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‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬
‫وزارة التعليم‬
‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Education
Saudi Electronic University
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 1
Quality Management (MGT 424)
Due Date: 16/07/2022 @ 23:59
Course Name: Quality Management
Student’s Name:
Course Code: MGT424
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: Summer Semester
CRN:
Academic Year:2021-22
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name:
Students’ Grade: /15
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
General Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
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The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
folder.
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced
for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
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pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Assignment 1
Instructions to search the case study:
1. Via your student services page, log in to the Saudi Digital Library.
2. After your login with your student ID, search for the following case study:
Implementation of total quality management Case study: British Airways.
Authors: MADAR, Anca1 ancamadar@unitbv.ro
ISSN: 2065-2194.
Learning Outcomes;
1. Recognize the importance of quality management theory, principles, and practices
applied in businesses on national and international levels. (CLO1)
2. Use quality improvement tools and practices for continuous improvement to achieve
the organizational change and transformation.( CLO3)
3. Develop analytical skills of identifying pitfalls, or quality concerns through assimilated
and strategic planning.( CLO4)
Implementation of total quality management Case study: British Airways.
This paper examines how the new concept of total quality management was implemented
by the British Airways airline as one of the first companies that have applied such a
program.
Read the case study thoughtfully and answer the following questions:
1. In the case study, the author demonstrated three views to define the total quality
management. Briefly, explain these views and discuss its applicability in today’s
organizations? (03 Marks) (250 – 300 words)
Based on what have learned about total quality management concepts and strategic
planning ( Chapter 3 , 5 ) :
2. Analyze the British Airways company`s strategic objectives. ( 03 Marks) (100 150 words )
3. Do you think that these objectives will help the company to survive on the global
market and outperforms its competitors? ( 03 Marks) (100 -150 words )
4. According to the TQM program steps applied in the British airways company,
everyone’s` commitment appears to be essential. To which extent do you think this
is true and why? ( 03 Marks ) ( 150 – 200 words )
5. Discuss the results provided in Table 1, and evaluate the company performance
after conducting the TQM program? ( 03 Marks ) ( 150 – 200 words )
Answers:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Bulletin of the Transilvania University of BraÅŸov
Series V: Economic Sciences • Vol. 8 (57) No. 1 – 2015
Implementation of total quality management
Case study: British Airways
Anca MADAR1
Abstract: Total Quality Management (TQM) has an important role in any company, since
the implementation of this program companies can continuously improve their performance.
Thus, organizations will be able to considerably meet their internal and external clients’
needs in terms of services and products quality, and they will also be able to develop an
efficient and profitable business. The paper analyzes how this concept was implemented by
the British Airways airline, since it is among the first companies that have implemented such
a program.
Key-words: quality, management system, services, products, efficiency.
1. Introduction
The methods to ensure the quality of products and services have evolved
continuously in accordance with the rapid technological and socio-cultural changes,
that have marked the evolution of society, especially in this century. (Băltescu, C.A.,
BoÅŸcor, D., 2014, 65)
Also, in the European Union, the consumer protection policy should be
regarded as a horizontal policy aimed to promoting consumer interests. In addition,
this policy has significant effects on other EU policies such as: Common
Agricultural Policy, environment, transport and energy policy which include rules
regarding consumer rights. (NeacÅŸu N.A. 2011, 52)
These requirements taken into account, integrated quality assurance concepts
have been implemented since the 80s. The starting point of these strategies was the
“new philosophy” defined by Feigenbaum: Total Quality Control.
Of these, particular interest is the concept of total quality managemt used in
parallel, or in relation to the “total quality.”
In the definition of total quality management (TQM) more guidelines can be
highlighted.
1
Transilvania University of BraÅŸov, ancamadar@unitbv.ro
126
Anca MADAR
a) The vast majority of authors agree that TQM is, above all, a new
philosophy, a new model of enterprise culture, with the aim to orient towards
customers all its activities and processes and optimize them so that they could bring
long-term benefits.
According to Drummond (Drummond, H 1992, 13), for example, TQM is a
business philosophy based on customer satisfaction through quality orientation of
the entire organization.
