+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

Read pages 1 – 5 (middle of page 5) of the Junk Van case (in your Harvard Course Pack).  Ignore the information technology options.  You have been hired by Kingo as a consultant.  In this role your task is; 1) determine the “real” problem, 2) develop an innovative new business process (BPR) for Junk Van.  Remember, innovation is a combination of creative and useful/desirable.

For this assignment your instructor will play the role of Kingo.  You may ask any questions to Kingo on the discussion board.

The memo must contain 2 parts:

What is the real problem you are trying to solve for Junk Van and how did you arrive at that problem?

Which specific business process are you re-engineering?  What are the current steps in that process?  What are your new steps?  Why is it innovative?

For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
W11145
1-888-JUNK-VAN
Liliana Lopez Jimenez wrote this case under the supervision of Professor Derrick Neufeld solely to provide material for class
discussion. The authors do not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The authors may
have disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality.
Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation prohibits any form of reproduction, storage or transmission without its written
permission. Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights organization. To order copies
or request permission to reproduce materials, contact Ivey Publishing, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation, The University
of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 3K7; phone (519) 661-3208; fax (519) 661-3882; e-mail cases@ivey.uwo.ca.
Copyright © 2011, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation
Version: 2017-05-04
After being in operation for over a year, Marcus Kingo’s fast-growing waste collection business was
facing a serious challenge. Information handling errors were pervasive and the business was losing
customers. If he wanted to stay in business, Kingo needed to find an affordable IT system that met his
operational requirements and allowed the business to grow.
Kingo entered the junk removal business in 2008. To reduce high fixed startup costs, he opted to create a
simple, virtual business model “without bricks-and-mortar.” By offering professional services and
competitive prices, a year later, his business was doing very well.
As the business grew, however, so did operational complexity, and inefficiency and errors became
commonplace. Drivers relied on instructions delivered through an e-mail system, and when this
information was incomplete or incorrect, customers suffered the consequences. Furthermore, the
geographical dispersion of the business, which already operated in three Canadian cities, and the absence
of face-to-face interaction with staff, often left Kingo without a good sense of the “pulse” of his business.
He believed it was essential to design a system of information flow that improved the quality of day-today operations, and that allowed him to “manage the business by the numbers”.
INDUSTRY OVERVIEW1
Non-hazardous waste collection stood as part of the larger environmental and facilities services industry.2
The industry’s value chain included waste collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and
monitoring of waste material. According to Datamonitor, the industry had experienced a compound
1
This section was written based on primary and secondary sources. Secondary sources included:
Datamonitor. Industry Profile: Global Environmental & Facilities Services. Reference Code: 0199-1015. Copyright March
2010.
The 2009-2014 World Outlook for Waste Collection. Philip M. Parker, INSEAD, copyright 2008,
www.icongrouponline.com.
2
As defined by NAICS, the industry excludes large-scale water treatment systems, which are classified in the water utilities
sub-industry. Hazardous materials, such as chemicals or leftovers of some industrial processes, are also excluded from this
industry.
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 2
9B11E025
annual growth rate (CAGR) of 2.5 per cent (2005–2009). However, in 2009, the industry slowed down
significantly, growing by only 0.6 per cent. For the coming five-year period, a CAGR of 3.9 per cent was
predicted, which would result in an industry total value of $276.4 billion by 2014. These figures are
presented in more detail in Exhibit 1.
Within the industry, solid waste management was the largest and most lucrative segment, accounting for
53.8 per cent of the industry’s total value. INSEAD’s Professor Philip Parker, in a study published by
Icon Group International, forecasted latent demand3 for waste collection at US$129.0 billion. For the
period between 2009 and 2014, on average, Canada was expected to represent 1.9 per cent of this
demand, and the United States 20.6 per cent. Details by year and city for these two markets can be found
in Exhibit 2 and Exhibit 3, respectively.
Globally, the environmental and facilities services industry was fragmented. A large number of small,
local companies competed with a small number of large, global or national players. Within the waste
management segment, the largest global competitors were Waste Management Inc. and Republic
Services, which together accounted for 10.5 per cent of the global market share. The service was
considered a commodity, so competition was based mainly on price.
