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‫المملكة العربية السعودية‬
‫وزارة التعليم‬
‫الجامعة السعودية اإللكترونية‬
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Education
Saudi Electronic University
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Assignment 1
Quality Management (MGT 424)
Due Date: 16/07/2022 @ 23:59
Course Name: Quality Management
Student’s Name:
Course Code: MGT424
Student’s ID Number:
Semester: Summer Semester
Academic Year:2021-22
For Instructor’s Use only
Instructor’s Name: Dr. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Students’ Grade: 00 /15
Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low
The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced
for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other
resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No
pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
Assignment 1
Instructions to search the case study:
1. Via your student services page, log in to the Saudi Digital Library.
2. After your login with your student ID, search for the following case study:
Implementation of total quality management Case study: British Airways.
Authors: MADAR, Anca1 ancamadar@unitbv.ro
ISSN: 2065-2194.
Learning Outcomes;
1. Recognize the importance of quality management theory, principles, and practices
applied in businesses on national and international levels. (CLO1)
2. Use quality improvement tools and practices for continuous improvement to achieve
the organizational change and transformation.( CLO3)
3. Develop analytical skills of identifying pitfalls, or quality concerns through assimilated
and strategic planning.( CLO4)
Implementation of total quality management Case study: British Airways.
This paper examines how the new concept of total quality management was implemented
by the British Airways airline as one of the first companies that have applied such a
Read the case study thoughtfully and answer the following questions:
1. In the case study, the author demonstrated three views to define the total quality
management. Briefly, explain these views and discuss its applicability in today’s
organizations? (03 Marks) (250 – 300 words)
Based on what have learned about total quality management concepts and strategic
planning ( Chapter 3 , 5 ) :
2. Analyze the British Airways company`s strategic objectives. ( 03 Marks) (100 150 words )
3. Do you think that these objectives will help the company to survive on the global
market and outperforms its competitors? ( 03 Marks) (100 -150 words )
4. According to the TQM program steps applied in the British airways company,
everyone’s` commitment appears to be essential. To which extent do you think this
is true and why? ( 03 Marks ) ( 150 – 200 words )
5. Discuss the results provided in Table 1, and evaluate the company performance
after conducting the TQM program? ( 03 Marks ) ( 150 – 200 words )
Chapter 2
The Quality Function
The Quality Function
Juran Trilogy
• “Juran and Gryna (1988, p. 2.6) define the quality
function as “the entire collection of activities through
which we achieve fitness for use, no matter where
these activities are performed.””
• “Quality is thus influenced by, if not the responsibility
of, many different departments.”
The Quality Function
• Quality planning involves several steps:
➢ Define the customers.
➢ Determine the customer needs.
➢ Develop product and service features to meet
customer needs.
➢ Develop processes to deliver the product and
service features.
➢ Transfer the resulting plans to operational
The Quality Function
• Quality control is defined by the text as:
➢ The process used by operational personnel to
ensure that their processes meet the product and
service requirements (defined during the planning
• Quality control is based on a feedback loop which
includes the following steps:
➢ Evaluate actual operating performance.
➢ Compare actual performance with goals.
➢ Act on the difference.
The Quality Function
• Quality improvement is defined by the text as:
➢ Aims to attain levels of performance that are
unprecedented—levels that are significantly better
than any past level.
• Quality management is defined by the text as:
➢ Is the process of identifying and administering the
activities necessary to achieve the organization’s
quality objectives.
The Quality Function
The Quality Function
• Two basic ways for organizations to be competitive
➢ Achieve superior perceived quality by developing a
set of product specifications and service standards
that more closely meet customer needs than
➢ Achieve superior conformance quality by being
more effective than your competitors in con forming
to the appropriate product specifications and
service standards.
The Quality Function
• Related business functions:
➢ Safety
❖ Safety problems arise when a product can cause a hazard to
others through its use.
❖ Safety should be a primary focus
➢ Regulatory issues
➢ Product liability
❖ Three legal theories of liability
â–ª breach of warranty
â–ª strict liability in tort
â–ª negligence
❖ Two areas of law deal with liability
â–ª Contract law
â–ª Tort law
The Quality Function
Environmental Issues Relating to the Quality Function
• Connection between environmental issues and quality
function is the ISO 14000 standard.
• This standard covers six areas:
➢ Environmental management systems
➢ Environmental auditing
➢ Environmental performance evaluation
➢ Environmental labeling
➢ Life-cycle assessment
➢ Environmental aspects in product standards
The Quality Function
Environmental Issues Relating to the Quality Function
According to the text:
• ISO 14001 is a systems-based standard that gives
companies a blueprint for managing their impact on
the environment.
• The requirements fall into five main areas:
➢ Senior management shall articulate the company’s
environmental policy. The policy will include commitments
toward pollution prevention and continuous improvement of
the EMS. The policy will be available to the public.
The Quality Function
Environmental Issues Relating to the Quality Function
➢ Consistent with the environmental policy, you shall establish
and maintain procedures to identify significant environmental
aspects and their associated impacts. Procedures should
include legal and other requirements. Objectives and targets
will also be documented, including continual improvement
and pollution prevention.
➢ Each employee’s role and position must be clearly defined,
and all employees must be aware of the impact of their work
on the environment. Employees shall be adequately trained.
The Quality Function
Environmental Issues Relating to the Quality Function
➢ The EMS should be set up to facilitate internal
communication. To that end, all relevant documentation
should be easily available and usable, in either print or
electronic form.
➢ Organizations must continually monitor and document their
environ mental effects and periodically review them to
ensure continual improvement and the effectiveness of the
➢ Management is responsible for an internal review of the EMS
on a regular basis.
