+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

Description

For this assessment, you will develop a Word document or an online  resource repository of at least 12 annotated professional or scholarly  resources that you consider critical for the audience of your safety  improvement plan, pertaining to medication administration, to understand  or implement to ensure the success of the plan.

For this

assessment

, you will develop a Word document or an online resource repository of at least 12 annotated

professional

or scholarly resources that you consider critical for the audience of your safety improvement plan, pertaining to medication administration, to understand or implement to ensure the success of the plan.

Communication in the health care environment consists of an information-sharing experience whether through oral or written messages (Chard, Makary, 2015). As health care organizations and nurses strive to create a culture of safety and quality care, the importance of interprofessional collaboration, the development of tool kits, and the use of wikis become more relevant and vital. In addition to the dissemination of information and evidence-based findings and the development of tool kits, continuous support for and availability of such resources are critical. Among the most popular methods to promote ongoing dialogue and information sharing are blogs, wikis, websites, and social media. Nurses know how to support people in time of need or crisis and how to support one another in the workplace; wikis in particular enable nurses to continue that support beyond the work environment. Here they can be free to share their unique perspectives, educate others, and promote health care wellness at local and global levels (Kaminski, 2016).

You are encouraged to

complete

the Determining the Relevance and Usefulness of Resources activity prior to developing the repository. This activity will help you determine which resources or research will be most relevant to address a particular need. This may be useful as you consider how to explain the purpose and relevance of the resources you are assembling for your tool kit. The activity is for your own practice and self-

assessment

, and demonstrates

course

engagement.

DEMONSTRATION OF PROFICIENCY

By successfully completing this

assessment

, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following

course

competencies and

assessment

criteria:

Competency 1: Analyze the elements of a successful quality improvement initiative.

Analyze usefulness of resources for role group responsible for implementing quality and safety improvements with medication administration.

Competency 2: Analyze factors that lead to patient safety risks.

Analyze the value of resources to reduce patient safety risk or improve quality with medication administration.

Competency 3: Identify organizational interventions to promote patient safety.

Identify necessary resources to support the implementation and sustainability of a safety improvement initiative focusing on medication administration.

Competency 5: Apply

professional

, scholarly, evidence-based strategies to communicate in a manner that supports safe and effective patient care.

Present compelling reasons and relevant situations for resource tool kit to be used by its target audience.

Communicate in a clear, logically structured, and

professional

manner, using current APA style and formatting.

References

Chard, R., Makary, M. A. (2015). Transfer-of-care communication: Nursing best practices. AORN Journal, 102(4), 329-342.

Kaminski, J. (2016). Why all nurses can/should be authors. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics, 11(4), 1-7.

PROFESSIONAL

CONTEXT

Nurses are often asked to implement processes, concepts, or practices – sometimes with little preparatory communication or education. One way to encourage sustainability of quality and process improvements is to assemble an accessible, user-friendly tool kit for knowledge and process documentation. Creating a resource repository or tool kit is also an excellent way to follow up an educational or in-service session, as it can help to reinforce attendees’ new knowledge as well as the understanding of its value. By practicing creating a simple online tool kit, you can develop valuable technology skills to improve your competence and efficacy. This technology is easy to use, and resources are available to guide you.

SCENARIO

For this

assessment

, consider taking one of these two approaches:

Build on the work done in your first three assessments and create an online tool kit or resource repository that will help the audience of your in-service understand the research behind your safety improvement plan pertaining to medication administration and put the plan into action.

Locate a safety improvement plan (your current organization, the Institution for Healthcare Improvement, or a publicly available safety improvement initiative) pertaining to medication administration and create an online tool kit or resource repository that will help an audience understand the research behind the safety improvement plan and how to put the plan into action.

PREPARATION

Google Sites is recommended for this

assessment

– the tools are free to use and should offer you a blend of flexibility and simplicity as you create your online tool kit. Please note that this requires a Google account; use your Gmail or GoogleDocs login, or create an account following the directions under the “Create Account” menu.

Refer to the following links to help you get started with Google Sites:

G Suite Learning Center. (n.d.).

Get started with Sites

. Retrieved from https://gsuite.google.com/learning-center/products/sites/get-started/#!/

Google. (n.d.). ;

Google Sites

. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com

Google. (n.d.). ;

Sites help

. Retrieved from https://support.google.com/sites/?hl=en#topic=

INSTRUCTIONS

Using Google Sites, assemble an online resource tool kit containing at least 12 annotated resources that you consider critical to the success of your safety improvement initiative. These resources should enable nurses and others to implement and maintain the safety improvement you have developed.

It is recommended that you focus on the 3 or 4 most critical categories or themes with respect to your safety improvement initiative pertaining to medication administration. For example, for an ;initiative that concerns improving workplace safety for practitioners, you might choose broad themes such as general organizational safety and quality best practices; environmental safety and quality risks; individual strategies to improve personal and team safety; and process best practices for reporting and improving environmental safety issues.

Following the recommended scheme, you would collect 3 resources on average for each of the 4 categories focusing on safety with medication administration. Each resource listing should include ;the following:

An APA-formatted citation of the resource with a working link.

A description of the information, skills, or tools provided by the resource.

A brief explanation of how the resource can help nurses better understand or implement the safety improvement initiative pertaining to medication administration.

A description of how nurses can use this resource and when its use may be appropriate.

Remember that you must make your site public so that your faculty can access it. Check out the Google Sites resources for more information.

Here is an example entry:

Merret, A., Thomas, P., Stephens, A., ;Moghabghab, R., Gruneir, M. (2011).

A collaborative approach to fall prevention

.

Canadian Nurse, 107

(8), 24-29. Retrieved from www.canadian-nurse.com/articles/issues/2011/october-2011/a-collaborative-ap

This article presents the Geriatric Emergency Management-Falls Intervention Team (GEM-FIT) project. It shows how a collaborative nurse lead project can be implemented and used to improve collaboration and interdisciplinary teamwork, as well as improve the delivery of health care services. This resource is likely more useful to nurses as a resource for strategies and models for assembling and participating in an interdisciplinary team than for specific fall-prevention strategies. It is suggested that this resource be reviewed prior to creating an interdisciplinary team for a collaborative project in a health care setting.