Waste collection in Canada followed the same trends found in the larger global industry. Most businesses
were tiny companies operating under the “one man, one truck” model. Companies that specialized in nonhazardous substances needed a licence from the Ministry of Environment to operate the business, permits
from the Ministry of Transport to run commercial vehicles, and commercial insurance for the trucks.
Other than the paperwork and some money, requirements were not hard to meet. Waste collection was
generally perceived to be a “rough” business, characterized by unreliable customer service and a lack of
professionalism. It was also considered to be a commodity service, and so as competitors increasingly
entered the market, prices began to fall. Achieving operational efficiencies in this challenging
environment was difficult enough for global companies that benefitted from significant scale economies,
but was almost impossible for local companies.
Buyers of waste collection services ranged from large public authorities to individual households.
Potential clients had several alternatives, some of them at no charge. For example, they could perform the
services themselves; utilize municipal services; or sell, donate or pass on their unwanted items to others –
through word of mouth to friends and family, by advertising on Internet sites like Kijiji, or by hauling
unwanted items to the curb for passers-by. Due to this variety of options, clients tended to be highly
sensitive to price. Customers who used junk removal services tended to be those who could not carry out
the service on their own, or who preferred the convenience of the outsourcing option.
Kingo’s largest competitor was 1-800-Got-Junk, which was a relatively young franchise company
operating both in Canada and internationally. Kingo was currently the sole proprietor of all 1-888-JUNKVAN locations, but his goal was to use franchising to facilitate future growth. The value offered to
customers by these two companies was quite similar: they both strived to be flexible about customer
needs in terms of timing of the service; they were both committed to conveying a professional
appearance, with uniformed drivers and a corporate look; and both companies were highly competitive in
terms of pricing.
On the supply side, fuel was clearly an important raw material, and one for which prices and supply were
highly unpredictable. Companies in the industry attempted to address this uncertainty primarily through
3
Latent demand is a measure of potential industry earnings under hypothesized market conditions. Usually, this measure is
larger than actual industry revenue.
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 3
9B11E025
efficient operation of their trucks. Entry barriers within the industry were about to increase, as new
environmental regulations had raised the bar for more integrated environmental management services.
OVERVIEW OF THE COMPANY
One day in 2008, a friend of Kingo’s, who was a single-truck operator in the junk-removal industry, had
called to see whether Kingo could help him out. The friend had become ill and was unable perform a
couple of already-scheduled waste-removal jobs. As Kingo helped out his friend, he immediately spotted
a business opportunity. That same year, he invested $500 in a truck and started his new household waste
collection business, operating in the London, Ontario area.
Kingo had been an entrepreneur all his life, and from experience he knew that paying the rent and utility
bills for an office location was a huge challenge for a small start-up. Thus, he was motivated to design a
business model that required very low overhead. He decided that 1-888-JUNK-VAN would not have a
physical office. Kingo and his employees would work from home, and all communication and
information transmission would be electronic.
The virtual design worked brilliantly. By 2009, the business had quickly expanded to operate in two more
cities — Kitchener was added in 2008, and Hamilton in 2009. The business now had five trucks, and sales
had doubled during the 2008-2009 period, from $300,000 to $600,000. Kingo planned to further expand
his business by opening franchises in new cities, while still maintaining a non-office-based model of
work. But, before he could move forward with his plans for expansion, Kingo first needed to address
some challenges regarding his operation.
In 2009, the company’s top priority was to become known to potential customers. In order to gain
visibility in the local markets, 1-888-JUNK-VAN followed the strategy of “advertising in people’s faces.”
Marketing was considered very important and used up about 20 per cent of the total budget. Kingo looked
for strategic locations for parking the company’s trucks, like parking lots with good visibility in high
traffic areas. The company also advertised on buses whenever possible. About 90 per cent of its
marketing budget went towards coupons on print media, which served the dual purpose of attracting
customers and promoting the company name. Kingo also used Google AdWords.
