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Topic tilte: Relation between dietary Intake of different types and amounts from proteins and type 2 diabetes

ID
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
Age
49
51
41
57
45
54
39
45
54
40
46
55
60
41
53
62
52
45
49
36
45
50
35
54
64
43
61
50
45
56
33
35
44
55
47
37
53
60
58
49
39
48
56
59
55
48
33
50
35
40
63
35
59
65
40
70
48
25
43
56
75
51
68
71
65
34
38
40
36
72
31
26
40
55
50
55
65
35
50
48
65
72
55
44
27
41
72
62
46
51
42
32
40
62
65
35
34
49
26
55
25
Sex
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
femal
male
male
male
male
male
male
male
female
female
female
female
female
female
female
male
female
male
male
male
female
male
female
female
female
male
male
female
Male
femal
femal
femal
male
femal
male
male
male
femle
male
female
female
male
female
male
male
female
male
male
female
male
male
female
female
female
male
female
female
female
female
male
female
female
male
female
male
female
female
female
male
female
male
male
male
female
male
female
male
female
male
Job Weight height
no work 94.5
160
no work 80
165
no work 102
168
no work 120
160
no work 58.5
160
no work 90
165
work
83
157
work
58.5
162
no work 90
167
work
83
157
no work 95
166
work
110
164
no work 84
158
work
91
157
no work 102
165
no work 60
155
no work 100
170
work
90
163
no work 130
171
work
87
150
no work 93
169
no work 80
166
no work 85
163
work
79
172
no work 80
175
work
95
190
work
87
170
work
75
167
work
110
189
work
82
168
no work 74
167
no work 100
175
no work 83
163
no work 83
160
work
75
159
no work 70
157
no work 69
160
no work 72
172
work
65
160
work
85
165
work
90
175
work
70
172
no work 85
170
work
89
172
work
89
180
no work 80
165
work
104
160
work
95
167
work
68
164
no work 85
165
work
90
175
work
80
163
no work 115
160
work
90
160
work
70
157
no work 75
160
work
93
173
work
70
165
work
83
175
no work 95
164
no work 84
170
work
73
166
no work 90
170
work
100
175
no work 100
157
work
87
170
work
92
175
work
70
163
work
78
177
no work 92
168
work
97
170
work
75
173
work
82
170
no work 85
165
work
106
167
work
84
174
no work 90
175
no work 72
162
no work 85
165
work
95
167
no work 85
165
no work 60
172
no work 83
160
no work 83
163
work
65
157
no work 76
171
no work 54
160
no work 80
172
work
75
169
work
80
165
work
69
164
work
62
158
work
60
167
no work 70
175
no work 60
165
no work 75
160
work
75
168
work
85
172
work
87
175
no work 85
167
work
90
167
BMI
36.9
29.3
36.1
46.8
22.8
33
33.6
22.8
32.2
33.6
34.4
40.8
33.6
36.9
37.4
24.9
34.6
33.8
44.4
38.6
32.5
29
31.9
26.7
26.1
26.3
30.1
26.8
30.7
29
26.5
32.6
31.2
32.4
29.6
28.3
25
24
25.3
31.1
29.3
23.6
29.4
30
27.4
29.3
40.6
34
25.2
30.1
29.3
30.1
44.9
35.1
28.3
27.3
32.1
25.7
27.2
35.3
29
26.4
31.1
32.6
40.5
30.1
30
26.3
24.8
32.5
33.5
25
28.3
31.2
38
27.7
29.3
27.4
31.2
34
31.2
20.2
32.4
31.2
26.3
25.9
21
27
26.2
29.3
25.6
24.8
21.5
22.8
22
29.2
26.5
28.7
28.4
30.4
32.2
Waist circumeferance years of diabetes
110
10 years
90
3 years
130
9 years
122
7years
86
2 years
95
2years
130
7 years
85
2 years
115
2 years
135
7 years
123
3 years
138
9 years
121
20 years
132
5 years
126
4 years
95
20 years
110
11 years
112
4 years
125
5 years
98
1 years
94
5 years
85
4 years
102
3 years
105
10 years
96
4 years
98
1 year
110
13 years
109
2 years
113
3 years
109
6 years
80
4 years
111
3 years
102
12 years
87
5 years
90
7 years