Additionally, be sure that your plan addresses the following, which corresponds to the grading criteria in the scoring guide. Please study the scoring guide carefully so you understand what is needed for a distinguished score.

Identify necessary resources to support the implementation and continued sustainability of a safety improvement initiative pertaining to medication administration.

Analyze the usefulness of resources to the role group responsible for implementing quality and safety improvements focusing on medication administration.

Analyze the value of resources to reduce patient safety risk related to medication administration.

Present compelling reasons and relevant situations for use of resource tool kit by its target audience.

Communicate in a clear, logically structured, and

professional

manner that applies current APA style and formatting.

Example

Assessment

: You may use the following example to give you an idea of what a Proficient or higher rating on the scoring guide would look like but

keep in mind that your tool kit will focus on promoting safety with medication administration

. Note that you do not have to

submit

your bibliography in addition to the Google Site; the example bibliography is merely for your reference.

Assessment

4 Example [PDF]

.

To

submit

your online tool kit

assessment

, paste the link to your Google Site in the

assessment

submission

box.

Example Google Site

: You may use the example Google Site,

Resources for Safety and Improvement Measures in Geropsychiatric Care

, to give you an idea of what a Proficient or higher rating on the scoring guide would look like for this

assessment

but

keep in mind that your tool kit will focus on promoting safety with medication administration

.