Chapter 3
Approaches to Quality
Approaches to Quality
• Market influences that challenged the quality process
in the 1970s
➢ The growth of consumerism
➢ The growth of litigation over quality
➢ The growth of government regulation of quality
➢ The Japanese quality revolution
Approaches to Quality
Demings Approach
• According to the text, 14 point plan to make work
more enjoyable
➢ Create constancy of purpose for the improvement of
product and service, with the aim to become competitive,
stay in business, and provide jobs.
➢ Adopt the new philosophy of cooperation (win-win) in
which everybody wins. Put it into practice and teach it to
employees, customers, and suppliers.
➢ Cease dependence on mass inspection to achieve
quality. Improve the process and build quality into the
product in the first place.
Approaches to Quality
Demings Approach
➢ End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price
tag alone. Instead, minimize total cost in the long run. Move
toward a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term
relationship of loyalty and trust.
➢ Improve constantly and forever the system of production,
service, planning, or any activity. This will improve quality and
productivity and thus constantly decrease costs.
➢ Institute training for skills.
➢ Adopt and institute leadership for the management of people,
recognizing their different abilities, capabilities, and
aspirations. The aim of leadership should be to help people,
machines, and gadgets do a better job. Leadership of
management is in need of overhaul as well as leadership of
production workers.
Approaches to Quality
Demings Approach
➢ Eliminate fear and build trust so that everyone can work
➢ Break down barriers between departments. Abolish competition
and build a win-win system of cooperation within the
organization. People in research, design, sales, and production
must work as a team to foresee problems of production and use
that might be encountered with the product or service.
➢ Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets asking for zero
defects or new levels of productivity. Such exhortations only
create adversarial relationships, as the bulk of the causes of low
quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie
beyond the power of the workforce.
Approaches to Quality
Demings Approach
➢ Eliminate numerical goals, numerical quotas, and management
by objectives. Substitute leadership.
➢ Remove barriers that rob people of joy in their work. This will
mean abolishing the annual rating or merit system that ranks
people and creates competition and conflict.
➢ Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement.
➢ Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the
transformation. The transformation is everybody’s job.
Approaches to Quality
Total Quality Control in Japan
• Japanese quality control management the following six
➢ Quality first
➢ Consumer orientation
➢ Break down the barrier of sectionalism
➢ Facts and data
➢ Respect for humanity as a management philosophy
➢ Cross-functional management
Approaches to Quality
ISO 9000 Series
• ISO 9000 series is the best known system of quality
• This series is published by the International
Organization for Standardization or ISO.
• Initially based on the U.S. Department of Defense MilQ-9858, released in 1959.
• ISO 9000 is a minimum quality standard.
Approaches to Quality
ISO 9000 Series
• ISO 9000:2000 includes eight quality principles
➢ Customer focus
➢ Leadership
➢ Involvement of people
➢ Process approach
➢ System approach to management
➢ Continual improvement
➢ Factual approach to decision-making
➢ Mutually beneficial supplier relationships
Approaches to Quality
Quality Awards
• Awards are given for outstanding quality. These
awards include:
➢ Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
➢ Deming Prize
➢ European Quality Award
Approaches to Quality
Six Sigma
• Six Sigma addresses total quality management
➢ Focus
➢ Organizational support and infrastructure
➢ Methodology
➢ Training
• “The ultimate goal is data-driven decision making at
all levels of the organization, focused on benefits to
their three stakeholder groups: customers,
shareholders, and employees.”
Chapter 4
Customer-Focuses Organizations
Customer-Focused Organization
• Importance of quality has been constantly changing in
• Customer-driven organizations have the following
similar traits:
➢ Flattened hierarchies
➢ Adaptable processes
➢ Effective communications
➢ Measuring results
➢ Rewarding employees
Customer-Focused Organization
• Flattened hierarchies
➢ “When customers are the focus, a larger
percentage of the resources are directly or
indirectly involved with customers (see Figure 4.2),
reducing the number of bureaucratic layers in the
organization structure.”
➢ “Employees will be empowered to make decisions
that immediately address customer issues,
reducing the need for structured oversight.”
➢ “Departments focus on single functions.”
Customer-Focused Organization
• Adaptable processes
➢ “Customers’ demands are at times unpredictable,
requiring adaptability and potential risk.”
➢ “Customer-driven organizations create adaptable
systems that remove bureaucratic impediments
such as formal approval mechanisms or excessive
dependence on written procedures.”
➢ “Employees are encouraged to act on their own
best judgments.”
➢ “If the organization’s employees are unionized, the
changing roles will require union partnering in the
transformation process. “
Customer-Focused Organization
• Effective communications
➢ The leadership of the organization must market
their ideas for the organization.
➢ Senior leaders must be on their best behavior.
➢ These leaders must be committed to their vision
and represent that vision in their behavior.
Customer-Focused Organization
• Measuring results
➢ Must verify that the company is delivering on the
promises the company made to customers,
shareholders, and employees.
➢ These results become the basis for improvements,
process changes, etc.
➢ This data must be made available to those people
who need it fast.
Customer-Focused Organization
• Rewarding employees
➢ Employees should be treated equally.
➢ “Recognizing exceptional performance or effort
should be done in a way that encourages
cooperation and team spirit, such as parties and
public expressions of appreciation.”
Customer-Focused Organization
• According to the text
➢ The common thread in the evolution of quality
management is that attention to quality has moved
progressively further up in the organizational
➢ Quality was first considered a matter for the line
worker, then the inspector, then the supervisor, the
engineer, the middle manager and, today, for upper
Customer-Focused Organization
• According to the text
➢ Quality will continue to increase in importance, in
tandem with customer relations. Ultimately, it is the
customer’s concern with quality that has been the
driving force behind quality’s increasing role in the

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