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416  Leadership Theory and Practice
The Gender–Leader Implicit Association Test
Instructions: This exercise begins with a practice trial. Using a pencil, classify each of the words in the middle column into one of the two categories indicated, Flower or Insect, by putting a check mark in the column
to the left or the right. Please do this task as quickly as possible, taking
care not to skip over any words.
Practice Trial
Flower
Insect
ï‚¡
Rose
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Lily
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Dragonfly
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Beetle
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Gnat
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Daffodil
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Mosquito
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Daisy
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Roach
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Tulip
ï‚¡
You will now complete the two test trials; you will need a stopwatch for this
portion of the test. For these test trials, the categories are Male or Female and
Leader or Supporter, and the categories will be combined. If the word you
read belongs to the Male or the Leader category, put a check in the left column; if it belongs to the Female or the Supporter category, put a check in the
right column. You will record how long it takes you to complete this task by
starting your stopwatch when you begin and stopping it after you make your
final classification. Remember to work as quickly as possible, without skipping
any words.
Test Trial A
Male or Leader
Female or Supporter
ï‚¡
Emily
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Josh
ï‚¡
Chapter 15 Gender and Leadership 417
Male or Leader
Female or Supporter
Supporter
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Leader
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Brandon
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Ambitious
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Peter
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Determined
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Donna
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Debbie
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Helpful
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Dynamic
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Understanding
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Katherine
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Ian
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Sympathetic
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Compassionate
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Jane
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Andrew
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Assertive
ï‚¡
Time to complete Test Trial A: _______________
You will do this same task a second time, but this time the combination of
categories has been switched. If the word you read belongs to the Male or the
Supporter category, put a check in the left column; if it belongs to the Female
or the Leader category, put a check in the right column. Again, use your stopwatch to time how long it takes you to complete the task.
Test Trial B
Male or Supporter
Female or Leader
ï‚¡
Supporter
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Emily
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Josh
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Leader
ï‚¡
(Continued)
418  Leadership Theory and Practice
(Continued)
Male or Supporter
Female or Leader
ï‚¡
Ambitious
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Brandon
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Peter
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Donna
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Helpful
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Determined
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Dynamic
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Assertive
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Debbie
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Katherine
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Understanding
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Ian
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Sympathetic
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Andrew
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Compassionate
ï‚¡
ï‚¡
Jane
ï‚¡
Time to complete Test Trial B: _______________
Scoring
The logic behind the IAT is that the longer it takes to categorize the words
when the categories have counterstereotypical pairings (i.e., Female and
Leader, Male and Supporter) compared with stereotypical pairings, the more
one automatically associates women with supportive qualities as opposed to
leadership qualities.
The gender bias effect is computed by subtracting the time it took to complete
Trial A (the stereotype congruent task) from the time to complete Trial B (the
stereotype incongruent task). Positive scores reflect automatic associations
between Female and Supporter and between Male and Leader. Many people
are surprised to find out that they have a biased association favoring males
and leadership, especially when it is incompatible with their stated egalitarian
values. This test is designed to show people that they might hold associations
that they are unaware of and to make people aware of the broad reach of
these stereotypes. Please see the IAT website at Harvard University (https://
implicit.harvard.edu) for more information on the IAT and a more detailed
understanding of the results.
Chapter 16 Culture and Leadership 459
Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire
Instructions: Using the following scales, circle the number that most accurately
reflects your response to each of the 18 statements. There are no right or
wrong answers, so provide your immediate impressions. (The items on this
questionnaire are adapted from the items used in the GLOBE studies to assess
the dimensions of culture, but the GLOBE studies used five items to analyze
each of the cultural dimensions.)
Uncertainty Avoidance
1. In this society, orderliness and consistency are stressed, even at the
expense of experimentation and innovation.
Strongly disagree Strongly agree
1    
2    3    
4    5    6    7
2. In this society, societal requirements and instructions are spelled out
in detail so citizens know what they are expected to do.
