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Digital Transformation
at two of America’s leading companies:
The New York Times
Capsule: Assess the degree to which NYT and WM
have gone through DT – Digital Transformation
What to read:
• NYT: an article from McKinsey Quarterly Aug 2020 + do internet search.
WM: there is a huge amount of material on the internet.
What framework do you use to base your analyze?
Use the 2021 MIT article “The New Elements of Digital Transformation” 1 – there are 5
elements in this article. And we add a 6th item that Westerman emphasized in his earlier
articles – and that he left out of in this article for reasons of elegance: “Becoming
culturally digital.” (This culture concept is explained in class). In summary: read the
article + watch the professor videos on Canvas. Submission Text must have all six
Customer experience
Business Model
Research, Learn and Think deeply about each of these great American
Read their history, their historical profit-and-loss statements, look at when they
stumbled: Walmart allowed Amazon to become a giant gorilla; NYT slowed down for
many years as the internet took off, beginning in 1995.
Analysis Guidelines:
• Think about why it was so difficult to do digital transformation.
• Was there disruption anywhere in the picture? By this we mean: in the two case
companies, among their competition, or in one of the interesting technologies?
• Be clear about NYT: What did it actually do? The Mckinsey interview is vague, so
dig some more.
• Include your personal observations: What I learned from using NYT (subscribing
and reading)’ What I learned about WM (buying) as a consumer.
Format Guidelines:
• Keep it brief.
• At the very least 4 references for each company.
• Writing style: Get straight to the point. Don’t write “The NYT is an American
media company….” We know those things already.
The New
Elements of
The authors revisit their landmark research and address how
the competitive advantages offered by digital technology have
Didier Bonnet
George Westerman
Vol. 62, No. 2 • Reprint #62210 • https://mitsmr.com/2UEVUzY
The New Elements of
Digital Transformation
The authors revisit their landmark research and address how the competitive
advantages offered by digital technology have evolved.
ince 2014, when our ar ticle
“The Nine Elements of Digital
Transformation” appeared in these
pages, executive awareness of the
powerful and ever-evolving ways in
which digital technology can create competitive
advantage has become pervasive.1 But acting on
that awareness remains a challenging prospect.
It requires that companies become what we
call digital masters. Digital masters cultivate
two capabilities: digital capability, which enables them to use innovative technologies to
improve elements of the business, and leadership capability, which enables them to envision
and drive organizational change in systematic
and profitable ways. Together, these two capabilities allow a company to transform digital
technology into business advantage.2
Digital mastery is more important than ever
because the risks of falling behind are increasing. In 10 years of research, we have seen digital
transformation grow increasingly complex,
with a new wave of technological and competitive possibilities arriving before many
companies mastered the first. When we began
our research, most large traditional enterprises
were using digital technologies to incrementally improve parts of their businesses. Since
then, this first phase of activity has given way to
a new one. Advances in a host of technologies,
such as the internet of things, artificial intelligence, virtual and augmented reality, and 5G,
have opened new avenues for value creation. More
important, leaders now recognize the need for —
and the possibility of — truly transforming the
fundamentals of how they do business. They understand that they have to move from disconnected
technology experiments to a more systematic approach to strategy and execution.
Some companies have successfully graduated
from the first phase of digital transformation and
are diving into the second. But many are still floundering: In 2018, when we surveyed 1,300 executives
in more than 750 global organizations, only 38% of
them told us that their companies had the digital capability needed to become digital masters, and only
35% said they had the leadership capability to do
so.3 This has become more worrisome than ever: As
COVID-19 accelerates the shift to digital activity,
digital masters are widening the gap between their
capabilities and those of their competitors.
These conditions prompted us to reexamine the
elements of digital transformation that we proposed in 2014. While strong leadership capability is
even more essential than ever, its core elements —
vision, engagement, and governance — are not
fundamentally changed, though they are informed
by recent innovations. The elements of digital
capability, on the other hand, have been more
profoundly altered by the rapid technological
advances of recent years.
Accordingly, we’ve revisited the elements of digital capability to reflect the opportunities and
impact of new digital technologies. Some of the
original elements remain relatively unchanged,
some have been reconfigured, and some new
elements have emerged. (See “The New Elements
of Digital Capability.”) The elements aimed at
improving customer experience and internal operations remain important. Employee experience has
expanded from a single element to its own set of elements, since employees make the business run and
have firsthand insights on where processes need to
improve. The elements of business model innovation have expanded, too, with the rise of multisided
platform businesses and the increasing dominance
of global platform players, such as Alibaba,
Amazon, and Google. Last, we’ve given more
prominence to the digital platform that underpins
all the other elements in a company.