117
8 years
85
10 years
70
11 years
80
7 years
130
20 years
95
7 years
90
10 years
105
8 years
112
11 years
88
2 years
90
5 years
100
10 years
99
7 years
83
3 years
87
10 years
100
13 years
95
2 years
115
13 years
112
10 years
90
1 years
85
4 yeard
110
2 years
80
5 years
85
1 year
100
10 years
96
2 years
80
3 years
87
6 years
112
5 years
115
12 years
94
1 year
90
4 years
86
6 years
82
10 years
114
20 years
97
6 years
87
1 years
68
1 year
50
5 years
90
3 years
45
7 years
88
7 years
70
4 years
47
10 years
57
7 years
70
20 years
85
11 years
55
5 years
46
12 years
60
3 years
90
5 years
70
17 years
88
15 years
55
8 years
57
11 years
80
5 years
85
3 years
77
4 years
66
12 years
76
12 years
56
3 years
58
1 year
60
2 years
80
5 years
70
7 years
87
1 year
medication
adherence to treatment blood sugar test check
insulin+ oral
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
no
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
insulin+ oral
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
insulin+ oral
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
no
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
insulin+ oral
no
no
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
insulin+ oral
no
no
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
no
insulin+ oral
no
yes
insulin+ oral
yes
no
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
insulin+ oral
no
no
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
insulin
yes
yes
insulin
yes
no
oral hypoglyciemic
yes
no
oral hypoglyciemic
yes
no
insulin + oral hypoglyciemic
yes
yes
oral hypoglyciemic
no
no
oral hypoglyciemic
no
yes
oral hypoglyciemic
yes
no
insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglyciemic
yes
yes
insulin + oral hypoglyciemic
yes
no
oral hypoglyciemic
yes
no
oral hypoglyciemic
yes
yes
insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglyciemic
yes
no
oral hypoglyciemic
yes
yes
insulin
yes
no
oral hypoglyciemic
yes
yes
oral hypoglyciemic
yes
yes
oral hypoglyciemic
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia + insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia + insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
insulin+ oral
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yed
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia + insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia + insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia + insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia + insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia + insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
Amaryl m
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
No
insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
no
NO
oral hypoglycemia
no
No
oral hypoglycemia
no
NO
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
insulin
yes
yes
insulin + oral hypoglyciemic
yes
yes
insulin + oral hypoglyciemic
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
no
yes
insulin + oral hypoglyciemic
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
no
No
insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
insulin
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
oral hypoglycemia
yes
NO
oral hypoglycemia
yes
yes
protin intake and type2 diapetes meletus
times of measure follow up with doctor doctor regulary visit comorbidities Diabetic complications Diet plan follow with nutritionist following deit plan smoking Hb A1C fasting blood glucose
