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Introduction to Earth and
Environmental Engineering
4. Fossil Fuel
Akane Miyazaki
4. Fossil Fuel
Topics
â–¡ Type of energy
・Primary and secondary energy
・Fossil Fuel
â–¡ Energy situation today
・World
・Japan
Type of energy
Primary energy (PE) : energy form found in
nature that has not been subjected to any
human engineered conversion process
Ex. Oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, hydro
Secondary energy : produced by conversion
from primary energy sauce and carrier of
energy
Ex. electricity
Fossil Fuel
・Within the primary energy, coal, natural gas,
and oil are called fossil fuel.
・The world’s main primary energy sources
consisted of petroleum (34%), coal (27%),
and natural gas (24%), amounting to an 85%
share for 85% share for primary energy
consumption in the world (2018).
Q. How do we get energy from fossil fuel?
A. By combustion.
For example, if we burn propane, which is one
of the main components of natural gas, heat is
produced together with carbon dioxide and
water.
C3H8(g) + 5O2 (g) = 3CO2 (g) + 4H2O (l) + 2219 kJ
Combustion of sugar
C6H12O6(g) + 6O2 (g) = 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) + 2800 kJ
Q. What is the source of the energy in
fossil fuel?
A. Solar energy of the past.
Fossil fuel is formed by natural processes,
such as anaerobic decomposition of buried
dead organisms. They contain organic
molecules originating in ancient
photosynthesis, which produces sugar from
carbon dioxide and water using solar energy.
6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l) = C6H12O6(g) + 6O2 (g) – 2800 kJ
So, we use solar energy of past stored as
fossil fuel.
Consumption of fossil fuel has increased
dramatically.
Total primary energy supply by source
World 1990-2017
From IEA (International Energy Agency)
World consumes more and more energy.
By combustion of fossil fuel,
CO2 is produce beside heat.
Concentration of CO2 in the air
increases more and more.
In the long history of human beings, the
concentration of CO2 in the air has never got
so high as today.
Energy situation of the world
Energy shift from oil to gas.
However, energy policy differs among countries.
France: 40% of nuclear energy (2018)
Germany: less nuclear power and more
renewable energy
Iceland: more than 50% of hydropower
Iceland: more than 50% of gas
China: almost 60% of coal
Energy situation of Japan
Nuclear has dropped dramatically since 2011.
Low self-sufficiency ratio
Report for today’s class
Select a country you are interested in its
energy situation and answer the following
questions.
(1) How is the composition of primary
energy of the country today? How the
composition of primary energy changed in
past decades?
(2) What can you see from (1)?
(3) How is official energy policy of the
country in near future?
(4) What do you think about (3)?

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