To increase market share, 1-888-JUNK-VAN attempted to deliver service as per the company slogan
“yes, we do that.” The company endeavoured to offer highly competitive prices, while also meeting
customers’ specific preferences. Other companies sometimes refused certain jobs, such as picking up
leftovers from minor demolitions or jobs that necessitated the rental of additional equipment to remove
the items. 1-888-JUNK-VAN attempted to build its reputation as a company that would pick up any
(legal) item, while presenting a highly professional image (i.e., reliable service, uniformed drivers, etc.).
OPERATIONS AND THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
The company employed two call centre operators, one data clerk, three drivers and three helpers, all under
Kingo’s direct “virtual” supervision. Operations began with customers calling reception. All service
orders, referred to internally as “jobs,” were received by cell phone. The call centre operators worked in
six-hour shifts, from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m., and from 2 p.m. to 8 p.m. The operators inputted job information
(customer contact details, time and date for the job) to a custom-built MS-Works® database. Exhibit 4
shows two screenshots of the database.
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 4
9B11E025
The morning operator opened the database at the beginning of her shift, booked new jobs into the
database, and then emailed the file to the evening operator at the end of her shift. The evening operator
followed the same procedure, but every day at 8 p.m. she emailed the updated database to the data clerk.
The evening operator also created and mailed work order spreadsheets for each driver in each location,
which included job details for the following day.
Upon receipt of the information, the drivers planned their next day’s schedule in more detail, and
informed their helpers. The following day, they performed the services as indicated in the spreadsheet,
such as waste collection at customer sites, and waste disposal at dumps, recycling facilities, and charities.
Dumps generally charged by weight, whereas recycling facilities had slightly different rules in different
cities. For example, 1-888-JUNK-VAN got paid for disposing of large quantities of metals in some
places, and for large quantities of paper and e-waste in other locations. Most of the time, the quantities
were not large enough and the drivers had to leave the materials and pay by weight, even at recycling
facilities. Dump tickets and recycling tickets were provided by each facility and were retained by the
driver for customer billing purposes. With respect to donations, customers occasionally had specific
requests about where they wanted their items to go, but usually it fell to the van drivers to decide where to
take items, depending on their condition.
1-888-JUNK-VAN’s pricing scheme had two components: a flat rate of $50 that included the truck and
two workers to load the junk, plus a variable rate of $0.21 per pound. At loading time, drivers provided
customers with a weight estimate. Once the weight ticket was received from the dumps or recycling
facilities, the customer would be contacted by telephone with the exact weight and billed accordingly. An
average job weighed 800-900 pounds, and cost the customer approximately $230 plus tax. For items that
were to be donated, the weight was estimated and a price was agreed upon with the customer at the time
of pickup. Three payment methods were acceptable: cash, cheque and credit card. For cash and cheques,
drivers returned to the customer’s site with the weight ticket, prepared the invoice manually, and received
payment; payments were deposited daily to the company’s bank account. For credit card transactions,
drivers scanned the weight ticket and e-mailed a copy of the invoice to the customer with the weight
ticket attached. The main objective of weight-based pricing was to facilitate standardized billing, which
could be replicated and franchised.
Each evening, drivers e-mailed the data clerk details regarding jobs performed, weights, invoices,
payments received, and hours worked. The data clerk’s main task was to integrate the information into the
central database, which he should have received from the evening call centre operator by 8 p.m. After
integrating the information, the data clerk manually processed credit card payments, and then forwarded
the updated database to the morning operator, and the cycle would repeat the next day.
Staff payroll was also processed using the Works database. All staff emailed daily work hours to the data
clerk, who consolidated the information and sent it to Kingo, who in turn wrote the weekly pay cheques
(see Exhibit 5). Drivers were paid on the basis of hours worked as well as productivity. Hourly wages
ranged from $12 to $20, depending on the driver’s sales performance. Kingo sent all invoice and expense
receipts to an accounting firm for bookkeeping purposes.