We updated our original
2014 framework to reflect
changes in the state of
digital transformation over
the past six years.
Through interviews,
teaching, and surveys with
hundreds of executives,
we have researched how
corporations use new
technologies, such as
IoT and AI, to transform
their operations.
Our earlier research on
digital transformation
identified two dimensions
through which leading
companies outperform
their peers: digital
capability and
leadership capability.
We found that the
elements of leadership
capability have endured,
but new elements of
digital capability have
come to the fore.
Transforming the
Customer Experience
Seeing the business from the outside in — from the
customers’ perspective — is as relevant and necessary today as it was in the first phase of digital
transformation. But while the focus on customers
has not radically changed, the elements needed to
create compelling experiences have changed. Today,
the three elements are experience design, customer
intelligence, and emotional engagement.
Experience design: Customer experience has become the ultimate battleground for many companies
and brands. While compelling experiences are easy to
recognize, they are hard to design and deliver. That’s
because this work requires equal measures of empathic creativity and technological prowess. The
former requires tools such as journey mapping, “a day
in the life” ethnographic studies, and customer personas, as well as practices such as design thinking. These
tools and practices provide an intimate understanding of human behaviors and the ability to surface
customer insights through careful observation, skilled
listening, and constant experimentation. The latter
is powered by the ability to digitally reengineer
customer experiences, by integrating front-office
technologies and processes with back-office operational infrastructure to instantaneously deliver an
uninterrupted service experience, for instance.
Sephora transformed long-standing customer
pain points around sampling and purchasing
cosmetics into a compelling, digitally powered customer experience. Using AI to match a customer’s
skin tones to the most appropriate products and
virtual reality to sample the products, the company
created a convenient, at-home shopping experience
that rivals the personalization of an in-store experience. Sephora’s approach, embedded in an app,
attracted 8.5 million user visits between 2016 and
2018, and it has helped the company as the pandemic disrupted the in-store experience.4
Customer intelligence: Integrating customer
data across silos and understanding customer
behavior — efforts undertaken in the first phase of
digital transformation — have become table stakes
in customer experience. Now, as machine learning
has begun to deliver on its initial promise, real-time
customer intelligence is enabling highly personalized interactions and making it possible to deliver
The updated framework places more emphasis on employee experience and business model innovation,
as well as on the digital platform, which powers the other elements and, when structured and managed well,
enables further innovation.
Digital enhancements
Information-based service extensions
Multisided platform businesses
Experience design
Core process automation
Customer intelligence
Connected and dynamic operations
Emotional engagement
Data-driven decision-making
Externally facing
accurately focused, proactive customer services,
such as “next best offers.”
Stitch Fix is an online styling service that curates
personalized collections of clothes, shoes, and accessories for each of its subscribers. The curation is
based initially on an extensive customer style survey and then improved and personalized through
data such as returns, preferences, and a Style Shuffle
feature that invites subscribers to rate clothing images each day. Some 120 data scientists support the
stylists at Stitch Fix, which has grown to $1.6 billion
in annual sales and $37 million net income since its
founding in 2011.5
Emotional engagement: Emotional connections with customers are as essential as technology
in creating compelling customer experiences. In
one study, emotionally engaged customers were
shown to be 52% more valuable than highly satisfied customers.6 This is why companies are using
digital technology to solicit and enable customer
participation across their value chains: in R&D
and product development (for example, Starbucks’
MyStarbucksidea.com), content creation (LinkedIn
profiles), logistics (UPS MyChoice), and services
(iStockphoto inspectors).
Giffgaff, a U.K. virtual mobile operator owned by
Telefonica, has a business model that is powered by
its member (customer) community. With a staff of
fewer than 250 people, the company has no call center and no customer service department. Essentially,
customer service has been outsourced to its more
than 3 million members — and it works.7
Transforming Operations
As ever, well-managed operations are essential to
converting revenue into profit, but now we’re seeing a shift in the focus of digital transformation in
this arena. Advances in sensors, cloud, machine
learning, and IoT are allowing companies in every
industry to transform their operational capabilities. In addition, leaders are seeing how operational
excellence can move beyond back-office efficiency
to enable engaging customer experience and business models that competitors cannot copy. This
operational transformation is occurring in three
elements of digital capability: core process automation, connected and dynamic operations, and
data-driven decision-making.