random blood number
glucose of meals daily
main meal
twic in week
yes
no
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
9.2
240
174
3
lunch
no
yes
no
no
yes
no
no
no
no
7.3
180
210
2
dinner
once week
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
10
210
312
4
lunch
once week
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
11.2
230
280
4
dinner
twice week
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
no
6.8
130
203
3
lunch
three in weel
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
8
140
150
2
lunch
once week
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
10
250
300
4
dinner
no
yes
no
no
no
yes
no
yes
no
6.6
120
210
3
dinner
once week
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
6.9
125
165
3
lunch
no
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
10.4
250
300
3
lunch
twice week
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
8.5
145
200
3
dinner
no
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
11
185
250
3
dinner
once week
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
8.1
190
210
3
lunch
once week
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
7.5
165
250
3
dinner
no
yes
no
no
no
yes
yes
yes
no
7.7
170
146
3
lunch
twice week
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
7.4
165
225
4
lunch
no
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
9.1
205
265
3
dinner
once week
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
no
8
204
146
3
dinner
twice week
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
11
225
310
4
lunch
daily
yes
yes
no
no
yes
no
yes
no
5.6
125
140
3
lunch
three in week
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
7
150
178
3
dinner
twice week
yes
no
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
6.9
140
164
2
lunch
daily
yes
no
no
no
no
yes
yes
no
7.4
143
200
3
lunch
three in week
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
yes
10
210
279
3
lunch
three in week
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
8.1
198
230
3
lunch
daily
yes
yes
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
7
120
135
2
dinner
no
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
7.9
170
230
4
lunch
daily
yes
no
no
yes
no
no
no
yes
7.4
140
165
3
lunch
daily
yes
no
no
yes
no
no
no
yes
6.9
210
300
4
dinner
three in week
yes
no
no
no
yes
no
no
no
7.1
184
230
3
dinner
daily
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
no
7
125
150
6
lunch
weekly
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
9
140
212
4
lunch
monthly
no
no
no
no
yes
yes
yes
no
7.5
130
170
2
breakfast
monthly
no
no
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
8
129
185
5
lunch
weekly
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
no
6.4
111
140
6
break fast
weely
no
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
7.1
130
154
4
lunch
daily
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
8.5
100
170
3
dinner
daily
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
9.5
220
230
5
lunch
weekly
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
6.5
120
145
4
lunch
weekly
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
yes
8
130
180
3
dinner
daily
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
6
90
124
3
lunch
weekly
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
