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I did sent attach with the instruction to follow for this case discussion, it is about a patient that had a stroke. I wrote for the tutor to read a paragraph with MY personal CLINCAL INTERPRETATION of what is happening for every question. Tutor need to read it and write the assignment following my information and any other tutor believes is contributory for this task. This is a pathophysiolgy course for MSN Acute APRN. Tutor needs to apply APA style with in citation and references. I send the References list and Rubric Grading chart to check how the professor will score it. Thank you for your help.

Week 8 Assignment NURS-6501 Advanced pathophysiology
Module 5: Neurological and
Musculoskeletal Disorders
What’s Happening This Module?
Module 5: Neurological and Musculoskeletal Disorders is a 2-week module, Weeks 7
and 8 of the course. In this module, you will examine fundamental concepts of diseases
and disorders that impact neurological and musculoskeletal systems. You will also
evaluate the impact of patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, on
physiological functioning within these systems.
Week 8: Concepts of Neurological and
Musculoskeletal Disorders – Part 2
As homeowners know all too well, there is a continuous need for maintenance and
repair. Some efforts are precautionary in nature, while others are the result of issues
that surface over time.
Similarly, musculoskeletal disorders can develop over time. For some disorders, such
as osteoporosis, precautionary treatments are a potential option. But much like issues
that surface in a home over time, many musculoskeletal issues can be very serious
concerns, and they can have a significant impact on patients’ lives.
This week, you continue to examine fundamental concepts of neurological and
musculoskeletal disorders. You explore common disorders that impact these systems
and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the
pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.
Learning Objectives
Students will:
Analyze processes related to neurological and musculoskeletal disorders
Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning
Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology
Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis
An understanding of the neurological and musculoskeletal systems is a critically important
component of disease and disorder diagnosis and treatment. This importance is magnified by the
impact that that these two systems can have on each other. A variety of factors and
circumstances affecting the emergence and severity of issues in one system can also have a role
in the performance of the other.
Effective analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond these systems and their
mutual impact. For example, patient characteristics such as, racial and ethnic variables can play a
An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in neurological and musculoskeletal
systems is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment. For APRNs this understanding can
also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.
In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify
the elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient
By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study
scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course
Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your
Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)
In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the
Both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes that
would account for the patient presenting these symptoms.(tutor see my
note down below)
Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
How these processes interact to affect the patient.( tutor see my note down
Day 7 of Week 8
Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 8.
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title
page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the
Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available
at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted
must use this formatting.
Posted on: Wednesday, April 14, 2021 12:00:00 AM EDT
Scenario 1: 74-year-old male with a history of hypertension and smoking, is
having dinner with his wife when he develops sudden onset of difficulty
speaking, with drooling from the left side of his mouth, and weakness in his
left hand. His wife asks him if he is all right and the patient denies any
difficulty. His symptoms progress over the next 10 minutes until he cannot
lift his arm and has trouble standing. The patient continues to deny any
problems. The wife sits the man in a chair and calls 911. The EMS squad
arrives within 5 minutes. Upon arrival in the ED, patient‘s blood pressure
was 178/94, pulse 78 and regular, PaO2 97% on room air. Neuro exam Cranial nerves- Mild left facial droop. Motor- Right arm and leg extremity
with 5/5 strength. Left arm cannot resist gravity, left leg with mild drift.
Sensation intact. Neglect- Mild neglect to left side of body. LanguageExpressive and receptive language intact.
Mild to moderate dysarthria. Able to protect airway.
This is My interpretation of the case scenario for tutor to know. I am
giving this information to apply to this assignment make sure do not
copy and paste the university has a turn it in system that will give a %
of plagiarism. “Assignment has to be less than 45%” it has to be
original, please.
Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVAs) or (Strokes Syndromes) there are 2 types 1hemorrhagic stroke is 10%(fast an more fatal because bleeding in the brain), and 2Ischemic 87% (Thrombotic or embolic ) Thrombotic occlusion of main cerebral artery
due to a blood clot or fat atheroma (plague within the artery) occlusion of main arteries
that carries blood to brain tissue such as carotid arteries or main cerebral arterial
vessels result in a ischemic stroke it is slowly, less fatal more common than
hemorrhagic stroke are the leading cause of disability, the third cause of death in
woman, and the fifth leading cause of death in men in the United States. About 75%
occurs among those older than 65 years of age. There is a decline in ischemic strokes
among white but not in blacks. Racial/ethnic variables The incident of stroke is about
150% greater in blacks than whites. Strokes tends to run in families.
This case scenario patient is experiencing a possible hemorrhagic stroke ( high blood
pressure 178/94) normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg.
Pathophysioplogy; The lesion most likely is on the Somatic Cortical motor area.