Core process automation: Even as some companies are still implementing traditional automation
approaches such as enterprise resource planning,
manufacturing execution, and product life cycle
management systems, other companies are moving
beyond them to digitally reinvent operations.
Amazon’s distribution centers deliver inventory to
workers rather than sending workers to collect inventory. Rio Tinto, an Australian mining company, uses
autonomous trucks, trains, and drilling machinery
so that it can shift workers to less dangerous tasks,
leading to higher productivity and better safety.
In rethinking core process automation,
advanced technologies are useful but not prerequisites. Asian Paints transformed itself from a maker
of coatings in 13 regions in India to a provider of
coatings, painting services, design services, and
home renovations in 17 countries by first establishing a common core of digitized processes under an
ERP system. This provided a foundation to build
upon and a clean source of data to generate insights. Later, the company incorporated machine
learning, robotics, augmented reality, and other
technologies to digitally enable its expansion.8
Connected and dynamic operations: Thanks to
the growing availability of cheap sensors, cloud infrastructure, and machine learning, concepts such as
Industry 4.0, digital threads, and digital twins have
become a reality. Digital threads connecting machines, models, and processes provide a single source
of truth to manage, optimize, and enhance processes
from requirements definition through maintenance.
Engineers at Raytheon Technologies, for example,
model machine tools at the cutting face — enabling
them to design components right the first time, with
desired tolerances, surface features, and defect rates.
Construction companies link drone-based observations to blueprints to identify and correct problems
before they require expensive rework.
The ramifications reach far beyond the manufacturing process. Schindler, a maker of elevators,
escalators, and other transport systems, used to
manage each of its products separately, making it
difficult to understand and manage overall traffic
flows in real time. But, by connecting its products
and adding analytics, the company is able to optimize transportation across an entire office building
or campus — anticipating when people will be moving from one location to another, changing operating
speeds and routes accordingly, and responding to
mechanical issues before they become outages.9
Data-driven decision-making: In recent years,
the basis for operational decisions has increasingly
shifted from backward-looking reports to real-time
data. Now, connected devices, new machine learning algorithms, smarter experimentation, and
plentiful data enable more-informed decisions. This
capacity is spreading to strategic and marketing
decisions, too. Digital masters are taking advantage
of this by integrating operational and strategic
decision-making in new and powerful ways.
Flex, a global provider of manufacturing and supply chain services, created Flex Pulse to deliver
analytics-based management capabilities.10 Pulse
tracks and optimizes inventory usage and supply
chain status across more than 1,000 of Flex’s enterprise customers, with each customer able to see its
own supply chain information via apps. When a disruption occurs or a risk emerges in one part of the
world — a volcano, political turmoil, or a disease outbreak — Flex can adjust its supply chain processes in
response. Pulse also provides Flex with deep databased insight into broader geographic, industry, and
supply chain trends so that it can better choose, manage, and negotiate with its sourcing partners.
Transforming Employee Experience
If we’ve learned anything during the past decade of
digital transformation, it’s that employees can be
either the greatest inhibitors or the greatest enablers of transformation success. Accordingly,
companies have begun to focus on the employee
experience as intently as they do on the customer
experience. Three elements of employee experience
transformation have emerged in recent years: augmentation, future-readying, and flexforcing.
Augmentation: Warnings that robots will replace humans have given way to a more nuanced
and productive discussion. Now, companies are
considering how robotics and other digital technologies can augment employee productivity and
performance — enabling people to work faster,
smarter, and more safely.
