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Discussion Question:

Wilder is clearly interested in debunking certain myths or misunderstandings about the history of slavery in NYC. What are these myths?

In Wilder, both the first and second chapters cover the same time period. What makes the two chapters different?

Stansell

LECTURE 3
FROM
COLONY TO
NATION
• Dutch-British rivalries
• Revolution and a new
republic
DUTCH DIRECTOR-GENERALS:
Sebastiaen Jansen
Krol
William Verhulst
1626–1632
1625–1626
Peter Minuit
William Kieft
1633–1638
1632–1633
1647–1664
1638–1647
Wouter van Twiller
Peter Stuyvesant
2
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3
Peter Stuyvesant
1647-1664
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4
Dance on the Battery in the Presence of Peter Stuyvesant (1838 –
depicting8/3/22
1809) Asher B. Durand.
5
DUTCH
SYSTEM OF
SLAVERY – A
SYSTEM BEING
CREATED
“The arrow points to the
approximate location on
the Slijcksteeg where Company
slaves lived from at least 1643
to 1657.” Source:
https://www.newnetherlandinstit
ute.org/history-andheritage/digitalexhibitions/slaveryexhibit/family-and-community/
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6
Cosmopolitan circuits
No set rules for slavery and unfreedom; first
comprehensive slave codes wouldn’t be written until
1680s in VA
DUTCH
SYSTEM OF
SLAVERY –
A SYSTEM
BEING
CREATED
In 17th c. New Amsterdam, enslaved people could
testify in court, bring suit against white ppl, have
court trials, could own property (except land or
other slaves), could earn wages, carry arms, serve
in militia, marry, attend church, go to school
In 1644: 11 men “and their wives” successfully
bargain for their freedom. “Half freedom” – Kieft
wanted loyal ppl during wars against Munsees.
(Had to pay tribute, provide occasional labor, and
no freedom for children)
Under Stuyvesant, more people being brought as
unfree labor, more individuals purchasing enslaved
people from DWIC across New Netherland.
By 1664 small community of Black landowners
near Fresh Water Pond grows. Free Black
community.
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7
Source: Leslie Harris
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8
WHAT WAS LIFE LIKE FOR
ENSLAVED PPL IN NEW
NETHERLAND?
Source: Andrea
Mosterman
King Charles II
with Samuel
Pepys Diarist c.
1663
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10
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1664-68 Nicolls
11
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12
Edmund Andros
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13
Duke of York, 1682. Source: Deak
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14
RECAP:
1620s-1664: Dutch
1664-1673: British
1673-74: Dutch
1674-1689: British
1689-1691: Leisler
1691-1783: British
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15
BRITISH SLAVE SYSTEM – A SYSTEM
BECOMING MORE RIGID
Permanent chattel slavery
For the few who are freed, no ownership of land or homes
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16
Slave trade market
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17
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18
WARS
Series of Anglo-French Conflicts:
­ 1689-1697 King Williams’ War (only few, indecisive clashes btwn Eng and Fr in northern New
Eng)
­ 1701-1713 Queen Anne’s War. Significant border fights with Sp in south, Fr and Indians in North.
Treaty of Utrecht transfer substantial territory from Fr to Eng.
­ 1744-1748 King George’s War. Eng vs. Fr and Sp.
­ 1749 Fr begin constructing new fortresses in OH Valley against Eng expansion. Eng begin building
their own fortresses. In summer of 1754 governor of VA sent young George Washington into OH
Valley to challenge Fr expansion. Fort Necessity (American) built not far from Fort Duquesne (now
Pittsburgh). Fr trap all, kill 1/3 soldiers in Fort Necessity. Washington surrender. Thus began Fr
and Indian War.
Phases of French and Indian War:
­ 1754-1756: local, North American conflict. Colonists vs. Indians of OH Valley. (Nearly all Inds
allied with Fr now post-Fort Necessity.) Iroquois stay passive.
­ Seven Years’ War (1756-1763.) Three theaters for Seven Years’ War: ! North America ” West
Indian sugar plantations # eastern coast of India. British conquer Montreal and Quebec; drive back
French settlers across the MS River and the OH Valley fell into Brit hands; conquered all sugar islands
except Saint Domingue; change France from major trading zone in India. Peace of Paris (1763)
France cede all Canada in exchange for West Indian islands. British dominion in East Indian trade
recognized. Cost: British debt rise from £14 million in 1700 to £130 million by 1763.
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19
FROM BRITISH COLONY TO AMERICAN CITY:
Stamp Act riots 1765
Quartering Act of 1765, and NYʼs resistance to
Townshend Acts of 1767
non-importation movement
occupation of Boston by Brits in 1768
Boston Massacre 1770
Tea Act 1773, Tea Party
Intolerable Acts 1774
Continental Congress 1774
Lexington and Concord 1775
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20
TOP 3 REASONS TO TURN AGAINST
THE BRITISH:
1. vendue.
2. Brit policymakersʼ increasingly heavy
restriction of colonial currency system.
3. erratic flow of Brit credit after 7 Yearsʼ War.
Merchants begin to lose faith in violent cyclical
behavior of Anglo-Am commercial system.
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21
AMERICAN REVOLUTION
1775-1783
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22
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23
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24
Trinity Church after the fire of Sept 21, 1776.
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25
2. Origin stories
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26
2. Origin stories
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27
2. Origin stories
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28
2. Origin stories
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29
2. Origin stories
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30
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31
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32
GRAPH OF METRO AREA POPULATION RANK OVER TIME
THE TOP 20 METRO AREAS IN THE UNITED STATES, 17902010
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33

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