Running head: IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
Improvement Plan Tool Kit
Learner’s Name
Capella University
Improving Quality of Care and Patient Safety
Improvement Plan Tool Kit
April, 2019
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
1
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
2
Improvement Plan Tool Kit
This improvement plan tool kit aims to enable nurses to implement and sustain safety
improvement measures in health care settings in a geropsychiatric unit. The tool kit has been
organized into four categories with three annotated sources each. The categories are as follows:
general organizational safety and quality best practices, environmental safety and quality risks,
staff-led preventive strategies, and best practices for reporting and improving environmental
safety issues.
Annotated Bibliography
General Organizational Safety and Quality Best Practices
Sherwood, G., & Horton-Deutsch, S. (2015). Reflective organizations: On the front lines of
QSEN and reflective practice implementation. Retrieved from https://ebookcentralproquest-com.library.capella.edu/lib/capella/detail.action?docID=3440207#
This e-book presents the paradigm shift required for organizations to provide QSEN
(quality and safety education to nurses). It provides readers with the innovative
pedagogical approaches required to change traditional content-based health care
education methods to interactive methods that engage learners. These approaches
include facilitative teaching, visual thinking strategies, creating a presence that is
authentic, and meaningful learning through debriefing. Concrete examples in the
resource demonstrate the application of reflective learning. Additionally, the reflective
questions in the resource guide readers to evaluate their own practice, either
independently or in groups, to implement formal education programs with a focus on
self-improvement. The resource prepares nursing students for advanced competency,
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
3
which will help them adopt reflective thinking, develop a safety culture, and therefore
qualitatively improve practices in critical health units such as geropsychiatry units.
Fleiszer, A. R., Semenic, S. E., Ritchie, J. A., Richer, M.-C., & Denis, J.-L. (2016). A unit-level
perspective on the long-term sustainability of a nursing best practice guidelines
program: An embedded multiple case study. International Journal of Nursing Studies,
53, 204–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015.09.004
This article helps analyze the sustainability of a best practice guidelines program
implemented in acute health care settings. The sustainability of the program was
characterized by the following: benefits for patients as the rate of incidence of falls
reduced; routinization of best practices as the team’s adherence to guidelines improved;
and, in the long term, the development of the team’s adaptability to changes in
circumstances that threatened the program. Seven key factors that accounted for the
sustainability of the program were also identified. The source explains how
relationships between the characteristics of sustainability (benefits, routinization, and
development) and the seven key factors contributed toward the sustainability of the
improvement program. This source is valuable for nursing students as it helps them
understand how safety programs can be sustained to ensure the long-term reduction of
the incidence of sentinel events in geropsychiatric units.
Kossaify, A., Hleihel, W., & Lahoud, J.-C. (2017). Team-based efforts to improve quality of
care, the fundamental role of ethics, and the responsibility of health managers:
Monitoring and management strategies to enhance teamwork. Public Health, 153, 91–98.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2017.08.007
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
4
This paper discusses the benefits of teamwork in improving the quality of health care. It
presents a review of 33 papers identified after performing a search on PubMed. The paper
discusses the important ingredients of efficient teamwork such as self-awareness and the
individual behavior of team members, the ethical climate within the team, the work
environment and institutional infrastructure, positive moderation from leadership, and
communication and coordination among team members. Effective teamwork can help
reduce the incidence of sentinel events that result from preventable medical errors, which
are often caused by dysfunctional communication among team members. Teamwork is
more reliable and efficient than individual work in high-risk environments such as a
geropsychiatry unit. Although the specific contexts of readers’ practices may be different,
this resource is valuable for nursing administrators and professionals as it discusses the
implementation of values needed for positive teamwork as well as the monitoring and
management of teamwork.
Environmental Safety and Quality Risks
Powell-Cope, G., Quigley, P., Besterman-Dahan, K., Smith, M., Stewart, J., Melillo, C.,
Friedman, Y. (2014). A qualitative understanding of patient falls in inpatient mental
health units. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 20(5), 328–339.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1078390314553269
This source mentions a study conducted to analyze falls in geropsychiatric patients. The
study also focused on selling falls prevention in psychiatric units. The risk factors that
lead to the falls were identified by a focus group. The focus group formulated an
improvement plan to reduce the number of falls, and it was found that implementing
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
5
infrastructural changes such as the use of geriatric-friendly sanitary ware such as raised
toilet seats helped reduce the rate of incidence of falls. Although all the changes may not
be feasible in a given setup, many of the strategies mentioned in this study could serve as
a starting point for the prevention of falls. The article helps nursing students understand
the challenges that occur in an adult mental health unit and the quality improvement
measures taken to resolve these challenges.
Wong Shee, A., Phillips, B., Hill, K., & Dodd, K. (2014). Feasibility, acceptability, and
effectiveness of an electronic sensor bed/chair alarm in reducing falls in patients with
cognitive impairment in a subacute ward. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 29(3), 253–
262. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCQ.0000000000000054
This source is a preliminary study conducted to determine the effectiveness of electronic
sensor bed/chair alarms to reduce the occurrence of falls in patients with cognitive
impairment. These alarms can be attached to the patient’s body or to the bed/chair the
patient uses to alert the nursing staff every time the patients move or leave their seat.
Nurses were educated about the alarms and asked to document their observations and
provide feedback. Although effective at preventing falls in patients with cognitive
impairment, the electronic sensors needed improvements such as the elimination of cords
that may be hazardous to patients and the additional provision of alerting nurses through
pagers. This source helps nursing students understand both the effectiveness and the
limitations of electronic sensor alarms in reducing the occurrence of falls.
Chari, S. R., Smith, S., Mudge, A., Black, A. A., Figueiro, M., Ahmed, M., . . . Haines, T. P.
(2016). Feasibility of a stepped wedge cluster RCT and concurrent observational subCopyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
6
study to evaluate the effects of modified ward night lighting on inpatient fall rates and
sleep quality: A protocol for a pilot trial. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 2(1).
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-015-0043-x
Inadequate lighting at night in geropsychiatric wards is one of the important causes of
falls in geropsychiatric units. Psychotropic medications can cause cognitive impairments
and blurring of vision, which can be aggravated by dim lighting in the units. The article
presents a trial pilot study conducted to evaluate the effects of the use of modified night
lighting in inpatient wards to prevent falls. LED lights were installed in the vicinity of the
beds and the toilets, where falls were likely to occur. The study provides valuable insights
that could inform design and refurbishment efforts at geropsychiatric units. An important
limitation of the study is that a stepped wedge, cluster randomized controlled trial has not
yet been applied to test environmental modifications in any setting. However, the
modifications discussed could still be implemented as an important intervention strategy
for preventing falls in older adults with cognitive impairment.
Staff-Led Preventive Strategies
Morgan, L., Flynn, L., Robertson, E., New, S., Forde‐Johnston, C., & McCulloch, P. (2016).
Intentional rounding: A staff‐led quality improvement intervention in the prevention of
patient falls. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 26(1–2), 115–124.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.13401
This article highlights an intervention strategy called intentional rounding to reduce the
occurrence of inpatient falls. Intentional rounding is a specific strategy in which nurses
conduct a routine check on patients at certain time intervals based on the needs of the
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
7
patient. The rounding was implemented through effective communication and teamwork
among the nursing staff and iterations of plan-do-check-act measures. This proactive