yes
6
120
130
3
dinner
weekly
yes
no
yes
no
no
no
no
no
7
120
137
3
lunch
weekly
no
yes
no
yes
no
no
no
no
13
85
279
6
lunch
weekly
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
6
110
150
3
break fast
weekly
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
9.5
150
270
3
dinner
daily
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
10
170
240
3
lunch
weekly
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
9
180
200
3
lunch
weekly
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
6
120
135
2
dinner
daily
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
6
100
120
3
lunch
twice per month
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
yes
8.5
100
180
4
lunch
four in month
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
no
no
7
110
165
3
lunch
once week
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
8
140
350
3
dinner
twice per month
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
6.5
200
210
3
lunch
twice week
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
no
no
6
105
170
4
dinner
once a week
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
6.5
100
145
3
lunch
once per month
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
9
174
225
5
dinner
once a week
yed
yes
no
yes
no
no
no
no
7.2
95
140
3
lunch
three per month
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
6.8
125
150
3
lunch
once week
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
7
101
150
3
lunch
twic a month
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
7.5
110
169
3
lunch
three per week
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
7
90
150
4
dinner
once per month
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
yes
6.5
90
144
5
lunch
twice per week
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
6.3
100
120
5
dinner
once per week
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
no
no
8
130
180
4
dinner
three per month
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no
no
no
8.8
135
195
3
lunch
once per month
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
7.6
98
137
3
lunch
once per month
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
6.4
97
125
3
dinner
twice per week
yes
no
no
no
yes
no
no
yes
9
140
220
4
dinner
twice per month
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
no
yes
6.4
92
138
3
lunch
monthly
No
No
No
No
yes
No
No
No
9
135
150
3
lunch
daily
yes
yes
NO
No
yes
yes
yes
No
7
190
288
2
lunch
daily
yes
yes
yes
yes
No
No
No
No
8
120
145
3
lunch
monthly
No
NO
No
yes
yes
No
Yes
No
7.1
150
170
3
breakfast
monthly
No
No
yes
yes
No
No
NO
No
9
142
160
3
lunch
monthly
yes
yes
yes
No
yes
No
yes
No
8
150
174
3
lunch
monthly
yes
No
yes
No
No
No
No
No
7
145
190
3
lunch
weakly
yes
yes
yes
No
yes
No
yes
No
5.1
100
114
5
lunch
weakly
yes
No
No
No
yes
No
no
No
6
100
120
4
lunch
weakly
yes
yes
yes
No
yes
No
yes
No
9
180
200
3
dinner
weakly
yes
yes
yes
yes
No
No
No
NO
6.8
120
180
3
lunch
monthly
yes
No
yes
yes
No
No
No
NO
8
150
180
5
lunch
monthly
yes
NO
yes
NO
yes
NO
yes
NO
8
125
130
3
breakfast
monthly
NO
NO
No
yes
yes
yes
yes
NO
7
130
150
2
lunch
weakly
yes
yes
No
No
yes
No
yes
NO
6.7
122
156
3
lunch
weakly
yes
yes
NO
NO
NO
NO
No
NO
6.2
125
156
3
lunch
weakly
No
NO
yes
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
6.2
105
140
3
lunch
weakly
yes
NO
yes
yes
yes
NO
no
No
6.8
124
145
4
lunch
monthly
No
No
yes
No
NO
