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Complete your own Literature Map. You may use Creswell’s map as a guide for this task, found below.

Read Chapter 2Complete a literature mapComplete a summary of 7 (peer reviewed) research articlesAdditional resources:Notes from: Chapter 2 Review of the literature.docxActionsMapping and Finding Literature

Instructor Resource
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
Notes
Chapter 2: Review of the Literature
Along with selecting a research approach, the researcher also needs to review the literature
related to the topic of interest. The literature review is an important part of crafting a research
proposal. It helps determine whether the topic is worthy of further study and provides the scope
of the project. Chapter 2 begins with a discussion about selecting a topic and continues with how
a researcher determines whether the topic can and should be researched. Finally the actual
process of reviewing the literature is outlined along with key differences found in the literature
reviews of quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies.
In beginning a research study, the researcher must first identify a topic to study and
consider whether it is a practical and useful topic to explore. By exploring the previous research
on the topic, the researcher becomes aware of what has already been done and what is needed.
Chapter 2 explains how being able to answer the question “How does this project contribute to
the literature?” helps to determine whether the project is worthwhile. The researcher must
consider whether there will be access to participants and resources and whether the research will
be of interest to others. A review of the literature serves many purposes including presenting the
results of similar studies, providing a framework for comparing results with previous research
and to determine how the current research contributes to the body of knowledge on the topic.
Instructor Resource
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
The Research Topic
•
Identifying the topic
o Draft a brief working title
o Pose the topic as a brief question
•
Can the topic be researched?
o Participants
o Resources
•
Should the topic be researched?
o Does it add to the literature?
o Are scholars interested in the topic?
o Researcher’s interests and goals
The Literature Review
•
Shares results of other studies
•
Relates a study to the ongoing dialogue in the literature
•
Provides a framework for establishing the importance of the study
•
Provides a benchmark for comparing the results to other findings
The Use of the Literature
Literature reviews in thesis or dissertation proposals provide a summary of the major studies and
demonstrates that the writer is aware of the literature on the topic. In a journal article, the
literature review tends to be briefer than that found in the thesis or dissertation.
•
Several types:
o Literature reviews that integrate what others have done and said
o Literature reviews that criticize previous works
o Literature reviews that build bridges between related topics
o Literature reviews that identify the central issues in the field
•
Literature reviews in qualitative research
Instructor Resource
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
o In theoretically oriented studies, literature on cultural concepts or critical theories
is used to frame the study. May be included in the introduction or placed
separately
o May be placed towards the end of the paper when used to compare and contrast
with the results of the current study
•
Literature reviews in quantitative research
o Literature at the beginning to provide direction for the research question and
hypothesis
o Used to introduce a problem or describe the existing literature
o Literature located at the end when the author wants to revisit the literature to
make comparison between results of existing research and current results
•
Literature reviews in mixed methods studies
o Use either a qualitative or quantitative approach to the literature review
o Sequential approach – depending on whether the study starts with a qualitative or
quantitative phase
o Convergent approach – the researcher decides to weight both quantitative and
qualitative data equally, and the literature review may take either form
o Consider the audience for the study and what they would be receptive to
Design Techniques
Steps in conducting a literature review
•
Identify key words
•
Search catalog for journals and books
o Initial focus on journals
o Search databases such as EBSCO, PsycINFO, ProQuest
o Initially try to find about 50 research articles related to the topic
â–ª
Determine whether books or journals are available in your library
â–ª
Interlibrary loan
â–ª
Bookstores
o Skim the initial group of articles and collect those central to your topic
o Start designing a literature map (visual picture of groupings of literature on the
topic)
Instructor Resource
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
o Begin to draft summaries including precise references
o Write the literature review
â–ª
Structure thematically
â–ª
Organize by important concepts
â–ª
Close by summarizing major themes, suggesting how your study adds to
the knowledge and addresses gaps
Searching computerized databases
•
Available through the internet
•
Use free online databases (such as Google Scholar) as well as those available through
the libraries (ERIC, PsycINFO, EBSCO, etc.)