staff-led strategy helped reduce the rate of falls by 50%. This study achieved success
through the combined efforts of the research team that conducted the analysis of the
system to design the rounding format and the frontline nursing staff who conducted the
intentional rounds. Although its sample size was small and not entirely representative, the
study does establish intentional rounding as an effective falls-prevention strategy, which
when implemented with adequate staff engagement and support from leadership
definitively reduces the occurrence of falls.
Moncada, L. V. V., & Mire, G. L. (2017). Preventing falls in older persons. Am Fam Physician,
96(4), 240–247. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0815/p240.pdf
The article posits that a history of falls in older persons is associated with an increased
risk of a future fall. The American Geriatrics Society recommends that older adults aged
65 and above should undergo annual screening for balance impairment and a history of
falls as a preliminary intervention for the prevention of falls. The article also highlights
an algorithm developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The
algorithm suggests assessment and multifactorial interventions to prevent falls in patients
who have had more than two falls and more than one fall-related injury. The
multifactorial interventions include exercise routines that include balance and gait
training, the use of vitamin D supplements with or without calcium based on the
community in which the patients dwell, and the management of psychotropic medication.
These interventions have been known to cause a significant decrease in the rate of falls
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
8
and can be implemented across all geropsychiatric wards to prevent sentinel events. The
source is authentic and hence can be referred to by nursing students to understand
multifactorial interventions in the prevention of falls.
Isaac, L. M., Buggy, E., Sharma, A., Karberis, A., Maddock, K. M., & Weston, K. M. (2018).
Enhancing hospital care of patients with cognitive impairment. International Journal of
Health Care Quality Assurance, 31(2), 173–186. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHCQA-112016-0173
This paper evaluates the TOP5 intervention strategy of improving patient care. The
strategy involves engaging with carers of geriatric patients (individuals who are family
members or friends of the patients) to collect characteristic non-clinical information
about patients to personalize care and reduce falls. The carers of patients narrated to the
nursing staff five important and distinct characteristic details such as the patients’ needs
and past emotional experiences. The nursing staff then prepared a customized plan of
care for each patient based on this information. This study reported a significant
reduction in falls and qualitatively improved care. The study enables nursing students to
meaningfully involve the carers of cognitively impaired patients and reduce the incidence
of falls.
Best Practices for Reporting and Improving Environmental Safety Issues
Tan, A. K. (2015). Emphasizing caring components in nurse-patient-nurse bedside reporting.
International Journal of Caring Sciences, 8(1), 188–193. Retrieved from
https://library.capella.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.proquest.com%2Fdocvie
w%2F1648623547%3Faccountid=27965
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
9
This source provides a review of strategies that improve bedside reporting and transfer of
duties after a change of shift among nursing staff. The source also emphasizes team
engagement that can help reduce the incidence of sentinel events, especially in health
care units such as geropsychiatry units. Bedside reporting is a vital concern in
geropsychiatric units as patients are prone to behavioral changes and unpredictable
behavior may affect other patients in the unit. During a shift change, the nursing staff can
alert the incoming staff about the condition of such patients to proactively prepare the
staff to address any forthcoming issue. Barriers to bedside reporting were also analyzed,
and barriers perceived by patients and those perceived by nurses were identified. These
barriers can be eliminated through open communication and by educating the nursing
staff. The article provides a valuable discussion of factors that influence bedside
reporting such as patient-centered care philosophy, guidelines of the Joint Commission
Institute, demand for patient participation in making health care decisions, and the
shortcomings of traditional handover practices.
Stergiopoulos, S., Brown, C. A., Felix, T., Grampp, G., & Getz, K. A. (2016). A survey of
adverse event reporting practices among US healthcare professionals. Drug Safety,
39(11), 1117–1127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40264-016-0455-4
This article highlights the severity of underreporting of adverse drug events. An adverse
drug event is defined by the World Health Organization as “a response to a medicine
which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man.”
Adverse drug events are estimated to cause 7,000 deaths across health care settings in the
United States each year. It is also said that half of these adverse drug events result from
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
10
preventable medication errors. The article also identifies factors that lead to the
underreporting of the adverse drug events such as lack of training among health care
professionals and standardized reporting processes. Underreporting of adverse drug
events can be a critical problem, especially in health care units such as geropsychiatry
units. Individual patients may react differently to psychotropic drugs; reactions may
include overdoses or allergic reactions. These reactions need to be monitored closely and
reported efficiently to avoid complications including falls. Nursing students can
understand the importance of reporting adverse drug events through this source.
Lozito, M., Whiteman, K., Swanson-Biearman, B., Barkhymer, M., & Stephens, K. (2018).
Good catch campaign: Improving the perioperative culture of safety. AORN Journal,
107(6), 705–714. https://doi.org/10.1002/aorn.12148
This article provides evidence-based results to show that the culture of safety in a
perioperative unit was improved after implementing the good catch campaign. Good
catch is the ability of nursing staff to point out mistakes and report them to avoid sentinel
events. The campaign described in the article involves implementing a standardized
electronic reporting system and debriefing process. The nursing staff discusses the plan
of care for each patient at the end of the day during debriefing. This helps the nursing
staff note characteristic risks involved with each patient and provide better care. Training
nursing staff to implement the good catch campaign in health care units such as
geropsychiatry units should enable the effective reporting of factors that could cause falls
with a view to avoid them. This source enables nursing students to implement electronic
reporting systems to report good catches and thereby reduce falls.
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
11
References
Chari, S. R., Smith, S., Mudge, A., Black, A. A., Figueiro, M., Ahmed, M., . . . Haines, T. P.
(2016). Feasibility of a stepped wedge cluster RCT and concurrent observational substudy to evaluate the effects of modified ward night lighting on inpatient fall rates and
sleep quality: A protocol for a pilot trial. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 2(1).
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-015-0043-x
Fleiszer, A. R., Semenic, S. E., Ritchie, J. A., Richer, M.-C., & Denis, J.-L. (2016). A unit-level
perspective on the long-term sustainability of a nursing best practice guidelines program:
An embedded multiple case study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 53, 204–
218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015.09.004
Isaac, L. M., Buggy, E., Sharma, A., Karberis, A., Maddock, K. M., & Weston, K. M. (2018).
Enhancing hospital care of patients with cognitive impairment. International Journal of
Health Care Quality Assurance, 31(2), 173–186. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHCQA-112016-0173
Kossaify, A., Hleihel, W., & Lahoud, J.-C. (2017). Team-based efforts to improve quality of
care, the fundamental role of ethics, and the responsibility of health managers:
Monitoring and management strategies to enhance teamwork. Public Health, 153, 91–98.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2017.08.007
Lozito, M., Whiteman, K., Swanson-Biearman, B., Barkhymer, M., & Stephens, K. (2018).
Good catch campaign: Improving the perioperative culture of safety. AORN Journal,
107(6), 705–714. https://doi.org/10.1002/aorn.12148
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
12
Moncada, L. V. V., & Mire, G. L. (2017). Preventing falls in older persons. Am Fam Physician,
96(4), 240–247. Retrieved from https://www.aafp.org/afp/2017/0815/p240.pdf
Morgan, L., Flynn, L., Robertson, E., New, S., Forde‐Johnston, C., & McCulloch, P. (2016).
Intentional rounding: A staff‐led quality improvement intervention in the prevention of
patient falls. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 26(1–2), 115–124.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.13401
Powell-Cope, G., Quigley, P., Besterman-Dahan, K., Smith, M., Stewart, J., Melillo, C.,
Friedman, Y. (2014). A qualitative understanding of patient falls in inpatient mental
health units. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 20(5), 328–339.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1078390314553269