Koller (Koller, J., K 1995) defines TQM as representing a systematic way of
managing an organization’s results. TQM involves new management strategies,
changes in culture and infrastructure, tools and techniques to determine all members
of the organization to collaborate and enable continuous improvement of quality
defined by the client.
b) A number of authors point out, defining TQM, besides its philosophical
dimension, the technical and social aspects that are involved in this philosophy.
In Oess’s opinion (Strauss, B. 1994, 202), for example, TQM must be
approached as a two-component system, including a technical and a social
subsystem of inter-relationships being established between them.
c) According to another orientation (Kélada, J. 1990, 36-37), TQM is a threedimensional concept, a management philosophy based on a certain logic that
involves the use of specific methods and techniques, resulting its third dimension,
the technical one.
In essence, TQM is a philosophy of business management dealing with
getting continuous improvement of customer satisfaction through quality
management products and services, led in the entire company. TQM is a new
approach to corporate management by applying total quality ideas across the
organization.
The advantages of implementing TQM are:
– Improving the company’s reputation – faults and problems are identified
quickly (the “zero defects”);
– Significant improvement in quality of products or services;
– Customer satisfaction increase, which leads to additional sales;
– A significant decrease of resources waste;
– Increased productivity because the staff use the time more efficiently;
– Increasing the market share on the long term;
-The workforce is motivated by additional responsibilities, teamwork and
involvement in decision-making on TQM;
– Lower costs;
– Focus on continuous improvement.
Implementation of total quality management Case study: British Airways
127
2. British Airways overview
British Airways is the national airline of the United Kingdom, the operational
headquarter being based in Waterside. The airline is a founding member of the
Oneworld alliance with American Airlines, Cathay Pacific and Qantas. British
Airways is one of seven airlines that fly to all six inhabited continents.
British Airways carry passengers, cargo and letters from Heathrow, Gatwick
and London City airports. It has expanded its network in more than 500 destinations
through joint business agreements with American Airlines and Oneworld alliance
members. The carrier manages a fleet of over 240 aircrafts, consisting primarily of
Airbus and Boeing. In 2013, British Airways has taken delivery of its first of 42
Boeing 787s, with the first of its 12 Airbus A380s due to touch down in the UK July
4. British Airways is the largest Boeing 747-400 operator in the world. (Low
Teacher)
In 2010 British Airways and Iberia have merged and created International
Airlines Group.(Slideshare, 2013)
To survive both short-term and long-term on global market, where there is
fierce competition between airlines, British Airways had to focus on a variety of
goals and objectives.
In this respect, the general objectives of the company are divided into three
categories: (UK Essays)
Global – for all passengers – whether they are traveling just for pleasure or on
business.
Premium – ensure that passengers receive the highest quality services.
Air – focuses on aviation; owning the best equipment, products and services.
Also, British Airways is considering four strategic objectives:
First airline customers top choices – to remain the first choice when it comes
to premium international flights, cargo, economy or short flights.
Quality service – to provide the best service to passengers on all routes and in
all classes of aircrafts during flight and to improve online services.
Global expansion – to continue to expand its list of destinations, through
partnerships with other airlines.
Satisfying customer needs – to explore the latest features and products to
enhance customer loyalty.
The main competitors of British Airways are:
1. Deutsche Lufthansa AG – Air Ambassador of Germany, Lufthansa offers
flights to 209 destinations in 81 countries worldwide. (Bilete-avion). It manages a
fleet of over 300 aircraftsfor passengers.(eSKY) It is also a market leader in
international air transport through Lufthansa Cargo. Other major segments of the
group are the maintenance, repair and overhaul by Lufthansa Technik services, air
catering services by LSG Sky Chefs, and IT services through Lufthansa Systems.
128
Anca MADAR
(Tourismguide) Lufthansa is a founding member and leader of the Star Alliance, the
largest alliance of airlines.
