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Organizing the Evidence to Answer the PICO Question

The Matrix Method is an organizational system that guides you through the literature review process from start to finish. It is “intended to teach you how to read a paper, organize the review using the Matrix Method, analyze it, and create a narrative synthesis”. Now you have searched and found the literature that answers the PICO question, you can now synthesize what you have learned and how it fits into your literature review. One strategy is to create a synthesis matrix. A synthesis matrix helps you organize the main points of each book, article, or another information resource you use. It allows you to see how the sources relate to each other and help guide your writing.


Look at the literature Matrix (John Hopkins University Appendix G) and use the sources found in Discussion 6.

Use the

Literature Review Synthesis Matrix

Download Literature Review Synthesis Matrix

to compare and contrast findings found in appendix G.

Title the discussion with the PICOT question.

Initial post:

Your post should be within a range of 200-240 words.

By looking at the Matrix, carefully look at similarities and differences between the studies.

Do any themes arise from comparing and contrasting are there any similarities or differences.

Write a paragraph synthesizing the information. Remember, this is in preparation for writing the literature review.

Peer response:

Identify two (2) students that may share a similar question and comment about their paragraph synthesis. Ask them to review your and offer feedback.

Cite your references APA 7th ed. (not included in the length of the post).


Hello this is a continuation of the PICOT project we have been working on. I have attached the Literature Review Synthesis Matrix for this assignment. I have also attached the other files related to this project, this is all the work you have done thus far regarding this project. Please refer to the evidence you have collected from there in order to complete this part.