Sherwood, G., & Horton-Deutsch, S. (2015). Reflective organizations: On the front lines of
QSEN and reflective practice implementation. Retrieved from https://ebookcentralproquest-com.library.capella.edu/lib/capella/detail.action?docID=3440207#
Stergiopoulos, S., Brown, C. A., Felix, T., Grampp, G., & Getz, K. A. (2016). A survey of
adverse event reporting practices among US healthcare professionals. Drug Safety,
39(11), 1117–1127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40264-016-0455-4
Tan, A. K. (2015). Emphasizing caring components in nurse-patient-nurse bedside reporting.
International Journal of Caring Sciences, 8(1), 188–193. Retrieved from
https://library.capella.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fsearch.proquest.com%2Fdocvie
w%2F1648623547%3Faccountid=27965
Wong Shee, A., Phillips, B., Hill, K., & Dodd, K. (2014). Feasibility, acceptability, and
effectiveness of an electronic sensor bed/chair alarm in reducing falls in patients with
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
IMPROVEMENT PLAN TOOL KIT
13
cognitive impairment in a subacute ward. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 29(3), 253–
262. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCQ.0000000000000054
Copyright ©2019 Capella University. Copy and distribution of this document are prohibited.
Collaboration and Teamwork
•
•
•
•
•
Bird, H. (2017). How to enhance practice in a digital world. Community
Practitioner, 90(4), 22–24.
o There are new tools of leadership and communication in practice today, and this
article explains how these new tools can enhance best practices in nursing.
Barton, G., Bruce, A., & Schreiber, R. (2018). Teaching nurses teamwork: Integrative
review of competency-based team training in nursing education. Nurse Education in
Practice, 32, 129–137.
o Abstract: The aim of this review is to critically analyse empirical published work
reporting on teamwork education interventions in nursing, and identify key
educational considerations enabling teamwork competency in this group.
CINAHL, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, and ERIC databases
were searched and detailed inclusion-exclusion criteria applied. Studies (n=19)
were selected and evaluated using established qualitative-quantitative appraisal
tools and a systematic constant comparative approach. Nursing teamwork
knowledge is rooted in High Reliability Teams theory and Crew or Crisis
Resource Management sources. Constructivist pedagogy is used to teach, practice,
and refine teamwork competency. Nursing teamwork assessment is complex;
involving integrated yet individualized determinations of knowledge, skills, and
attitudes. Future initiatives need consider frontline leadership, supportive
followership and skilled communication emphasis. Collective stakeholder support
is required to translate teamwork competency into nursing practice (Barton,
Bruce, & Schreiber, 2018).
Schmutz, J. B., Meier, L. L., & Manser, T. (2019). How effective is teamwork really?
The relationship between teamwork and performance in healthcare teams: A systematic
review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 9(9).
o This article investigates the relationship between teamwork and clinical
performance and potential moderating variables of this relationship.
Doren, M. (2017). Working collaboratively—teaching collaboration. Transformations:
The Journal of Inclusive Scholarship & Pedagogy, 27(2), 180–194.
o This article may give you some ideas for a skills practice activity to include in
your Improvement Plan In-Service Presentation.
Rosen, M. A., DiazGranados, D., Dietz, A. S., Benishek, L. E., Pronovost, P. J., &
Weaver, S. J. (2018). Teamwork in healthcare: Key discoveries enabling safer, highquality care. American Psychologist, 73(4), 433–450.
o The authors discuss best practices related to teamwork and team improvement,
some of which may help you think about how best to present the information in
your tool kit.
Building Professional Efficacy and Visibility
•
Kaminski, J. (2016). Why all nurses can/should be authors. Canadian Journal of Nursing
Informatics, 11(4), 1–7.
o This editorial urges nurses to be active contributors to ongoing research, journals,
blogs, and other outlets to increase visibility of their valuable perspectives on
health care.
Why all Nurses Can/Should be Authors
Kaminski, June. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics; Vancouver Vol. 11, Iss. 4, (Fall 2016).
Abstract
Translate
In my mind, nurses need to learn to develop their writing ability and write for two distinct
audiences: other nurses and health professionals and the general public. Writing for other health
professionals requires strong, clear scientific writing skills while writing for the public is done
with a more general, layman level of grammar and style, ensuring that people with a variety of
literacy levels can understand what they have written. According to Wikipedia, Nurse writers are
nurses, primarily registered nurses (RNs), who write for general audiences in the creative genres
of poetry, fiction, and drama, as well as in creative non-fiction. The published work of the nurse
writer is analogous to that of the physician writer, which may or may not deal explicitly with
health topics but is informed by a professional experience of human vulnerability and acute
observation. The Discover Nursing site, sponsored by Johnson and Johnson lists Nursing Writer,
Author, or Historian as a possible specialty career choice, described as: “These nurses write
textbooks, articles, and books about historically important nursing figures. Getting into the Right
Frame of Mind All nurses have robust training and experience in both verbal and written
communication. Busy nurses often reject the notion of writing (and research), dismissing them
both as time consuming, difficult and ‘out of their depth’ activities that is best left to more
advanced educated nurses and nurse leaders. Nurses tend to be very careful with the advice they
provide and are the perfect source for health information, answering questions,…
More
Full Text
Translate
0:00 /0:00
EDITORIAL
Nurses = AuthorsAs a nurse, editor, writer, educator and researcher I naturally support the notion
of nurses as authors. This notion is one that seems logical: nurses are the most trusted profession,
according to the most recent Gallup poll and have been for the past fifteen years (Gallup 2016).
“ANA encourages nurses to draw on that trust to engage with consumers to improve their health
and to advocate for patients and for the quality of care in this country” (ANA, 2016, p. 1).
Nurses have a wide-angle perspective on what keeps people healthy, how people can be happy,
and what strong resilient individuals, families, and communities look like. They readily know
how to support people in times of crisis, loss, grief, and health challenges. They know how to
teach people to live in balance with optimal health and stability. They have grappled with
problems and discovered solutions that could benefit others beyond their workplace (Sheridan,
1994). Yet, so few present this knowledge and guidance through writing. Often, nurses feel they
have nothing to add, nothing worthy of sharing with others. “Nurses should not assume that their
ideas have already been shared; each nurse brings a unique perspective about a topic that may
not have been developed yet” (Chamberlain, 2010, p. 16).
In my mind, nurses need to learn to develop their writing ability and write for two distinct
audiences: other nurses and health professionals and the general public. Writing for other health
professionals requires strong, clear scientific writing skills while writing for the public is done
with a more general, layman level of grammar and style, ensuring that people with a variety of
literacy levels can understand what they have written. My premise in this editorial is presented in
the context of writing within our chosen profession – to promote health, optimal practice,
prevention, and innovation in practice, research, education and leadership.
However, there are also nurses who double as writers of more common genres, including news
reporting, fiction and non-fiction books, poetry, screen script writing and so on. According to
Wikipedia,
Nurse writers are nurses, primarily registered nurses (RNs), who write for general audiences in
the creative genres of poetry, fiction, and drama, as well as in creative non-fiction. The published
work of the nurse writer is analogous to that of the physician writer, which may or may not deal
explicitly with health topics but is informed by a professional experience of human vulnerability
and acute observation.
The Discover Nursing site, sponsored by Johnson and Johnson lists Nursing Writer, Author, or
Historian as a possible specialty career choice, described as:
“These nurses write textbooks, articles, and books about historically important nursing figures.
They are involved in every aspect of writing, editing, and proofreading technical material for
biomedical research, education, training, sales, and any other form of communication in
medicine. They can also consult and write scripts for television shows and movies about nurses.”
This site also provides this tidbit of encouragement:
“Because of the constant need for sharing research results, updating information, and for
education, a huge opportunity exists for nurses to specialize in the informational side of
healthcare, by writing or editing.”
Getting into the Right Frame of Mind
All nurses have robust training and experience in both verbal and written communication.
