properly thought out;
meaningful order being established; self-reliance and selfdependence
Preferred work environment
Clarity, logic, precision, efficiency, organization; focus on
self-reliance and effective use of resources; time to explore
options
People feel best when…
Pursuing their own interests without needing to rely on
others
People feel most rewarded
when…
Working with others in a fair, clear, logical, and rational
manner
People want to avoid being
perceived as…
Overly emotional, exploitive of others
Triggers of conflict
When others don’t take issues seriously; push their help on
them; do not weigh all the facts when making a decision
Overdone strengths
Fair, unfeeling; analytical, nit-picking; methodical, rigid
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.12 Motivational Value Systems
4
Hubs (Flexible and Cohering)
Primary concerns
Flexibility; welfare of the group; sense of belonging in the
group
Preferred work
environment
Friendly, flexible, social, fun; consensus-building; encouraging
interaction
People feel best when…
Coordinating efforts with others in a common undertaking
People feel most rewarded
when…
Being a good team member who can be loyal, direct when
necessary, and knows when to follow rules
People want to avoid being Subservient to others, domineering, isolated
perceived as…
Triggers of conflict
When others are not willing to consider alternatives; insist on
one way of doing things; restrict ability to stay flexible and
open to options
Overdone strengths
Flexible, wishy-washy; option-oriented, indecisive; tolerant,
uncaring
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.13 Words and Phrases that Resonate with
Professionals of Various MVSs
MVS
Verbs
Nouns
Modifiers
Phrases
Blues
Feel, appreciate,
care, help, thank,
include, support
Satisfaction, wellbeing, people,
cooperation
Thoughtful, loyal,
sincere, respectful,
maybe
Serve everyone’s best
interests, look out for
everyone
Reds
Compete, win,
lead, challenge,
dominate
Achievement, results,
success, performance,
goals, advantage
Challenging,
rewarding, passionate,
definitely, quickly
Make it happen, take
charge, go for it
Greens
Think, analyze,
evaluate, identify,
organize
Process, principles,
standard, schedules,
accountability, details
Fair, careful, accurate,
objective, correct,
efficient, risky
Take our time, get it
right, make sure it’s
fair
Hubs
Brainstorm,
decide together,
play, experiment,
meet
Options, flexibility,
teamwork, fun,
consensus,
compromise
Balanced, open,
flexible, friendly,
inclusive, committed
Let’s work together,
let’s try this out
© McGraw Hill
Figure 2.5 A Conversation between a Hub and a Green
Access the text alternative for slide images.
© McGraw Hill
Figure 2.6 A Conversation between a Red and a Blue
Access the text alternative for slide images.
© McGraw Hill
Differences in Communication Preferences
Based on Extroversion-Introversion
Introverts
•
Tend to get much of their stimulation and energy from
their own thoughts, feelings, and moods.
Extroverts
• Tend to get much of their stimulation and energy from
external sources such as social interaction.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.14 Strengths of Introverted and
Extroverted Professionals
1
Strengths of Introverted Professionals
Asking thoughtful and important questions
Listening to the ideas of others
Giving people space to innovate
Developing insights to deal with uncertain situations
Improving the listening environment in meetings
Networking among close-knit professional groups
Making lasting impressions in social tasks that require persistence
Taking time to reflect carefully
Providing objective analysis and advice
Excelling in situations requiring discipline
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.14 Strengths of Introverted and
Extroverted Professionals
2
Strengths of Extroverted Professionals
Stating views directly and charismatically
Gaining the support of others
Organizing people to innovate
Inspiring confidence in uncertain situations
Driving important conversations at meetings
Networking at large social events with potential clients and other
contacts
Making strong first impressions that often lead to future partnerships
Acting quickly to gain advantages
Acting pragmatically in the absence of reliable information
Excelling in competitive situations
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.15 Working Effectively with
Introverts and Extroverts
1
Introverts can work more effectively with extroverts by …
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Making sure their extroverted colleagues have enough time to
interact with team members.
Engaging in small talk and light topics during conversations.
Speaking up more quickly than feels natural.
Offering personal information more often.
Expressing their preference to respond to questions later on.
Giving them more opportunities to interact with others.
Shortening their emails.
Telling people they’re shy or uncomfortable speaking up; requesting
that others ask or call on them to speak up.
Appreciating extroverts for their many strengths.
Teaming up with extroverts to complement one another’s strengths.
© McGraw Hill
Table 2.15 Working Effectively with
Introverts and Extroverts
2
Extroverts can work more effectively with introverts by …
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Making sure their introverted colleagues have enough time to
prepare for presentations or meetings.
Allowing conversations to have fewer and more in-depth topics.
Pausing more often and allowing longer periods of silence.
Spending less time talking about personal interests.
Expressing their preference to discuss things immediately.
Giving them more opportunities to be alone and recharge.
Lengthening their emails.
Telling people they have a hard time not sharing their views;
requesting that others signal them when they’re talking too much.
Appreciating introverts for their many strengths.
Teaming up with introverts to complement one another’s strengths.
© McGraw Hill
Maintaining Civility and Avoiding
Gossip
Incivility in Society and the Workplace
•
A recent survey showed that incivility is common in the
workplace.
•
Especially common in retail stores.
•
Many employees who are targets of incivility lose work
time or leave their jobs.
© McGraw Hill
Common Types of Incivility in the
Workplace
Ignoring others
Treating others without courtesy
Disrespecting the efforts of others
Disrespecting the privacy of others
Disrespecting the dignity and worth of others
© McGraw Hill
Maintaining Civil Communications
1. Slow down and be present in life.
2. Listen to the voice of empathy.
3. Keep a positive attitude.
4. Respect others and grant them plenty of validation.
5. Disagree graciously and refrain from arguing.
6. Get to know people around you.
7. Pay attention to small things.
8. Ask, don’t tell.
© McGraw Hill
Business Communication: Developing
Leaders for a Networked World, 4e
Chapter 2
Because learning changes everything.
www.mheducation.com
© McGraw Hill
© 2021 McGraw Hill. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom.
No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill.
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