2. Continental Airlines, Inc.-Continental Airlines is the world’s fifth largest
airline. Continental, together with Continental Express and Continental Connection,
has more than 2,600 daily departures throughout the Americas, Europe and Asia,
serving 132 domestic and 137 international destinations. Continental is a member of
Star Alliance. (Makemytrip, 2015)
3. United Air Lines, Inc. – A leading passenger and cargo airline, United
serves more than 230 destinations in some 30 countries. The airline, which also
offers regional services via subsidiary United Express, operates a fleet of some 700
mainland aircraft. In addition, it leads the Star Alliance, a marketing and codesharing group that includes Continental and Lufthansa. (Hoovers, 2015)
3. Implementation of total quality management at British Airways
In order to practice TQM, the main focus was on the British Airways transformation
from an engineering based company in one dictated by the market. There are four
key factors that contributed to the success of the company, namely:
1. Continuous reduction of costs;
2. Focus on providing excellent customer service at a premium price;
3. Cover growing market through alliances and partnerships;
4. Maximize return on individual flights by investing in computerized
reservations. (Law Teacher)
In 1987, the year when the company was privatized, the company
management believed that to be the best and to be a world-class organization, they
have to use the strategies and processes that should create vision and inspire the
employees to gain their trust. This could only be possible by implementing TQM
program. It was implemented in British Airways’ Technical Workshops. The
Technical Workshops (hangars) of British Airways are responsible for the overhaul
and the repair of aircraft components.
In order to be the best in this industry, the management team of British
Airways Technical Workshops decided that they must win through teamwork,
customer satisfaction, profitability and reputation.
Along the “path” to implement TQM, there were identified the following key
steps:
1. Conducting a study to diagnose the current position within the technical
workshop and reporting results;
2. Obtaining support and a full commitment to TQM concept from all levels
of management;
3. Educating staff according to the principles of TQM and facilitate necessary
changes in management style;
Implementation of total quality management Case study: British Airways
129
4. Changes in policies, procedures and work practices that would fit and
would facilitate new organizational culture required;
5. Starting the quality improvement process;
6. Reviewing progress made and fostering a sustained commitment from all
levels of the organization.
In order to examine the controversial issues and problems facing the staff, a
survey was distributed among employees from technical workshops, among
customers and in supplying areas. To do this, an analysis of the cost of quality was
made.
The approach taken by the company in collecting quality costs was the
breakdown of employees activities related to quality in three main activities,
namely:
1. Anticipation – activities that provide performance “right first time”;
2. Assessment -activities that check if the concept of “right first time” is done;
3. Failure – activities resulting from the failure of the concept “right first
time”.
Each manager or team leader was asked to make an assessment of how their
subordinate staff spent time during activities related to quality. Knowing how to
bear the cost of quality has had a significant contribution in educating staff on the
concept and principles of TQM. It also helped of strengthening and justification of
need for training personnel in accordance with TQM, to overcome any skepticism
about TQM, to promote considerable debate on this issue and to ensure that the
improvement of individual projects activity can be measured. (Rawlins A. R. 2008)
Data collected from the survey was introduced in a diagnostic report and
seven improvement activities have been identified:
1. The way the employees view the company’s management;
2. Managerial style;
3. Implementation of changes;
4. Communication;
5. Systems and procedures;
6. Facilities and conditions;
7. Attitude of employees.
They held some courses for managers for three days. These courses have
conceptually explained TQM philosophy and revealed findings of the report.
Managers were encouraged to submit ideas and action plans for staff involvement in
improvement process. This required some changes in managing style.
Similar courses were held for all employees. Delegates of each course were
taken from different areas of workshops to facilitate the exchange of ideas between
departments. Quality improving groups, each involving up to 12 people, actively
conducted projects for improvement.
130
Anca MADAR
Examples of projects: improved methods for sorting aircraft test equipment to
ensure ease localization and certification control, an improved library for storing
approved technical publications and a design of new measures regarding the
workshop performance, so that the figures which provide performance to be
meaningful and easy to understand.
British Airways Technical Workshops are recognized as the best in the
aviation industry, by customers, competitors and even by British Airways itself.
Benefits began to appear Two years after the launch of TQM. There have been
positive changes in measures of higher level, which were used to report progress to
the directorate. These measures included the proportion of components which are in
good condition, the number of units that are not in good condition in the workshop
and the number of units produced per month. British Airways launched their TQM
program in September 1988 and by the end of 1999 the benefits of the program were
visible. (Law Teacher)
It is important to note that after implementation of TQM, British Airways
continued to apply total quality management on employees, the processes and
customers, and the result was successful, as shown in Table 1: turnover increased by
23%, the number of employees fell by 3.153 people, increased the number of
passengers who used the company’s services, passenger load factor increased from
79.1% to 81.3% and aircraft fleet has grown to 33 aircraft. Although profit has
declined and losses were recorded in the period 2008 – early 2010, after this date
there is an important increase of this indicator.