However, few think of themselves as writers. All too often, the idea of being a nurse writer is
linked with being an expert researcher. Busy nurses often reject the notion of writing (and
research), dismissing them both as time consuming, difficult and ‘out of their depth’ activities
that is best left to more advanced educated nurses and nurse leaders. It is true that advanced
education is needed to conduct robust research, but more and more researchers are working with
frontline nurses and collaborations between academics, researchers, and practice-oriented people
are becoming the norm. This implies that more nurses can become involved in publishing
research results they have been involved in.
Research is only one sphere of professional writing. “It is through publications that nurses
contribute to the greater good of the entire professional community. Nurses often have a lot more
to offer, in print, than they realize” (Lambert & Lambert, 2011, p. 80). “The art of writing
embodies who we are: it enables us to present our thoughts, opinions, findings and arguments on
any given subject” (Stone, Levett-Jones, Harris & Sinclair, 2010, p. 657).
Nurses can also contribute significantly by sharing their experiences, ideas, expertise, and
guidance with their peers and with the public at large. Nurses tend to be very careful with the
advice they provide and are the perfect source for health information, answering questions,
giving advice, and helping people to brainstorm solutions to day-to-day health issues. As well,
nursing tips, stories and narratives can both inform and inspire other nurses to be inventive and
look for the best ways to engage in their practice activities (Bragadottir, 1998; Chamberlain,
2010; Sanford, 2003).
Stepanski interpreted Murray’s advice to nurses by encouraging nurses to consider:
“writing is a powerful way of effecting change in the world, in a profession, and in a life. It
connects us to people we can never hope to actually meet in this world; it can inform our
colleagues of important information that can save time, money, and lives; and it can persuade
others to change practices or opinions. Writing is a powerful tool that all nurses should use to put
their stamp on their discipline and shape knowledge” (2012, p. 139).
Finding the Right Venue for You
For many years, the writing landscape for nurses was usually situated in journals or books. With
the advent of the Internet, and the explosive accessibility to writing via a myriad of devices, this
landscape has grown exponentially. Nurses can now write on websites (their own or websites
representing groups, organizations, institutions or dedicated to particular health conditions or
issues), blogs (Deitering & Gronemyer, 2011; Brown, 2011), wikis (Billings, 2009), social
media, health reports, and so on. It is relatively easy for anyone to present their writing for the
whole world to see In the online environment. It has been argued that the world is hungry for the
wisdom, insight, and connection with nurses in online spaces. Sayers (1999) points out that many
health care organizations would welcome nurse authors for timely report writing as well as other
types of writing. “Writers are employed to prepare grants, feature stories, interview summaries,
qualitative evaluations, annual reports, and articles” (p. 1).
The trick is to find the best journal or other venue that suits your interests and expertise. As
Dottie Roberts advised:
“Begin with a familiar topic from your area of practice expertise. What has been your practice
passion? An area where practice is evolving in your clinical setting? Have you been involved in a
quality improvement project with exciting results to report to other nursing professionals? Your
foundational knowledge will guide your literature review and make it easier for you to create an
outline that will organize your content as you begin to write” (2014, p. 298).
Blogging is another popular way to get your feet wet as an author. It is inexpensive, accessible,
and offers ready proximity to an online audience. “Finding your inner voice and listening to it
can take you down mental roads not yet explored, and expressing that voice requires open
avenues so it can be heard. Blogging can serve as a means of self-discovery, professional growth,
and feedback from those who read your posts” (Coghill, 2014, p. 24).
Blogging can be targeted to a health professional audience or the public at large (Wolf &
Morouse, 2015; Billings, 2009).
“Patients increasingly are turning to the Internet for personalized, timely, and relevant health
information; blogs remain a large source of that information. Nurses and other healthcare
professionals can harness the informational, educational, networking, and supportive power of
blogs, as well, and should understand how to access and use blogs for professional use” (Watson,
2012, p. 215).
Building the Climate
As Kathleen Heinrich (2014) pointed out, nurses need to support other nurses to hone their
writing abilities and be brave enough to submit their work to journals and other types of
publications. Heinrich encourages peer reviewers and mentors to do this with an air of
compassion and respect for the writer. “Since many nurses see themselves as impostors when it
comes to writing, self-exploration is an essential first step before learning the “rules” of
publication” (Heinrich, Neese, Rogers & Facente, 2004, p. 141).
Journal editors, website administrators and book publishers all need to adopt a supportive
approach to encourage more nurses to contribute their expertise to the world of writing. Nurses
often require ongoing support to learn to write well for a select audience. “Novice writers must
be encouraged, empowered, and supported if they are going to write for publication” (Nickitas,
2013, p. 1).
Kennedy strongly encouraged nurses to get beyond the idea that writing is a skill that only a few
can master. She advised:
“A good basic approach, and one that works for me, involves four steps. First, spend some time
thinking about what you want to say before you start writing. Know what you want to tell
readers-the purpose of your paper-so that you can say it clearly. Next, sit down and start writing.
Write anything you want to say about the topic; you can go back and organize later. (Contrary to
what many of us were taught, you don’t have to outline first. Some writers write this way, but
many don’t.) Third, leave the work alone for a while. Take a walk or do something else. And
fourth, go back and start shaping and polishing your piece, paying attention to organization and
transitions. Aim for a logical flow of ideas” (2014, p. 7).
Reaping the Benefits
The acts of reflection, searching, organizing and actual writing necessary to publish have
possible collateral effects on nursing practice as well. As nurses learn to write and articulate their
viewpoint and their practice, to advocate and to guide, their critical thinking and perspective for
holistic practice widens (Nickitas, 2013). Becoming an author and doing it well can actually
improve your practice as a nurse.
“Writing will make you a better clinician. As you force yourself to express your ideas in clear
and concise prose, you will bring a new perspective to patient concerns and administrative
issues. As with any other skill, practice increases your proficiency. If you are facing a challenge,
write about it. The practice will further deepen your expertise. It can also expand your portfolio
for career advancement” (McGuinness, 2007, p. 9).
Regular writing also helps nurses to articulate and express their own voice within the health
literary landscape. “Writers with voice are writers who have crafted a bridge between the
speaking and writing modes, introducing elements of the former into the latter and thereby
allowing the reader to ‘hear’ the person behind the words on the page” (Ryan, Walker, Scaia &
Smith, 2013, p. 296).
A published nurse is a visible and (with time, recognized professional (Happel, 2008).
“Prospective employers may be more likely to hire someone who has published, and graduate
school admissions officers consider publications an indication that a student will complete a
program of study. Publications bring professional recognition to the author” (Chamberlain, 2010,
p. 17).
The mission of the Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics is to provide a peer – reviewed
venue for Canadian (and international) nurses and researchers who work with Nursing
Informatics to disseminate their research, essays, reviews, presentations, multimedia and other
digital publishable materials on a global scale. This includes nurses in all areas of practice,
including nursing students.
We encourage researchers, educators, and experimenters at all levels of expertise to feel
confident in submitting their work for review. It is our mission to support fledgling as well as
seasoned researchers in showcasing their work within the online environment. The Canadian
Journal of Nursing Informatics (CJNI) serves as an online publication available to anyone
interested in the evolving field of nursing informatics. You do not have to be an informatics
specialist to write about informatics. The lived experiences of practicing nurses as they use
various technologies, find solutions or give input to software or app development, or use blogs
and social media to communicate with their patients are all important aspects of informatics. We
encourage YOU to consider writing and sharing your knowledge and experience.
Here are some resources to help you to get started on your writing journey:
Writing Resources for Nurses
* Brown’s A Guide to Writing Well
http://joshuasowin.com/archives/2007/01/08/a-guide-to-writing-well/
* Canadian Authors Association