While this system had allowed 1-888-JUNK-VAN to grow initially, information errors and inefficiencies
were now negatively impacting operations and increasing costs. For example, simple administrative tasks
(e.g., contacting helpers, going back to the customer site to collect money) took up a lot of the drivers’
time. Even though some templates existed for drivers to send their information to the data clerk, they
rarely used them, so drivers’ data consolidation was very time consuming. Customer service quality was
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 5
9B11E025
suffering, which damaged the company’s reputation. Errors in customer contact information, forgotten
emails, manual calculations and billing mistakes caused negative customer interactions.
Ironically, the most serious problems originated with the data clerk. On several occasions, the clerk
accidentally sent the wrong version of the database to the morning operator, and as a result some jobs that
were already booked no longer showed in the database and did not make their way onto the spreadsheets
used by the drivers. The resulting angry calls from frustrated customers kept Kingo awake at night. And if
that were not enough, fixing the database was extremely time-consuming — it could take Kingo and the
data clerk an entire day to get the database cleaned up, and meanwhile no new reservations could be taken
as there was only one live copy. Unfortunately, this scenario had occurred more than a few times, with
increasing regularity as the business grew. Kingo was frustrated about suspending bookings in order to
chase mistakes. The problem had to be fixed as soon as possible.
Kingo desperately wanted to preserve his virtual business model in order to facilitate business expansion
through franchising. Putting out these fires was taking too much of his time, and distracting him from
activities that would help the business grow. Inspired by the idea that people do not fail, only poor
systems do, Kingo was eager to develop a better operational system for his business. He set out to find
some information technology (IT) tools that would enable him to put his ideas into practice.
POSSIBLE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS
Kingo started to explore possible solutions to his business problem. He knew the company needed a
central database, and that internal information should no longer be transmitted by e-mail. The database
should be accessible remotely since everybody would be working on it simultaneously from different
locations. He also wanted e-mails to customers to be sent automatically from the system in order to avoid
mistakes and the resulting delays.
He reflected further on his needs. The business was too small to justify hiring a dedicated IT worker, and
since Kingo did not personally have an IT background, the solution had to be easy to implement and
operate. Ease of use was also critical since his staff did not possess very high IT skills, yet they would
have to rely heavily on the system on a daily basis. The solution also had to be flexible and robust enough
to handle evolutionary changes in the market or the business. Vendor support was essential; Kingo
wanted to have someone to rely on for as long as the company used the system. Finally, time was of the
essence.
From Kingo’s preliminary research, five options were apparent.
Microsoft Access Database
Upgrading from MS-Works® to MS-Access® could be done within a relatively short time and on a small
budget. Access could be installed locally on multiple computers, or it could also be installed on a
centralized server to be accessed remotely through the Internet and a secure virtual private network
(VPN). Local installations in several computers had an advantage in that Kingo could easily perform the
installations himself. Licenses were priced at $179 per computer. Kingo believed he could find time
during evenings or weekends to create the new database, and that it could be ready in a couple of weeks.
However, this option would not allow for remote access, and so each instance of the database would have
to be updated manually, every day.
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 6
9B11E025
MS-Access could apparently be installed on a shared server so as to provide remote access to multiple
users, but Kingo did not know how to implement this. Choosing this option would require him to delve
into a significant amount of technical information, and he could not rule out the possibly of needing to
hire some extra help in order to get it right. In this case, the number of required user licenses would
depend on how many people would be working on the program concurrently. Kingo would also need to
consider the costs of hosting the shared server, as well as any required professional development
assistance.
Custom Application
Another alternative was to have someone build a completely customized application for the business.
Kingo received several quotes for a web-based system, which would meet the requirements of a central
database and provide remote access, and the system would also have some very basic functionality
included. The initial build time was estimated to be four weeks, and the upfront price was about $2,000.
However, this did not provide for any changes or adjustments that might be required. Maintenance was
charged at about $60 per hour per developer, and there was no way to predict how much maintenance
would be needed.