Workers in Huntington Ingalls Industries’
Newport News, Virginia, shipyard use augmented
reality to help build giant complex vessels such as
aircraft carriers and submarines. They can “see”
where to route wires or pipes or what is behind a
wall before they start drilling into it. This system
and others improve team performance and worker
satisfaction by reducing trips to get blueprints and
paperwork, managing handoffs across shifts, and
showing workers how their work fits within a project as a whole.11
Future-readying: The dynamism of today’s
competitive environment highlights the urgency of
providing employees with the skills they need to
keep up with the pace of change. In the past few
years, this has given rise to new models of managing
learning and development in organizations, led by a
new kind of chief learning officer, whom we call the
transformer CLO. 12 Transformer CLOs reshape
corporate capabilities and culture by revamping
learning goals to help employees develop the mindsets and capabilities needed to perform well now and
adapt smoothly in the future; learning methods to
create learning experiences that are more atomized,
digitized, and personalized; and learning departments to make them leaner, more agile, and more
strategic. By transforming the learning and development function, these leaders ensure that employees
have the capabilities they need to embrace digital
technology and drive business transformation.
Julie Dervin, global head of corporate learning
and development at Cargill, told us,“Unintentionally,
we were creating a learning culture where only a select few got access to high-quality training. … We’ve
been fundamentally changing how we design, deliver, and shape those learning experiences to be able
to reach exponentially more learners with highimpact learning.”13 The food and agriculture company is shifting its mix to incorporate more digital
than in-person experiences — even for senior executives — and learners appreciate the change. It is also
introducing new learning opportunities such as
“application challenges” where workers receive a
short lesson, apply it immediately, and then receive
immediate feedback from their peers.
Flexforcing: To respond to fast-paced digital
opportunities and threats, companies also need to
build agility into their talent sourcing systems.
In the past decade, outsourcing provided a partial
answer to the challenge but with mixed results.
Ecosystems of partners also have been used to
provide talent on demand, but managing such ecosystems requires heavy investments in resources
and attention. Now, we see some companies seeking talent agility in new ways.
As automation and AI applications take over tasks
once performed by humans, some companies are
multiskilling employees to make the organization
more agile. For instance, oil and gas companies have
broadened the occupational scope of their geoscientists using intensive multiskilling training in topics
like geology, geophysics, reservoir engineering, and
geochemistry to develop a cadre of agile specialists.14
We see
three kinds
of business
model transformation: digital
informationbased service
and multisided
Other companies are using contingent workers,
which may represent as much as 40% of the U.S. workforce, to supplement their talent on a variable cost
basis.15 Some of them, including UPS and Target, are
building their own pools of gig workers by encouraging ex-employees and retirees to boomerang back on
a contingent basis to fill important skill gaps.16
Transforming Business Models
In 2014, despite much talk about business model
transformation, we found that only 7% of companies
were using digital initiatives to launch new businesses
and only 15% were creating new business models
with digital technology.17 Times have changed. Now,
executives in every industry are paying closer attention to how digital prowess can yield business model
innovation. Without falling victim to the “everything
is being disrupted” mantra, it is clear that the extent
of business model transformation is broadening.18
We see three elements supporting business model
transformation: digital enhancements, informationbased service extensions, and multisided platforms.
Digital enhancements: Business model transformation doesn’t always require disrupting a company
or industry. Increasingly, companies are finding
ways to digitally enhance their existing business
models without requiring major changes to the business. For instance, nearly 80% of traditional retailers
in the U.K. are now meshing digital and physical
channels through click-and-collect services.19
Others are turning product sales into service
offerings. For example, Hilti, a construction tools
and products provider, created a tools-on-demand
program for its construction clients. Rather than
selling tools, it makes a variety of tools available
through a subscription service that includes repairs
and customized services.20
Information-based service extensions: More
and more companies are expanding their productbased business models with information-based
services, combining sensors, communication
networks, apps, and analytics to create value for
customers and new sources of revenue for themselves. This requires advanced analytic capabilities,
end-to-end service design, and tight integration
with customers’ devices and business processes.
Global tire maker Michelin connected its products using embedded sensors that collect and
transmit valuable data on usage, distance, and maintenance needs. Its Fleet Solutions business now
provides its customers with comprehensive and convenient tire management services that deliver better
cost control, fewer breakdowns, and less administrative work. Essentially, the company has moved to an
outcome-based business model, selling problemfree kilometers instead of tires.21 These as-a-service
offerings are appearing in every industry and are
particularly compelling for large, expensive items
such as power turbines and aircraft engines.