NO
NO
NO
5.9
120
145
3
breakfast
daily
yes
yes
yes
No
yes
NO
yes
No
6.5
115
170
2
breakfast
monthly
No
No
yes
yes
NO
NO
NO
yes
5.9
125
155
3
lunch
monthly
No
No
yes
No
yes
YES
yes
NO
5.9
100
145
3
lunch
weakly
yes
yes
No
NO
yes
No
YES
yes
6.7
120
135
3
dinner
weakly
yes
yes
yes
No
No
NO
No
No
7.4
115
145
4
lunch
monthly
No
No
yes
NO
yes
NO
No
No
7.8
95
120
3
lunch
weakly
yes
yes
NO
NO
yes
yes
NO
No
6.7
80
125
5
lunch
weakly
yes
yes
yes
No
NO
NO
NO
yes
5.6
155
135
4
lunch
weakly
NO
NO
yes
NO
yes
NO
no
NO
7.2
123
160
3
dinner
weakly
yes
yes
No
No
yes
yes
No
No
6.5
125
130
3
breakfast
monthly
yes
NO
yes
NO
No
NO
NO
NO
7.2
110
130
4
breakfast
monthly
No
No
yes
NO
No
NO
NO
No
8.7
125
190
3
dinner
restriction to breakfast
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes
no
no
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
yes
yes
Yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
NO
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
snakes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
no
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
No
No
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
No
NO
NO
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
type of snake
execise regulation supplement total calories in24h kcal
recall
of carbohydrates
kcal of protien
fruits
no
yes
2200
1510
440
fuits or vegetables or nuts
no
no
2015
1550
240
frutis and nuts
no
no
3200
1990
850
fruits and sweetener
no
yes
2960
2050
560
vegetables
no
yes
1600
1125
340
fruits and vegetables and nuts no
yes
1425
960
280
no
no
yes
2500
1700
510
no
no
yes
1400
970
250
fruits
no
yes
1590
1180
230
fruits
no
yes
2520
1730
550
no
no
yes
2700
2080
430
no
no
no
3100
1970
730
no
no
yes
2100
1310
520
fruits
no
yes
2973
1802
568
no
no
no
1916
960
480
fruits
no
yes
1885
1190
385
fruits
no
no
3126
1540
1050
no
no
yes
2250
1045
940
no
no
yes
3900
1850
1110
no
no
yes
1740
990
450
fruits and vegetables
no
yes
2520
1280
960
fruits and vegetables
no
no
1665
900
510
fruits
yes
yes
2790
1480
960
fruits
no
yes
2370
1185
940
no
no
yes
2200
1205
820
fruits an nuts
no
yes
1900
1065
590
no
no
yes
2750
1470
1040
no
no
yes
2350
1185
840
fruits
no
no
3300
1670
1170
fruits
no
no
2755
1470
1040
fruits
yes
yes
1400
580
276
sweets
no
no
2515
860
216
no
no
no
1725
956
188
sweets + fruits
no
no
1650
872
220
vegetables + fruits
yes
yes
1900
1180
316
fruits
no
no
1990
800
356
no
no
yes
2100
1060
320
fruits
no
no
2000
1340
316
vegetables
no
no
1045
880
260
fruits
no
no
1640
1080
300
fruits
no
no
730
400
220
fruits
no
yes
1280
1000
280
no
no
yes
1405
960
312
vegetables
no
no
3000
2200
456
no
yes
yes
1954
1040
360
no
no
no
2100
1080
400
fruits
no
yes
2500
1120
400
sweets
no
no
2050
1000
360
fruits
yes
yes
1800
200
320
fruis
no
no
1550
600
280
no
no
no
1570
1110
320
fruits and vegetables and nuts no
no
1500
1000
300
frutis and vegetables
no
no
2500
1800
420
fruits and vegetables
no
yes
2200
1350
530
fruits
no
no
1725
1050
400
fruits and vegetables and nuts yes
yes
1420
930
330
no
no
no
2640
1970
300
fruits and vegetables
yes
yes
1400
800
450
vegetables
no
no
1840
1110
450
no
no
yes
1920
1110
520
no
no
yes
2100
1400
300
fruits
no
no
1640
1000
320
no
no
yes
1350
700
350
vegetables
no
no
2400
1750
450
fruits and vegetables and nuts no
no
2000
1080
520
vegetables and fruits
no
yes
2350
1254
640
no
no
no
1700
905
570
no
no
no
1950
1050
640
fruits
no
yes
2150