PICOT Discussion Post
Institutional Affiliation
Picot Discussion Post
Drug abuse among young adults aged 18 to 29 years is a global health issue. Most young
adults abuse drugs for various reasons, including peer pressure and the availability of drugs,
among others. Drug abuse has negative impacts on the human body, and it leads some to become
drug-dependent, where it becomes hard for an individual to quit drugs (Griffin et al., 2019).
Some young adults voluntarily seek help from drug rehabilitation centers, while others are
involuntarily taken for rehabilitation.
Personal decision to seek help and support from professionals and drug rehabilitation
Centres influence the recovery process. Studies show that people who voluntarily attend
rehabilitation Centres recover faster than those involuntarily taken to rehab. This is because some
are not ready to quit drugs. Those who voluntarily attend drug rehab first accept that they have
an addiction problem and need assistance to cease the behavior (Kirby et al., 2017). Acceptance
and knowing that one needs help are vital in the recovery process.
Griffin, K. W., Lowe, S. R., Botvin, C., & Acevedo, B. P. (2019). Patterns of adolescent tobacco
and alcohol use as predictors of illicit and prescription drug abuse in minority young adults.
Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community.
Kirby, J. E., Kitching, A., Lane, D., O’ Connor, A., Russell, F., Loughry, R., Coughlan, E., &
Gibney, K. (2017). Successful application of a cross-sectoral integrated care approach to
addiction and homeless services – the experience from Southern Ireland. International
Journal of Integrated Care. https://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.3708
PICOT Questions
Institutional Affiliation
I selected this database because it is the most comprehensive source of full-text nursing
and allied health journal. It provides full text of more than 1,300 journals and publications. There
are additional materials, including quick lessons and evidence bases care sheet, which entails
concise information and an overview of conditions or diseases. Those additional materials also
outline the most effective treatment option.
MEDLINE with full text is a database providing comprehensive indexing for journals and
publications in nursing, medicine, health care system, dentistry and pre-clinical science, among
others. There are more than 29 million references for publication and journals in life science,
where the concentration is on biomedicine. The other reason I selected this database is that its
publications are scholarly journals. Searching in this database is free, and registration is not
The reason for selecting this database is because it has reliable, highly authoritative and
huge resources. The other thing is that it is specific to the health and medicine field related to the
course I am undertaking. The database is free and available publicly, and one can use advanced
search or the Medical Subject Heading, allowing one to carry out complex searches. The
database contains more than 34 million citations from online books, MEDLINE and life sciences
for biomedical literature.
Synonyms for PICO
P: Drug Abuse
I: Rehabilitation
C: voluntary/forced
O: Recover
Substance abuse,
Free willed,
Resume, get back,
substance use, drug
deliberate, willful
regain, restore.
habits, addiction.
unwilling, compelled.
MeSH Terms
Population/ problem Intervention
Substance abuse,
Deliberate, free-
Recover, restore, and
addiction, alcoholism
willed, involuntary
get back to a normal
and compelled.
PubMed: 1,309,608, MEDLINE: 1,456,674 and CIHAHIL: 1,894,673,790.
PubMed: 881,911, Medline: 756,663, and CIHAHL: 673,878.
PubMed: 8,945, Medline: 6,745 and CIHAHL: 9,367.
PubMed: 8,700, MEDLINE: 6,753 and CIHAHL: 7,846.
PubMed: 1,916 results
Medline: 2,783 results
CIHAHL: 2,903 results
Search methodologies used are meta-analysis and systematic review. The reason for
searching for a meta-analysis is because such resources or articles provide robust outcomes that
will help me understand the magnitude of drug abuse effects. On the other hand, system review
resources will give definite answers to questions about the facilitating factors of substance abuse
and the effect of rehabilitation. They also increase the statistical power through a pooled
analysis. The resources are within five years.
Charlet, K., & Heinz, A. (2017). Harm reduction—a systematic review of effects of alcohol
reduction on physical and mental symptoms. Addiction Biology.
Charlet, K., Rosenthal, A., Lohoff, F. W., Heinz, A., & Beck, A. (2018). Imaging resilience and
recovery in alcohol dependence. In Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14259
De Andrade, D., Elphinston, R. A., Quinn, C., Allan, J., & Hides, L. (2019). The effectiveness of
residential treatment services for individuals with substance use disorders: A systematic
review. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.03.031
Harrison, J., Krieger, M. J., & Johnson, H. A. (2020). Review of Individual Placement and
Support Employment Intervention for Persons with Substance Use Disorder. Substance
Use and Misuse. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2019.1692035
Lecomte, T., Potvin, S., Samson, C., Francoeur, A., Hache-Labelle, C., Gagné, S., Boucher, J.,
Bouchard, M., & Mueser, K. T. (2019). Predicting and Preventing Symptom Onset and
Relapse in Schizophrenia—A Meta review of Current Empirical Evidence. Journal of
Abnormal Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000447
Magura, S., & Marshall, T. (2020). The Effectiveness of Interventions Intended to Improve
Employment Outcomes for Persons with Substance Use Disorder: An Updated
Systematic Review. Substance Use and Misuse.
Morris, L., Stander, J., Ebrahim, W., Eksteen, S., Meaden, O. A., Ras, A., & Wessels, A. (2018).
Effect of exercise versus cognitive behavioural therapy or no intervention on anxiety,
depression, fitness and quality of life in adults with previous methamphetamine
dependency: A systematic review. In Addiction Science and Clinical Practice.
Stoicea, N., Costa, A., Periel, L., Uribe, A., Weaver, T., & Bergese, S. D. (2019). Current
perspectives on the opioid crisis in the US healthcare system: A comprehensive literature
review. Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015425
VanderVeen, J. D. (2021). TBI as a Risk Factor for Substance Use Behaviors: A Meta-analysis.
In Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.
The Well-Built Clinical Question
PICO Worksheet
Think about a complex clinical problem that you encountered in your daily practice. Use the following table
to identify the patient/population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes. Once is done try to formulate
your question.
Question Components
Your Question
P – Patient or Population
The population consisted of young adult patients with
age ranging between 18 to 29 years.
Describe the most important characteristics of the
(e.g., age, disease/condition, gender)
I – Intervention; Prognostic Factor; Exposure
The rate of recovery of patients on rehabilitation.
Describe the main intervention.
(e.g., drug or other treatment, diagnostic/screening test)
C – Comparison (if appropriate)
Describe the main alternative being considered.
The comparison was between patients voluntarily
receiving rehabilitation and those brought to rehab by
their friends and family members.
(e.g., placebo, standard therapy, no treatment, the gold standard)
O – Outcome
Describe what you’re trying to accomplish, measure,
improve, affect.
Studies indicate that patients who voluntarily come for
rehabilitation services recover faster than those
brought by their friends and family members.
(e.g., reduced mortality or morbidity, improved memory, accurate
and timely diagnosis)
The well-built clinical question: Do young adults aged between 18 to 29 years who voluntarily attend
rehabilitation centres recover faster compared to those brought by their friends and family members?
INSTRUCTIONS: Fill in the blanks with information from your clinical scenario:
In rehabilitation, what is the effect of inpatients rehabilitation on recovery compared with outpatients
For many patients does the use of brain implant reduce the future risk of addiction compared with
Are (Is) Drug Abuse Screening Test more accurate in diagnosing drug abuse among patients compared
with Rapid Alcohol Problem Screen?
Page 1|3
Lesson 4 – Discussion 3
Does support influence recovery in patients who have addiction?
Are patients who have family support at their home at risk of drug abuse compared with those without
family support?
How do patients diagnosed with liver cancer perceive drug abuse?
INSTRUCTIONS: Scenario (check all that apply):
Type of Question
Ideal Type of Study
ü Therapy
ü Prevention
RCT > Cohort Study > Case Control
ü Diagnosis
Prospective, blind controlled trial comparison to gold standard
ü Prognosis
Cohort Study > Case Control > Case Series/Case Report
ü Etiology/Harm
RCT > Cohort Study > Case Control
Cost analysis
economic analysis
Note: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews, when available, often provide the best
to clinical questions.
ß OR à
Main Concepts
(PICO concepts)
Problem or
MeSH/Subject Headings
Drug abuses among young
Drug addiction
Voluntary and involuntary
Willed, forced
Page 2|3
Lesson 4 – Discussion 3
Short period
Search Strategy Development
INSTRUCTIONS: Finding the right words to get what you want. From your PICO, fill in as much as you
can of the table below.
Primary search term
Drugs abuse
Synonym 1
Substance abuse
Synonym 2
Drug habit
Voluntary and forced rehabilitation
Willful, involuntary
Free willed,
INSTRUCTIONS: List your inclusion criteria –i.e. gender, age, years of publication
Gender male and female. Age 18 to 29 years. Language English. Year of publication 2017 to 2022
Type of study/publication you want to include in your search: (From Step 2 of tutorial)
_ü_ Systematic Review or Meta-Analysis
_ü_ Clinical Practice Guidelines
__ Critically Appraised Research Studies
__ Individual Research Studies
_ü_ Electronic Textbooks
Check the databases you searched:
__ Cochrane Library
__ Joanna Briggs
__ CINAHL with Full Text
_ü_ PubMed Clinical Queries
What information did you find to help answer your question?
Statistical data on young people who above drugs
The most affected gender by drug abuse
Page 3|3
Lesson 4 – Discussion 3

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