Home

* Guide to Grammar and Writing
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/index.htm
* Journalist’s Toolbox
http://www.journaliststoolbox.org/category/writing-resources/
* List of Nursing Resources on the Purdue OWL
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/1012/03/
* NAEPUB’s Resources for Faculty to Use in Mentoring Students in Scholarly Writing (Cowell
and Pierson, 2016)
http://naepub.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Student-Authors-Table-1.pdf
* Nursing Communication Online project (funded by the Association for Academic Language
and Learning, Australia)
http://www.nursingwritingonline.org.au
* OeDB’s 150 Resources to Help You Write Better, Faster, and More Persuasively

150 Resources to Help You Write Better, Faster, and More Persuasively

* Paradigm Online Writing Assistant
http://www.powa.org
* Poynter’s Writing Tools
http://www.poynter.org/tag/writing-tools/
* Professional Writers Association of Canada
https://www.pwac.ca
* Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL)
https://owl.english.purdue.edu
* Silver Pen Writers – Creative Writing Resources
http://silverpenwriters.org
* Struck’s Elements of Style
http://www.bartleby.com/141/index.html
* The WriteLife.com’s The 100 Best Websites for Writers in 2016
https://thewritelife.com/100-best-websites-writers-2016/
* Time4Writing.com’s Writing Resources
http://www.time4writing.com/free-writing-resources/
* Writers’ Digest
http://www.writersdigest.com
References
American Nurses Association. (2016). Nurses Rank #1 Most Trusted Profession for 15th Year in
a Row – Press Release. Retrieved from
http://www.nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/MediaResources/PressReleases/
Nurses-Rank-1-Most-Trusted-Profession-2.pdf
Billings, D. M. (2009). Wikis and blogs: consider the possibilities for continuing nursing
education. Journal Of Continuing Education In Nursing, 40(12), 534-535.
doi:10.3928/00220124-20091119-10
Bragadottir, H. (1998). Invest in yourself. Every nurse can be an author: on writing for
publication. Nursing Forum, 33(4), 29-32.
Brown, T. L. (2011). Nurse as Writer, Writer as Nurse. Clinical Journal Of Oncology Nursing,
15(2), 225-226. doi:10.1188/11.CJON.225-226
Chamberlain, B. (2010). Preparing to publish: nurses as authors. Med-Surg Matters, 19(6), 1617.
Coghill, A. S. (2014). Let Your Fingers Do the Talking. ONS Connect, 29(4), 24-28.
Cowell, J.M., & Pierson, C.A. (2016). Helping Students Get Published: Tips from Journal
Editors. A White Paper developed by the INANE Student Papers Work Group. Nurse Author &
Editor, 26(4), 6. Retrieved from http://naepub.com/student-authorship/2016-26-4-6/
Deitering, A., & Gronemyer, K. (2011). Beyond peer-reviewed articles: using blogs to enrich
students’ understanding of scholarly work. Portal: Libraries & The Academy, 11(1), 489-503.
Discover Nursing. Nursing Writer, Author, or Historian. Retrieved from
https://www.discovernursing.com/specialty/nursing-writer-author-or-historian#.WISc9DKZOgQ
Gallup Corporate. (2016). Honesty/Ethics in Professions. Retrieved from
http://www.gallup.com/poll/1654/honesty-ethics-professions.aspx
Hanes, E. (2014). Explore a Second Career as a Nurse Writer. NurseTogether.com. Retrieved
from http://www.nursetogether.com/explore-second-career-nurse-writer
Happell, B. (2008). Writing for publication: a practical guide. Nursing Standard, 22(28), 35-40.
Heinrich, K. T. (2014). Do You Know…How to Prevent Feedback Fallout: Make Your Peer
Edits a Compassionate Critique. Nurse Author & Editor (Blackwell), 24(1), 1-3.
Heinrich, K., Neese, R., Rogers, D., & Facente, A. (2004). Turn accusations into affirmations:
transform nurses into published authors. Nursing Education Perspectives (National League For
Nursing), 25(3), 139-145.
Kennedy, M. S. (2015). On Writing: Just Do It…Reprinted with permission from the American
Journal of Nursing, Volume 114, Issue 10, Page 7. Alaska Nurse, 66(2), 6-7.
Krietsch, B. (2011). Nurses create blog to remedy confusion on pediatric issues. Prweek (U.S.
Edition), 14(10), 21.
Lambert, V. A., & Lambert, C. E. (2011). Editorial: why nurses don’t publish. Pacific Rim
International Journal Of Nursing Research, 15(2), 79-80.
McGuinness, T. (2007). Guest editorial. So you want to be a better psychiatric nurse? Try being
a writer as well. Journal Of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 45(12), 8-9.
Nickitas, D. M. (2013). Getting Others to Write: Not for the Faint of Heart. Nurse Author &
Editor (Blackwell), 23(3), 4.
Roberts, D. (2014). Getting Your Name in Lights (almost). MEDSURG Nursing, 23(5), 298-299.
Ryan, M. M., Walker, M., Scaia, M., & Smith, V. (2013). (un) Disciplining the nurse writer:
doctoral nursing students’ perspective on writing capacity. Nursing Inquiry, 21(4), 294-300.
doi:10.1111/nin.12045
Sanford, K. (2003). A writer, not a nurse: a funny thing happened on my way to a writing career.
Nursing, 33(1), 44-46.
Sayers, B. (1999). Challenging roles. The freelance nurse writer role. Nurse Author & Editor
(10542353), 9(1), 1-4.
Sheridan, D. (1994). Writer’s block: motivating clinical nurses to write for publication. Nurse
Author & Editor (10542353), 4(2), 1-2.
Stepanski, L. (2002). Becoming a nurse-writer: advice on writing for professional publication.
Journal Of Infusion Nursing, 25(2), 134-140.
Stone, T., Levett-Jones, T., Harris, M., & Sinclair, P. M. (2010). The genesis of ‘the Neophytes’:
A writing support group for clinical nurses. Nurse Education Today, 30(7), 657-661.
Watson, J. (2012). The Rise of Blogs in Nursing Practice. Clinical Journal Of Oncology Nursing,
16(2), 215-217.
Wikipedia. Nurse writers definition. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nurse_writer
Wolf, D. M., & Morouse, K. M. (2015). Using Blogs to Support Informatics Nurses’ Curriculum
Needs. Online Journal Of Nursing Informatics, 19(2), 10.
Image Credit
Social graphic by Roundicons from Flaticon is licensed under CC BY 3.0. Made with Logo
Maker
Word count: 2821
Copyright Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics, Editor in Chief June Kaminski Fall 2016
•
George, L. E., Locasto, L. W., Pyo, K. A., & Cline, T. W. (2017). Effect of the dedicated
education unit on nursing student self-efficacy: A quasi-experimental research
study. Nursing Education in Practice, 23, 48–53.
o Abstract: Although the Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) has shown initial
promise related to satisfaction with the teaching/learning environment, few
studies have examined student outcomes related to the use of the DEU as a
clinical education model beyond student satisfaction. The purpose of this
quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to compare student outcomes from the
traditional clinical education (TCE) model with those from the DEU model.
Participants were students enrolled in a four-year baccalaureate program in
nursing (n = 193) who had clinical education activities in one of three clinical
agencies. Participants were assigned to either the DEU or a TCE model. Preclinical and post-clinical self-efficacy scores were measured for each group using
an adapted Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem, 1995).
Both groups experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy scores post clinical
education. The increase in self-efficacy for the DEU students was significantly
greater than the increase in self-efficacy for the traditional students. Self-efficacy
is considered an important outcome of nursing education because high selfefficacy has been linked to making an easier transition from student to nursing
professional. This study supports the quality of the DEU as a clinical education
model by examining student self-efficacy outcomes (George, Locasto, Pyo, &
Cline, 2017).
Resources: Wikis, Blogs, and Google Sites
Wikis
•
•
Malamed, C. (n.d.). Using wikis for learning and collaboration. Retrieved from