1645
200
no
no
no
1475
1020
255
vegetables
No
No
2650
1590
397.5
fruits
weekly
No
1850
1200.5
462.5
fruits
daily
yes
2100
1155
630
fruits
weekly
No
2250
1237.5
562.5
No
No
2800
1680
560
No
yes
2100
1155
525
fruits
weekly
No
2350
1175
352.5
fruits
No
yes
1800
810
540
fruits
No
No
2200
990
550
deserets
NO
NO
2500
1625
500
fruits
No
No
2150
1290
537.5
fruits or vegetables
No
No
1850
1110
462.5
fruits
No
No
2300
1265
460
NO
NO
2100
1050
215
No
NO
1650
907.5
412.5
sometimes
yes
2000
1100
500
vegetables
No
YES
1300
585
455
fruits
NO
NO
2250
1127.5
512.5
fruits or vegetables
NO
yes
1900
950
570
vegetables
No
NO
2150
1075
430
fruits
NO
NO
1750
787.5
525
vegetables
sometimes
yes
1600
800
480
fruits
No
No
1500
750
450
fruits or vegetables
NO
Yes
1750
875
437.5
vegetables
No
yes
1550
697.5
465
vegetables
No
yes
2000
900
400
fruits
weekly
No
1900
1045
475
fruits
No
NO
2220
1332
333
vegetables
NO
yes
2300
1150
575
fruits
NO
NO
2400
1080
480
vegetables
sometimes
yes
2500
1625
375
kcal of fat
250
225
460
350
135
225
290
180
180
240
190
400
270
603
476
280
535
265
940
300
280
255
350
245
175
254
240
325
460
245
612
306
315
540
414
450
414
477
225
414
225
225
270
612
684
540
720
765
585
576
170
200
280
320
275
160
370
150
280
292
400
320
300
200
400
486
225
260
305
200
927.5
370
315
450
840
560
822.5
450
660
625
337.5
277.5
575
735
330
400
260
410
380
645
437.5
320
300
437.5
387.5
700
380
555
575
840
500
poultry intake
3
2
3
3
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
3
2
3
3
2
3
1
4
2
3
4
3
2
3
3
3
2
2
1
4
3
3
3
3
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
3
2
3
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
3
1
2
2
1
1
heme protein food frequency
non heme protein frequency
meat intake fish intake
egg intake
milk intake
processeddairy
meatproduct
seeds intake
bean intake
5
3
1
1
4
1
2
1
6
5
1
4
4
1
2
1
5
5
1
4
3
1
3
3
5
4
1
1
3
1
3
1
3
5
1
1
4
1
1
3
6
5
3
4
4
1
3
1
5
5
1
4
3
1
3
1
5
6
1
6
4
1
2
1
6
6
3
4
5
1
3
2
6
5
1
2
5
1
3
1
5
4
3
4
3
2
1
1
6
5
2
5
5
1
3
2
6
6
2
3
4
1
1
3
5
5
2
1
5
1
3
1
6
6
1
4
7
1
3
3
6
2
2
1
6
2
2
2
5
5
2
1
3
1
3
2
6
4
1
1
4
2
3
3
3
5
1
1
3
1
2
1
4
3
1
4
4
1
1
3
6
4
1
4
6
1
2
2
5
5
2
4
4
2
1
3
5
6
1
1
5
1
3
1
6
5
3
1
4
1
3
1
6
5
2
1
4
1
2
1
6
5
2
4
4
4
3
1
5
4
3
1
2
1
2
1
5
4
3
1
4
1
2
1
4
4
3
1
4
1
2
1
5
3
3
1
4
1
3
1
3
3
2
3
5
2
3
3
3
5
2
7
3
2
3
3
3
3
2
2
7
1
2
2
2
3
7
4
4
7
3
3
3
2
4
2
6
1
3
3
3
3
1
1
7
1
2
2
3
5
1
1
7
1
3
1
3
3
3
1
4
1
2
2
3
3
1
1
4
1
2
1
3
3
2
1
7
1
3
3
2
3
3
1
4
1
2
3
2
7
3
1
4
1
2
1
3
5
2
1
4
1
2
1
2
5
3
1
4
1
2
1
3
2
1
1
5
1
3
1
2
3
3
4
4
3
2
3
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
1
3
2
3
1
3
1
3
2
2
3
1
1
5
1
2
3
3
3
4
1
6
1
3
3
4
2
1
1
2
3
1
1
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
2
3
1
3
2
1
2
2
2
3
1
1
2
1
3
1
3
3
1
1
2
1
1
3
2
4
4
3
2
1
2
1
2
2
3
3
2
1
2
1
1
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
3
2
3
2
2
1
1
2
2
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
3
2
3
2
1
1
2
3
3
2
3
1
2
1
1
1
2
3
2
2
1
1
1
2
3
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
4
3
2
1
2
2
2
3
4
3
3
3
1
2
2
1
3
2
3
1
1
3
1
2
3
2
3
3
2
2
1
1
2
3
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
3
7
1
3
2
1
1
1
2
7
0
0
3
0
1
1
7
0
0
0
7
1
1
2
2
0
2
0
2
1
1
1
7
7
0
0
3
0
1
1
2
1
1
0
3
1
1
1
7
1
0
0
0
0
2
1
7
7
1
1
1
1
1
2
0
7
0
0
3
0
1
1
2
7
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
7
2
1
4
1
2
1
7
7