•
Find an article close to the topic of interest and use the search terms used to describe
it to find more articles
A priority for selecting literature material
•
Start with a broad synthesis of the literature (reviews)
•
Next use journal articles especially those reporting research studies
•
Next look at books related to the topic
•
Recent conference materials
•
Dissertations – search dissertation abstracts
•
The web – be sure to screen carefully for quality
A literature map for the research
•
A visual summary of the research that has been conducted by others (usually in the
form of a figure)
• Structure
o Hierarchical structure with the proposed study on the bottom
o Flow chart
o series of circles
• Principles of good map design
o Topic placed at the top of the hierarchy
o Organize studies found in literature search into broad categories
o Describe the nature of these studies
Instructor Resource
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
o Provide references to major citations
o Major topics should lead to subtopics
o Braches may develop depending on availability and depth of review
o Include quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies in the map
o Write a narrative description of the literature map
Abstracting studies
An abstract is a brief review of the literature that summarizes the major elements
•
Abstracts for research studies
o Include the problem being addressed
o State the central purpose or focus of the study
o Briefly state information about the sample, population or participants
o Review key results
o If a critique or methods review, point out technical and methodological flaws
•
Abstracts for nonempirical studies
o Mention the problem being addressed
o Identify the central theme
o State the major conclusions
o If review is methodological, state flaws in reasoning and logic
Style manuals
Style manuals provide guidelines for creating a style of manuscript by providing consistent
format.
•
American Psychological Association
•
Chicago Manual of Style
•
Give guidance on writing in-text and end of text references, headings, footnotes, tables
and figures
The Definition of Terms
•
Define terms that individuals outside the field of study may not understand
o Define a term when it first appears
o Write definitions at a specific operational or applied level
o Use accepted language as found in the research literature to define terms
Instructor Resource
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
•
Qualitative studies
o May advance tentative definition at the beginning
o Themes may emerge through data analysis
•
Quantitative studies
o Extensive definitions early
o Comprehensively define all relevant terms
•
Mixed methods
o If study starts with a quantitative phase, definitions may be included in a separate
section
o If it begins with a qualitative phase then terms may emerge during research
A Quantitative or Mixed Methods Literature Review
•
The review should contain sections related to major independent variables and dependent
variables
•
Introduce the review by discussing the organization of the review
•
Review topic 1 – independent variables
•
Review topic 2 – literature on dependent variables
•
Review topic 3 – literature that relates the independent variables to the dependent
variables
•
Provide a summary that highlights the most important studies, major themes and
advances how the proposed study will fill the need for more research on the topic
Summary
•
Identify your topic through a brief title or central research question
•
Use the literature to
o Present similar studies
o Relate the study to the literature
o Provide a framework for comparison
•
The literature review serves a different purpose depending on whether a qualitative,
quantitative, or mixed methods approach
Instructor Resource
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
•
Search online databases of the literature using key terms
•
Define key terms, and possibly develop a definition of terms section for your proposal or
include them within your literature review
Chapter 2
Review of the Literature
Introduction
• Topic – subject or subject matter of a study
– e.g., “faculty teaching,” “organizational creativity,”
“psychological stress”
• Conduct literature review about the topic
– Worth studying?
– Scope?
– Can be studied
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Research Topic
• Gain insight into the topic by
– Drafting a working title
• “My study is about…”
– Posing a brief question
• What needs to be answered?
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Research Topic
• First step is to examine research on the topic
• How does this project contribute to the literature?
• New topic, new elements, replication with new
participants?