There were other questions related to this alternative. First, the quotes did not include data migration, so
Kingo imagined he would end up paying some extra money for this service. Second, custom-made
software simply could not be seen beforehand. He could tell the programmer what he needed and explain
that he wanted a user-friendly solution, but until he actually saw the final product, he could not know
whether his needs were being understood or whether the software would be easy to use. By that time, a
certain amount of time and money would already have been invested. What if a lack of understanding led
to higher costs and longer programming times? As for post-implementation support, Kingo learned that
“with a custom application, support is billed by the hour.”
Google Docs
Kingo happened upon Google Docs while surfing the Internet, and he opened a free account to explore its
possibilities. Basically, Google Docs offered online applications that could be used to create text
documents, spreadsheets, slide-based presentations and forms. The forms application was particularly
intriguing, as forms could be quickly created and shared with employees. Users could work
simultaneously on the same file, in a collaborative system environment. It was also possible to set
different user profiles, for example, one providing full access to files, another for editing forms, and a
third limited to reading information. E-mail distribution was also supported (e.g., customers could be sent
an e-mail with a link to a form, which they could then complete and return online).
From a non-functional perspective, Google Docs had some advantages. It was free for up to 10 user
accounts, and for small businesses there was a fee of $5 per user per month, or $50 per user per year. It
could be implemented quickly and it was easy to use. As with the MS-Access option, Kingo believed he
could migrate to a Google Docs system in a matter of a couple of weeks.
However, with this option, all data would be input into an online spreadsheet, and could not be crossreferenced in the way it usually is in relational databases.4 This would result in all of the data showing in
4
In relational databases, tables can have “foreign keys,” which are fields whose records must match the data contained in a
field belonging to a different table. Consider this example: a table containing customers’ information has a field called
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 7
9B11E025
a single, very large form, which was not ideal (e.g., the call centre operators would see fields they did not
need, such as those to be filled in by the drivers). Another downside was Google Docs’ lack of formal
customer support; the only available assistance was through online blogs and forums. Kingo had heard
some of his friends say they were afraid to rely on cloud computing.5 A common concern was that users
did not own the tools and resources used to store sensitive company data, which raised some
confidentiality issues, and made people wonder what would happen if Google decided to suspend or even
cancel the service.
Platform as a Service
Another option called Platform as a Service (PaaS) was similar to Google Docs in that it was delivered on
a cloud-computing infrastructure. PaaS was defined as the provision of computational resources —
namely hardware, storage, network capacity and some basic software functionality — on demand and
through the Internet. PaaS differentiated itself through the fact that users could utilize common
applications, as well as build their own unique applications, using a shared computing platform that was
provided and hosted by a third party.
The available information suggested PaaS was starting to be appreciated mainly by software developers,
and Kingo was not sure he possessed the necessary IT skills to take advantage of the independence PaaS
seemed to offer. To explore the option further, he restricted his search to PaaS providers operating in
North America, and found a handful of them. Based on the information available online, different
providers had slightly different offers. He contacted four providers. Two of them did not reply to Kingo’s
request for a quote. One of the vendors offered an on-site trial, which Kingo accepted. During the trial, he
watched as the sales representative easily built forms and connected tables. Kingo thought he could
perform this task by himself.
Service package costs ranged from $300 to $600 per month, depending on how much storage space and
how many user licenses and applications were needed. Implementation, including data migration, would
take approximately three days. If customization was required, more time and money would be needed, as
this option was charged extra on an hourly basis, at about $180. Before making up his mind, Kingo
would also have to understand ‘how much’ of a platform he would want, or how much he was willing to
pay. Fortunately, long-term contracts were not required; he could scale the service up or down at any
point, or cancel the service with one month’s notice.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System
ERP systems were built around a central database. They were designed to be accessible remotely, and
claimed to integrate business processes by covering every aspect of the business, from purchasing, sales,
and customer service, to finance, human resources and e-commerce.
Several ERP packages were targeted at small and medium-sized enterprises. Before asking for quotes,
Kingo tried to gather as much information as he could through online searches. The packages with the
most available information were SAP Business One®, Microsoft Dynamics® and Sage ERP®. In spite of
their focus on small firms, these options seemed very costly. An average “small firm” implementation
customer ID. If a second table containing invoicing information wants to relate the invoice information to a particular
customer, customer ID is used as a foreign key to cross-reference these two tables.