Affected right side hemisphere of the brain will cause a contralateral ( means
opposite side of the body) hemiparesis or hemiplegia greater in face and arm than leg. If
right side of brain is affected it will affect the left side of the body and vice versa. He is
has left side facial droop, (left side of his mouth drooling), affecting the whole left side
weakness of left hand that progresses to inability to lift his arm over 10 minutes, then he
is unable to stand up due to left leg weakness ( mild drift). Patient is showing left side
of the body weakness which is called hemiplegia. Sensory neurons carry impulses
from peripheral sensory receptors to the Central Nervous System (CNS). Motor
neurons transmit impulses away from CNS to effector organ (example, skeletal muscle
or organs) In this case the right middle cerebral artery that perfuse (bring blood) to
Cortical motor area is affected causing interruption of impulses down the motor
pathways corticospinal and cortibulbar pyramidal tracts; and the extrapyramidal
reticulospinal, vestibulospinal, and rubrospinal tracts. In this case scenario the
sensation is intact (He feels touch), but can not move ( motor affected) his left upper
extremity, and left leg mild drift (weakness) he can not resist gravity, this indicate that
the motor neurons are affected by interruption in the nerve impulses as I mention
above. Language-Expressive and receptive is intact because the Broca area is located
on the left hemisphere in the inferior frontal lobe and it is the most important center for
speech and language processing, injury to this area will result in difficulty forming words
(expressive aphasia or dysphasia). This patient shows mild dysarthria ( unable to
articulate words properly) due interference with deep fibers crossing through the
nondominant hemisphere. Patient is breathing ok PaO2 is 97% on room air the lung are
fine. This is clinical symptoms is 100% related to the CNS.
Risk factors include the following:
1- Poorly or uncontrolled blood pressure normal BP 120/80 mmHg.
2- Smoking, which increase the risk for stroke by 50 %
3- Insulin resistant and diabetes mellitus
4- Polycythemia and thrombocytopenia
5- High total cholesterol
6- Congestive heart failure and peripheral vascular disease
7- Atrial fibrillation
8- Obesity/ Physical inactivity
9- Family history and genetics
10- Sleep apnea
11- Sickle cell disease
12- Post menopausal hormone therapy
13- High sodium intake > 2300 mg and low potassium < 4700 mg in the diet. 14- Depression Thank you tutor for reading my clinical interpretation of this case scenario. Learning Resources Required Readings • • • McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier. Chapter 15: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems (stop at Aging and the nervous system) Chapter 16: Pain, Temperature Regulation, Sleep, and Sensory Function (stop at Sleep); Summary Review o Chapter 17: Alterations in Cognitive Systems, Cerebral Hemodynamics, and Motor Function; pp. 504–511, pp. 516–530 (start at Acute confusional states and • • • delirium) (stop at Alterations in neuromotor functions); (Parkinson’s Disease); Summary Review Chapter 18: Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and the Neuromuscular Junction (stop at Degenerative disorders of the spine); (start at Cerebrovascular disorders) (stop at Tumors of the central nervous system); Summary Review Chapter 44: Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System (stop at Components of muscle function); Summary Review Chapter 45: Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function (stop at Bone tumors); (start at Disorders of joints); Summary Review Chin, L. S. (2018). Spinal cord injuries. Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/793582-overview#a4 Required Media (click to expand/reduce) Khan Academy. (2019b). Ischemic stroke. Retrieved from ttps://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/circulatory-systemdiseases/stroke/v/ischemic-stroke Note: The approximate length of the media program is 8 minutes. Osmosis.org. (2019, June 12). Osteoporosis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUQ_tt_zJDo Note: The approximate length of the media program is 9 minutes. Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children In addition to this week's media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 15, 16, 18, and the sections of Chapters 44 and 45 that relate to the neurological and musculoskeletal systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/ See Rubric Detail for grading NURS_6501_Module5_Case Study_Assignment_Rubric Exit Excellent Excellent Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis, examining the patient symptoms presented in the case study. Be sure to address the following: Explain both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes of why the patient presents these symptoms. 28 (28%) - 30 (30%) The response accurately and thoroughly describes the patient symptoms.( tutor see my note) The response includes accurate, clear, and detailed explanations of both the neurological and musculoskeletal pathophysiologic processes of patients who present these symptoms and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.( tutor see my note) Explain how the highlighted processes interact to affect the patient. 28 (28%) - 30 (30%) Explain any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning. 23 (23%) - 25 (25%) Written Expression and Formatting Paragraph Development and Organization: Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused— 5 (5%) - 5 (5%) The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of how the highlighted processes interact to affect the patient and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation.( tutor see my note) The response includes an accurate, complete, detailed, and specific explanation of racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological (tutor see my intrerpretation note)functioning and is supported by evidence and/or research, as appropriate, to support the explanation. Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. A clear and comprehensive purpose Excellent neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria. statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria. Written Expression and Formatting English Writing Standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation 5 (5%) - 5 (5%) Written Expression and Formatting The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. 5 (5%) - 5 (5%) Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors. Uses correct APA format with no errors. Total Points: 100 Name: NURS_6501_Module5_Case Study_Assignment_Rubric Purchase answer to see full attachment

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