Multisided platforms: Multisided platforms
have disrupted a range of industries including taxi
services, hospitality, and retail, and they are spreading further afield. In 2018, for instance, German steel
and metal distributor Klöckner launched XOM, a
proprietary online platform to distribute its products. Moreover, the company invited its competitors
to join the platform. This positioned Klöckner’s
platform as an independent digital marketplace for
anyone buying or selling steel, metal, and other industrial products. To ensure fair and transparent
access to competitors, XOM is run independently of
the core business.22
Launching a successful multisided platform
ecosystem requires specific economic conditions,
heavy investment, and a strong dose of luck to
reach profitable scale. So not every company should
try to become the platform leader for its industry.
But companies that cannot create their own multisided platforms can still use platform economics to
partially transform their business models or find
an economically viable role to play in platforms
operated by others. For example, global brands
including Kenzo, Burberry, and Versace joined
Luxury Pavilion, a subset of Alibaba’s Tmall.com, as
an entry channel into the lucrative Chinese luxury
market at lower risk and cost rather than trying to
build their own platform ecosystems.23
Transforming the Digital Platform
The foundation for digital transformation is a clean,
well-structured digital platform — the technology,
applications, and data that power a company’s business processes. None of the other digital elements
can achieve their full promise without it.
Advances in technology and methodology in recent years have made the challenge of building a
Many firstwave digital
did not include
IT as a partner
and failed; now,
IT leaders are
driving efforts
in some
solid digital platform simultaneously easier and
tougher. Cloud computing, agile development
methods, external code libraries, and easy-to-use
development tools enable developers to build new
functions rapidly but can also lead to the proliferation of inconsistencies and complex tangles of tech
spaghetti. On the other hand, Agile, GitHub, DevOps,
as well as containers and microservices, make it easier
to coordinate changes; innovate quickly, safely, and
smartly; and avoid reinventing the wheel. The digital
platform has three interrelated but distinct elements
that work together to power your company.
The first element is the core platform, a strong
foundation for operational and transactional systems (back-office systems, systems of record, etc.)
that power a company’s key processes. This core
platform — an organization’s technology backbone — should be well structured, well managed,
and only as complex as it really needs to be.
The second element is an agile externally facing
platform that powers the websites, apps, and other
processes that connect to customers and ecosystem
partners. This platform is more than a pretty front
end. It needs to work with the core platform to perform key transactions such as payments and serve
as an attractive and agile platform for conducting
customer-facing experiments and delivering personalized experiences.
The third element is a data platform that provides the ability to perform intense analytics, as
well as build and test algorithms, without disrupting the company’s operational systems. In recent
years, we’ve seen a tremendous increase in algorithms that use unstructured data — such as text,
images, and voice — to improve customer experience or internal operations, making data platforms
a key component of digital innovation.
Along with these technology and architecture
elements, we’ve seen the dawning of a hard-won recognition of the importance of the IT function in
making digital transformation work. Many firstwave digital transformations did not include IT as
a partner and failed as a result. Now, IT leaders are
driving digital transformation in some companies. In
other companies, IT and digital and business leaders
are working more closely together to make the digital
transformation faster, more innovative, more comprehensive, and more effective than before.
higher on the corporate agenda since our article and
book in 2014, and the drive to maintain operations
disrupted by COVID-19 has made it an even higher
priority. But even as companies have had to move
quickly to adjust to the realities of a global pandemic,
their leaders also need to take a longer view. They need
to consider how digital technologies can be used not
only to enhance their products and processes but also
to reinvent their businesses. In this article, we have
shared examples that can help executives identify opportunities to increase digital capability across the
business. This digital capability and the leadership capability to envision and drive organizational change
are the key ingredients for meeting this challenge.
Didier Bonnet (@didiebon) is affiliate professor of
strategy and innovation at IMD Business School
and executive vice president of Capgemini Invent.
George Westerman (@gwesterman) is senior lecturer with the MIT Sloan School of Management
and principal research scientist for workforce learning
in MIT’s Abdul Latif Jameel World Education Lab.
Comment on this article at https://sloanreview.mit
1. G. Westerman, D. Bonnet, and A. McAfee, “The Nine
Elements of Digital Transformation,” MIT Sloan Management Review, Jan. 7, 2014, https://sloanreview.mit.edu.