Using Wikis for Learning and Collaboration

o This article may be helpful as you think about how to put together your tool kit for your
assessment.
MindTools. (n.d.). How to create a wiki: Setting up a collaborative online workspace. Retrieved
from https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/how-to-create-a-wiki.htm
o MindTools provides a practical overview of wikis, including their history and purpose, as
well as how to build them.
Blogs
•
National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (2018). A nurse’s guide to the use of social
media. https://www.ncsbn.org/
o This article discusses the uses of social media in nursing.
Google Sites
Refer to the following links to help you build your tool kit:
•
•
•
•
G Suite Learning Center. (n.d.). Get started with Sites. Retrieved from
https://gsuite.google.com/learning-center/products/sites/get-started/#!/
Google. (n.d.). Google Sites. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com
Google. (n.d.). Sites help. Retrieved from https://support.google.com/sites/?hl=en#topic=
Resources for safety and improvement measures in geropsychiatric care. (n.d.). Retrieved from
https://sites.google.com/view/safetyimprovementmeasures/home
Evaluating Resources
•
•
The Library of Congress. (n.d.). Evaluating Internet resources: An annotated guide to
selected resources. Retrieved from
https://www.loc.gov/rr/business/beonline/selectbib.html
o This Web page collects resources related to evaluating the reliability and
relevance of information from electronic sources. The format of this page may
also be a helpful model for the resource list you are assembling.
Think Critically About Source Quality.
o This Capella University Library guide offers a method to help you determine
which resources to include in your tool kit.
Think Critically About Source Quality
The questions below will help you determine if a source is credible. If your instructor allows
non-scholarly sources, such as trade publications or magazine articles, look for sources that
resemble scholarly articles in evidence, audience, and content.
Remember: Nearly every library search tool has an option to check a box that says “Scholarly,
peer-reviewed.” This option instantly weeds out less academic results such as: magazines,
newspapers, etc. It saves you time by retrieving only results from peer-reviewed journals.
For additional tips on the strengths and weaknesses of different types of sources, see Sources:
What can I use for my research?
•
Where was it published, posted, or presented?
o Is the publisher well regarded? What evidence do you have to trust this publisher?
o Look at the publisher’s website: What else do they publish?
o Is this source cited in other articles or used in your course readings?
o Is it on a university department, government agency, or professional organization’s
website?
o Does the website end in .org, .edu or .gov.? As a rule, try to avoid websites ending in
.com.
o Was it presented at an academic or professional conference?
• What are the author’s credentials?
•
•
•
•
•
Is the author a researcher in this field? What are the author’s professional affiliations?
Search for the author’s website in a search engine: where do they work and what is their
education?
What other things have been written by this author? Anything in peer-reviewed journals?
What do you know about the author’s reputation in the field?
Is there anything to indicate he/she might have a bias to be aware of?
Does it use quality sources and evidence?
•
•
•
•
•
What sources did the author use as evidence? Is there a long bibliography?
Does it report on original or derivative research? (Is it a primary, secondary, or tertiary
source?)
Does it discuss current theories and use methodologies from your field?
Is data analyzed correctly?
Does it use the language of the discipline?
• What do other scholars say about this source?
•
•
•
If it’s a book, are there reviews of it?
Have other scholars used materials from the same source in their research?
Are there similar arguments, theories, or ideas circulating in the peer-reviewed literature?
• What is the audience for this source?
•
•
•
Is it intended for other scholars?
Does it contain practical information that is more useful for a person working in the
field?
Is it educational and written for students?

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

  
error: Content is protected !!