5
“Cloud computing” is often defined as on-demand provision of computational resources and services.
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 8
9B11E025
was expected to have 20 to 25 users, and the cost for licences would be about $2,500 per user per year. In
terms of up-front implementation cost, IT blogs suggested that companies should budget one dollar for
each dollar of software licences.
Kingo found it difficult to extrapolate these estimates to his business. First, it was likely that licence
prices would be higher for companies with fewer users — in fact, he had read somewhere that a Business
One “starting pack” consisting of four licences was priced at $12,000. Second, these estimates included
modules that Kingo was not interested in purchasing (e.g., finance and manufacturing). Kingo was also
uncertain as to how well an ERP system would fit with or could be adapted to his specific business needs.
These systems appeared static, and focused mainly on production and finance modules, which were not
top priorities for his company.
DECISION
So there sat Kingo, tired after a long night sitting in front of a computer helping fix the database, trying to
sort out which solution would best serve his business. He did not have all the information he wanted
about the possible solutions, and he knew his business would change over time. At the same time, he
knew a solution was needed, urgently.
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 9
9B11E025
Exhibit 1
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL AND FACILITIES SERVICES INDUSTRY VALUE
USD
billion
207.1
213.8
220.5
227.1
228.5
235.0
243.0
252.7
264.5
276.4
Year
2005
2006
2006
2008
2009
2010*
2011*
2012*
2013*
2014*
%
growth
3.20%
3.10%
3.00%
0.60%
2.80%
3.40%
4.00%
4.70%
4.50%
* Estimated
Source: Datamonitor. Industry Profile: Global Environmental & Facilities Services. Reference Code: 0199-1015. Copyright
March 2010.
Exhibit 2
ESTIMATED LATENT DEMAND FOR WASTE COLLECTION
IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES – BY YEAR
2004
Global
demand
108,539
Canada
2,239
%
Global
2.1%
U.S.
24,634
%
Global
22.7%
2005
112,317
2,295
2.0%
25,176
22.4%
2006
116,258
2,352
2.0%
25,730
22.1%
2007
120,370
2,410
2.0%
26,296
21.9%
2008
124,641
2,470
2.0%
26,875
21.6%
2009
128,985
2,531
2.0%
27,466
21.3%
2010
133,494
2,593
1.9%
28,070
21.0%
2011
138,193
2,656
1.9%
28,688
20.8%
2012
143,093
2,721
1.9%
29,319
20.5%
2013
148,204
2,788
1.9%
29,964
20.2%
2014
153,535
2,856
1.9%
30,623
20.0%
Year
Source: Philip M. Parker, INSEAD, copyright 2008, www.icongrouponline.com
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 10
9B11E025
Exhibit 3
ESTIMATED LATENT DEMAND FOR WASTE COLLECTION
IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES – BY CITY, 2009.
(IN USD MILLIONS)
Canada
Source: Philip M. Parker, INSEAD, copyright 2008, www.icongrouponline.com
U.S.
Source: Philip M. Parker, INSEAD, copyright 2008, www.icongrouponline.com
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 11
9B11E025
Exhibit 4
SCREENSHOTS OF THE MICROSOFT WORKS DATABASE
INDIVIDUAL RECORD VIEW
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 12
9B11E025
Exhibit 4
SCREENSHOTS OF THE MICROSOFT WORKS DATABASE
SUMMARY VIEW
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 13
9B11E025
Exhibit 5
PAYROLL SHEETS – EXAMPLE 1
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 14
9B11E025
Exhibit 5
PAYROLL SHEETS – EXAMPLE 2
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.
For the exclusive use of J. Murillo, 2022.
Page 15
9B11E025
Exhibit 6
GOOGLE DOCS SCREENSHOT
This document is authorized for use only by Jorge Murillo in INFO563 Online SU 22 taught by ROSS MALAGA, Montclair State University from Jun 2022 to Oct 2022.

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

  
error: Content is protected !!