1
0
3
1
1
2
7
0
1
0
2
2
3
2
2
1
1
0
2
0
1
1
7
7
0
1
2
0
1
1
7
7
2
0
0
1
2
1
3
7
1
0
3
1
2
1
1
7
0
2
2
1
3
1
1
7
0
0
3
0
1
1
3
1
0
1
3
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
2
1
3
1
1
7
0
1
3
1
1
1
2
0
0
0
2
1
1
2
1
7
1
0
0
1
3
1
7
7
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
0
2
1
3
2
1
1
7
7
0
2
2
1
1
2
1
7
0
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
0
1
2
0
1
2
7
0
2
0
3
1
1
1
7
1
0
0
3
1
non heme protein frequency
nuts
wholeintake
and refine
legumen
grain intake
intake
7
1
1
7
2
2
3
1
1
6
1
1
7
1
3
7
1
1
5
1
2
7
1
2
7
1
3
5
1
2
7
1
2
7
1
2
6
3
2
5
3
3
7
2
2
7
1
1
6
1
1
3
1
1
5
1
1
7
2
1
7
1
1
7
3
1
7
1
1
7
1
1
7
1
1
2
1
1
7
1
1
7
1
1
7
1
1
7
1
1
6
3
3
4
2
2
7
1
3
4
1
3
4
1
5
5
1
2
6
5
3
7
1
2
4
3
2
7
1
3
3
3
3
7
2
3
3
2
2
4
3
2
4
1
3
3
3
3
2
1
2
2
3
3
3
1
3
5
2
4
1
1
1
4
2
2
1
1
1
5
1
1
4
1
3
3
2
2
3
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
1
2
3
3
3
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
3
1
2
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
3
2
1
1
0
7
7
0
1
7
1
1
7
1
1
1
0
7
7
0
7
1
2
7
7
1
7
1
1
7
3
1
7
7
2
7
7
0
7
7
1
7
1
1
7
7
1
7
7
0
7
7
2
7
7
1
7
1
1
7
7
1
7
7
1
7
7
7
7
7
1
7
7
7
7
7
0
7
7
0
7
7
7
7
7
1
7
7
1
7
7
1
7
7
fast food
4
4
5
7
4
4
4
4
4
5
7
7
4
5
7
4
5
4
3
4
7
7
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
6
5
4
4
6
7
6
4
4
7
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
6
5
4
0
2
0
0
3
0
5
2
3
0
0
3
0
2
2
3
2
2
0
0
2
1
1
3
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
2
3
1
1
1
0
4
0
2
1
0
0
0
2
3
2
1
1
1
0
Group( )
Impact of dietary carbohydrates intake (type
and amount) on patients with type2 diabetes
Dr. Esraa Ahmed Abdelaziz
Dr. Omnia Bahaa Eldin
Dr. Ghada Hamed Elsaied
Dr. Menah Mostafa Ismail
Dr. Mona Abdelraof Abdelmenam
Dr. Nehal Wageh Helmi
Under the Supervision of
Prof. Nahla elashmawy
Prof. Eman Goda
Dr. Saied Hamad
Results
A cross-sectional descriptive survey was employed by designing a
questionnaire among 100 patients to find the Impact of dietary carbohydrates
intake (type and amount) on patients with type2 diabetes.
Table 1: General characteristics of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
(n = 100, 41 males (41%) and 59 females (59%)):
Measurements
Mean ± SD
Age (Year)
Weight (Kg)
Height (m)
Waist circumeferance (cm)
BMI (Kg/m2)
DBP (mmHg)
SBP (mmHg)
HbA1C (%)
FBG (mmol/L)
TC (mmol/L)
TG (mmol/L)
Total calories
Grams of carbohydrates
Grams of protien
Grams of fat
49.32 ± 9.52
88.40 ± 19.41
166.04 ± 9.03
103.53 ± 21.74
31.70 ± 6.39
86.65 ± 15.38
129.81 ± 12.99
8.39 ± 2.19
165.52 ± 61.57
181.23 ± 42.27
134.12 ± 57.57
1888.40 ± 631.47
238.31 ± 169.99
135.33 ± 68.02
61.49 ± 30.67
BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; HbA 1C, glycated
hemoglobin; FBG, fasting blood glucose; TC, Total cholesterol; TG, triglycerides.
SD (Standard Deviation)
Table 2: General description of the patient with type 2 diabetes:
Patients characteristics
Female
Male
Work
No work
Normal
Overweight
Obese
Frequency (n)
Gender
59
Percent (%)
41
Jop
74
41.0 %
26
BMI
11
26%
35
54
Years of diabetes
59.0 %
74%
11.0%
35.0%
54.0%
1-5 Years
6-10 Years
>10 Years
Yes
No
Yes
No
45
37
18
Adherence to treatment
100
0
Blood sugar test check
69
45.0%
37.0%
18.0%
100.0%
0.0%
69.0 %
31.0%
Daily
31
Times of measure
39
Weekly
26
26.0%
Sometime
16
16.0%
No
19
Follow up with doctor
68
19.0%
32
Doctor regulary visit