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Research Topic
• The topic can be researched if
– You have access to participants
– You have resources to collect and analyze information
• The topic should be researched if
– The research will add to the literature about the topic
– Scholars will be interested in the topic
– A study of it will advance your personal goals
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
• Shares the results of other studies
• Relates the study to the larger dialogue in the literature
• Provides a framework for establishing the importance of
the study
• Provides a benchmark for comparing the results to other
findings
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
7
The Literature Review
The use of the literature:
• Seek opinion of adviser or faculty members
• Tell the reader you are aware of literature
• Literature reviews take several forms:
– Integrate what others have done and said
– Criticize previous scholarly works
– Bridge between related topics
– Identify the central issues in the field
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
The use of the literature:
• In quantitative studies, researchers use literature to:
– Provide direction to the research questions and
hypotheses
– Introduce a problem
– Introduce and describe the theory that will be used
– Examine the usefulness of the theory
– Compare results with existing literature or predictions
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
The use of the literature:
• In mixed methods studies, researchers use the
literature:
– In either a quantitative or qualitative approach
– In each phase, consistent with either the
quantitative or qualitative approach
– Relative to the intended audience
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Steps in conducting a literature review:
• Identify key words
• Search databases
• Identify about 50 research reports in articles or books
• Collect those that are central to your topic
• Design a literature map
• Draft summaries of relevant articles
• Write a literature review, organizing it by important
concepts
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Searching computerized databases:
• Computerized databases of the literature are available
the Internet
• Databases provide access to journal articles, conference
papers and dissertations on a wealth of topics
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Searching computerized databases:
• Some of these online databases include:
– ERIC
– ProQuest
– Sociological Abstracts
– PsycINFO
– Science Direct
– Google scholar
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
– EBSCO
– PubMed
– SSCI
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The Literature Review
Searching computerized databases:
• Use both free databases and those available in your
academic library
• Search several databases, even those outside your field
• Use guides to terms to locate articles
• Locate articles close to your topic and use their terms in
your search
• Use databases that provide access to full text
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
A priority for selecting literature material:
• Start with broad syntheses (such as encyclopedias) if you
are new to the topic
• Turn to journal articles in national journals
– Best source for research reports
• Next, consider books
• Then examine conference papers
• Scan for dissertations
• Lastly, consider reports on the web
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
A literature map of the research
• A literature map is a visual summary of existing research
on a topic
• The structure of the literature map may be:
– Hierarchical pattern
– Flowchart layout
– Series of circles
• Write a narrative description
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Abstracting studies:
• Abstracts summarize major elements of the article
• For research studies:
– Mention the problem
– State the central purpose
– State information about the population and sample
– Review key results
– Point out methodological flaws (if a critique or
methods review)
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Abstracting studies:
• For nonempirical studies (essays, opinions, etc.)
– Mention the problem
– Identify the central theme
– State the major conclusions
– Mention flaws in reasoning or logic (if a
methodological review)
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Style manuals:
• Style manuals provide guidelines for producing scholarly
work and include directions on:
– Citing references in-text
– End-of-text references
– Creating headings
– Footnotes (not used in all style manuals)
– Presenting tables and figures
• Reminder: Consistently use the chosen style manual
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Definition of terms
• Identify and define terms that readers need to understand a
proposal
• Define terms introduced in all sections of the research plan:
– Title of the study
– Problem statement
– Purpose statement
– Research questions, hypotheses, or objectives
– Literature review
– Theory base of the study
– Methods section
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Definition of terms
• Qualitative studies
– Inductive and evolutionary in nature
– The definition of terms may appear later in the written
report, perhaps in the data analysis
• Quantitative studies
– Deductive with a fixed set of objectives
– All relevant terms are comprehensively defined earlier
in the study
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Definition of terms
• Mixed methods studies
– Follows the use of quantitative or qualitative
approach
– Clarify terms related to mixed methods
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Definition of terms
• Define terms when they first appear in the manuscript
• Use specific operational definitions
• Do not define terms using everyday language, be guided
by the literature
• Define terms so that they accomplish different goals
• One may use a definition of terms section in the
manuscript
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
A quantitative or mixed methods literature review:
• Introduce the review with a statement about the
organization of the sections
• Review literature about the independent variables
• Review literature about the dependent variables
• Review literature that relates the independent variables to
the dependent variables
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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The Literature Review
A quantitative or mixed methods literature review:
• Provide a summary
– Highlight important studies
– Capture major themes
– Suggest why more research is needed
– Advance how the proposed study will fill this need
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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Summary
• Identify your topic through a brief title or central research
question
• Use the literature to
– Present similar studies
– Relate the study to the literature
– Provide a framework for comparison
• Different purpose depending on approach
• Search databases using key terms
Creswell, Research Design 5e
SAGE Publishing, 2018
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