2. G. Westerman, D. Bonnet, and A. McAfee, “Leading
Digital: Turning Technology Into Business Transformation” (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2014);
G. Westerman, M. Tannou, D. Bonnet, et al., “The Digital
Advantage: How Digital Leaders Outperform Their Peers
in Every Industry,” Capgemini Consulting and MIT Center
for Digital Business, Nov. 5, 2012, www.capgemini.com;
and G. Westerman, C. Calmejane, D. Bonnet, et al.,
“Digital Transformation: A Roadmap for Billion-Dollar
Organizations,” Capgemini Consulting and MIT Center for
Digital Business, Nov. 17, 2011, www.capgemini.com.
3. J. Buvat, M. Slatter, R. Puttur, et al., “Understanding
Digital Mastery Today: Why Companies Are Struggling
With Their Digital Transformations,” Capgemini Consulting, July 3, 2018, www.capgemini.com.
4. A. DeNisco Rayome, “How Sephora Is Leveraging
AR and AI to Transform Retail and Help Customers
Buy Cosmetics,” TechRepublic, Feb. 15, 2018,
www.techrepublic.com; and N. Walters, “At Sephora
and Ulta, the Pandemic Is Changing the Makeup Buying
Experience,” Dallas Morning News, May 29, 2020,
5. K. Lake, “Stitch Fix’s CEO on Selling Personal Style to
the Mass Market,” Harvard Business Review, May-June
2018, https://hbr.org; D. Newman, “Stitch Fix: A Useful
Case Study for Retail’s Digital Transformation,” Forbes,
Sept. 9, 2019, www.forbes.com; and “Stitch Fix
Announces Fourth Quarter and Full Fiscal Year 2019
Financial Results,” Globe Newswire, Oct. 1, 2019,
6. S. Magids, A. Zorfas, and D. Leemon, “The New
Science of Customer Emotions,” Harvard Business
Review, November 2015, https://hbr.org.
7. “From UX to CX: Rethinking the Digital User Experience
as a Collaborative Exchange,” Capgemini Consulting and
the MIT Initiative on Digital Business, May 2017, ide.mit
.edu; and H. White, “3rd Quarter 2019 Results Round-Up —
giffgaff,” Mobilise, Nov. 6, 2019, www.mobiliseglobal.com.
8. Westerman, et al., “Leading Digital.”
9. “Schindler Ahead: Smart Urban Mobility,” Schindler,
10. “How We Use Real-Time Data Analytics to Manage
Complex Supply Chains,” Flex, July 10, 2018, https://
11. See, for example, S. Freedberg Jr., “HuntingtonIngalls Sinks $2B Into Shipyards: Digital Plans and Computerized Welding,” Breaking Defense, April 4, 2018,
12. A. Lundberg and G. Westerman, “The Transformer
CLO,” Harvard Business Review, January-February 2020,
13. Lundberg and Westerman, “Transformer CLO.”
14. S. Chowdhury, “Optimization and Business Improvements: Studies in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry”
(New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2016).
15. “Intuit 2020 Report: Twenty Trends That Will Shape
the Next Decade,” Intuit, October 2010.
16. K. Hannon, “How to Boomerang Back to Your Old
Job,” AARP, Nov. 9, 2018, www.aarp.org.
17. Westerman, et al., “Leading Digital.”
18. M. Wade, D. Bonnet, and J. Shan, “Lifting the
Lid on Disruption Fever,” Journal of Strategy and
Management 13, no. 4, (July 24, 2020): 495-501.
19. “Multichannel Retail Report: 2020 Edition,” Ampersand, 2020, https://ampersandcommerce.com/.
20. R. Casadesus-Masanell, O. Gassmann, and R. Sauer,
“Hilti Fleet Management (A): Turning a Successful Business Model on Its Head,” Harvard Business School case
study 717-427, May 2017 (revised September 2018); and
C. DeBoer, “Hilti Tools On Demand Scales Tool Leasing
for Businesses,” Pro Tool Reviews, July 13, 2019,
21. W. Ulaga, F. Dalsace, and C. Renault, “Michelin Fleet
Solutions: From Selling Tires to Selling Kilometres,” IMD
case study 510-103-1, 2015.
22. “Klöckner: Trailblazing the Steel Industry,” World
Economic Forum, 2019, http://reports.weforum.org/.
23. “Chinese Tech Giants Alibaba and JD.com Have Won
Over Luxury Brands,” Retail Insight Network, April 9,
2019, www.retail-insight-network.com.
Reprint 62210.
Copyright © Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2021.
All rights reserved.
Reproduced with permission of copyright owner. Further reproduction
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