67
32.0%
33
Comorbidities
32
33.0%
68
Diabetic complications
14
68.0%
86
Diet plan
24
86.0%
76
Follow with nutritionist
10
76.0%
90
Following deit plan
21
90.0%
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
39.0%
68.0%
67.0%
32.0%
14.0%
24.0%
10.0%
21.0%
No
79
Smoking
79.0%
Yes
14
14.0%
No
86
Blood pressure
86.0%
Normal
11
11.0%
Elevated
26
26.0%
High
63
Number of meals daily
58
63.0%
42.0%
Breakfast
42
Main meal
15
Lunch
54
54.0%
Dinner
31
Restriction to breakfast
36
31.0%
64
Snakes
73
64.0%
27.0%
Fruits
27
Type of snake
41
Fast Food
5
5.0%
Fruits + Fast Food
1
1.0%
sweets
10
10.0%
Vegetables
16
16.0%
No
27
Exercise regulation
18
27.0%
82
Supplement
78
82.0%
1-3 times
>3 times
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
58.0%
15.0%
36.0%
73.0%
41.0%
18.0%
78.0%
No
22
Medication
22.0%
Oral hypoglyciemic
71
71.0%
Insulin
23
23.0%
Insulin + Oral
6
6.0%
hypoglyciemic
Table 3: Comparison of basic characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus
patients according to their glycemic control:
Good glycemic control
(HbA1c level ≤ 8
Parameters
Poor glycemic control
(HbA1c level >8)
Percent
Frequency
(%)
39
39%
P-value
Frequency
Percent (%)
61
61%
BMI
10
Normal
18
Overweight
33
Obese
Years of diabetes
16.39%
29.51%
54.10%
1
17
21
2.56%
43.59%
53.85%
0.064
28
20
13
45.90%
32.79%
21.31%
17
17
5
43.59%
43.59%
12.82%
0.421
16
43
26.23%
7
28
17.95%
1-5 Years
6-10 Years
>10 Years
Medication
Insulin
Oral
hypoglyciemic
Insulin + Oral
hypoglyciemic
2
Adherence to treatment
Yes
61
No
0
Blood sugar test check
Yes
No
70.49%
3.28%
4
71.79%
0.266
10.26%
61%
0%
39
0
39%
0%

44
17
72.13%
27.87%
25
14
64.10%
35.90%
0.397
24
18
8
39.34%
29.51%
13.11%
15
8
8
38.46%
20.51%
20.51%
0.651
Times of measure
Daily
Weekly
Sometime
No
11
18.03%
8
20.51%
68.85%
31.15%
26
13
66.67%
33.33%
0.819
43
18
70.49%
29.51%
24
15
61.54%
38.46%
0.353
22
39
36.07%
63.93%
10
29
25.64%
74.36%
0.276
8
53
13.11%
86.89%
6
33
15.38%
84.62%
0.750
19
42
31.15%
68.85%
5
34
12.82%
87.18%
0.036*
10
51
16.39%
83.61%
0
39
0%
100%
.008*
16
45
26.23%
73.77%
5
34
12.82%
87.18%
0.108
9
52
14.75%
85.25%
5
34
12.82%
87.18%
0.786
11
15
35
18.03%
24.59%
57.38%
0
14
25
0%
35.90%
64.10%
0.016*
37
24
60.66%
39.34%
21
18
53.85%
46.15%
0.501
9
32
20
14.75%
52.46%
32.79%
6
22
11
15.38%
56.41%
28.21%
0.889
37.70%
62.30%
Snakes
13
26
33.33%
66.67%
0.657
Follow up with doctor
Yes
No
42
19
Doctor regulary visit
Yes
No
Comorbidities
Yes
No
Diabetic complications
Yes
No
Diet plan
Yes
No
Follow with nutritionist
Yes
No
Following deit plan
Yes
No
Smoking
Yes
No
Blood pressure
Normal
Elevated
High
Number of meals daily
1-3 times
>3 times
Main meal
breakfast
lunch
dinner
Restriction to breakfast
yes
no
23
38
yes
no
44
17
72.13%
27.87%
29
10
74.36%
25.64%
Type of snake
fruits
22
36.07%
3.28%
19
48.72%
7.69%
fast food
fruits + fast
food
vegetables
sweets
no
2
1
1.64%
3
0
0%
0.807
0.613
11
8
17
18.03%
13.11%
27.87%
5
2
10
12.82%
5.13%
25.64%
9
52
14.75%
85.25%
9
30
23.08%
76.92%
0.291
45
16
73.77%
26.23%
33
6
84.62%
15.38%
0.202
Exercise regulation
yes
no
Supplement
yes
no
*
p-value 8)
Mean±SD
31.97±7.080
102.4±22.82
187.4±80.86
180.9±47.78
131.7±69.94
1897±710.1
278.8±130.4
132.2±57.65
59.97±35.05
P-value
0.73
0.6895
0.0035*
0.954
0.646
0.91
0.0018*
0.7154
0.695
SD (Standard Deviation)
Unpaired t-test was used
*p-value
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