Turnover (£m)
Profits
(profit/loss
after tax) (£m)
Number of
employees
(average FTE)
Number of
passengers (m)
Passenger load
factor (%)
Number of
aircraft (at year
end)
2008
Mar
8,758
2009
Mar
8,992
2010
Mar
7,994
2010
2011
2012
2013
6,683
9,987
10,827
11,421
694
−358
−425
170
672
84
281
41,745
41,473
37,595
35,778
36,164
38,761
38,592
34.6
33.1
31.8
24.1
34.2
37.6
39.9
79.1
77.0
78.5
78.5
78.2
79.9
81.3
245
245
238
240
245
273
278
Table 1. The key trends for the British Airways (wikipedia 2015)
Implementation of total quality management Case study: British Airways
131
4. Conclusions
British Airways, founded in 1935, which is the subject of the case study, is the
national airline of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, founding member of the
Oneworld Alliance and one of the seven airlines that fly to all six inhabited
continents.
The carrier manages a fleet of over 240 aircraft, consisting primarily of
Airbus and Boeing.
Total Quality Management was implemented by British Airways in
September 1988 from the technical workshops in the desire to improve and
contribute to the success of the organization.
TQM program was characterized by customer focus, full participation,
process improvement and process management and planning. TQM implementation
process was a very long-term procedure.
Thus, in only two years of program implementation, benefits began to appear
(e.g. positive changes took place in the top-level measures).
The company also had to experience many changes made on TQM program
requirements and extensive market research that identified customer expectations for
the standards to be served by an international airline known as British Airways.
5. References
Băltescu, Codruţa Adina, and Dana Boşcor. 2014. “The Assessment of Hotel
Services in Poiana Braşov Resort”. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of
BraÅŸov, Series V, Vol. 7(56), 17-22.
Drummond, H. 1992. The Quality Movement. What Total Quality Management is
Really All about! London: Kogan Page.
Kélada, Joseph. 1990. La gestion intégrale de la qualité. Pour une qualité totale.
Québec: Edition Quafec.
Koller, J. K. 1995. Total Quality Management in Service Industry, European
Masters Programme in Total Quality Management. Germany: University of
Kaiserslautern.
Neacşu, Nicoleta Andreea. 2011. Protecţia Consumatorului (Consummer
Protection). BraÅŸov: Transilvania University Publishing House.
Rawlins, Ashley R. 2008. Total Quality Management (TQM). Author Publishing
House.
Strauss, B. 1994. Qualitätsmanagement und Zertifizierung. Von DIN ISO 9000 zum
Total Quality Management. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlang.
132
Anca MADAR
British
Airways
should
focus
on
their
quality
standards
http://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/business-law/british-airwaysshould-focus-on-their-quality-standards-business-lawessay.php#ixzz3VbvNLWht. Accessed on: 6.03.ora 19.38
Strategic
management
in
services
organizations.
Available
at:
http://www.slideshare.net/ilyasbouhad/case-study-british-airways. Accessed
on: Accessed on: 6.03.ora 19.33
British airways. Available at:
http://www.ukessays.com/essays/aviation/british-airways.php. Accessed on:
6.03.ora 19.40
Information about Lufthansa. Available at:
http://www.bilete-avioane.ro/bilete_avion_companie_lufthansa.html.
Accessed on: 6.03.ora 19.30
About Lufthansa. Available at: http://www.tourismguide.ro/x/lufthansa/. Accessed
on: 6.03.ora 19.35
Airline Lufthansa. Available at: http://www.esky.ro/companii-aeriene/Lufthansa.
Accessed on: 6.03.ora 19.46
Continental Airlines. Available at: http://us.makemytrip.com/flights/continentalairlines-co.html. Accessed on: 6.03.ora 19.49
United Airlines Inc .Company Information. Available at:
http://www.hoovers.com/company-information/cs/companyprofile.United_Air_Lines_Inc.5ea6fd1816caf8ab.html. Accessed on: 6.03.ora
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British Airways. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Airways.
Accessed on: 6.03.ora 19.55
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