Strongly disagree Strongly agree
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
Power Distance
1. In this society, followers are expected to:
Question their leaders Obey their leaders
when in disagreement
without question
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
2. In this society, power is:
Shared throughout
the society
Concentrated at
the top
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
Institutional Collectivism
1. In this society, leaders encourage group loyalty even if individual goals
suffer.
Strongly disagree Strongly agree
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
460  Leadership Theory and Practice
2. The economic system in this society is designed to maximize:
Individual interests
Collective interests
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
In-Group Collectivism
1. In this society, children take pride in the individual accomplishments
of their parents.
Strongly disagree Strongly agree
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
2. In this society, parents take pride in the individual accomplishments
of their children.
Strongly disagree Strongly agree
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
Gender Egalitarianism
1. In this society, girls are encouraged more than boys to attain a higher
education.
Strongly disagree Strongly agree
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
2. In this society, who is more likely to serve in a position of high office?
Men
Women
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
Assertiveness
1. In this society, people are generally:
Nonassertive Assertive
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
2. In this society, people are generally:
Tender
Tough
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
Chapter 16 Culture and Leadership 461
Future Orientation
1. In this society the accepted norm is to:
Accept the status quo Plan for the future
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
2. In this society, people place more emphasis on:
Solving current problems Planning for the future
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
Performance Orientation
1. In this society, students are encouraged to strive for continuously
improved performance.
Strongly disagree Strongly agree
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
2. In this society, people are rewarded for excellent performance.
Strongly disagree Strongly agree
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
Humane Orientation
1. In this society, people are generally:
Not at all
concerned about others
Very concerned
about others
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
2. In this society, people are generally:
Not at all
sensitive to others
Very sensitive
toward others
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7
SOURCE: Adapted from House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V.
(Eds.), Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, © 2004,
Sage Publications.
462  Leadership Theory and Practice
Scoring
The Dimensions of Culture questionnaire is designed to measure your perceptions of the different dimensions of your culture. Score the questionnaire by
doing the following. First, sum the two responses you gave for each of the
items on each of the dimensions. Second, divide the sum of the responses by
two. The result is your mean score for the dimension.
Example. If for power distance you circled 3 in response to Question 1 and 4
in response to Question 2, you would score the dimension as follows:
3+4=7
7 ÷ 2 = 3.5
Power distance mean score = 3.5
When you are finished scoring, you should have nine mean scores. After you
have scored the questionnaire, place your mean scores for each of the dimensions in the table in “Scoring Interpretation.”
Table 16.4
Cultural Dimensions and Mean Scores for Selected Cultural Clusters
Mean Scores* of Selected Cultural Clusters
GLOBE Cultural
Dimensions
Anglo
Latin
Middle Southern
America East
Asia
Latin
Europe
GLOBE
Overall
Your
Score
Uncertainty avoidance
4.42
3.62
3.91
4.10
4.18
4.16
____
Power distance
na
na
na
na
na
5.17
____
Institutional collectivism
4.46
3.86
4.28
4.35
4.01
4.25
____
In-group collectivism
4.30
5.52
5.58
5.87
4.80
5.13
____
Gender egalitarianism
3.40
3.41
2.95
3.28
3.36
3.37
____
Assertiveness
4.14
4.15
4.14
3.86
3.99
4.14
____
Future orientation
4.08
3.54
3.58
3.98
3.68
3.85
____
Performance orientation
4.37
3.85
3.90
4.33
3.94
4.10
____
Humane orientation
4.20
4.03
4.36
4.71
3.71
4.09
____
SOURCE: Adapted from House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (Eds.), Culture
Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies, © 2004, Sage Publications, Inc. Reprinted
with Permission.
*The mean scores in this table represent societal practice scores for selected cultures on each of the nine
cultural dimensions. In the GLOBE studies, mean scores were derived from subjects’ responses to five
questions for each of the dimensions.
na = not available
Chapter 16 Culture and Leadership 463
Scoring Interpretation
Your scores on the Dimensions of Culture questionnaire provide data on how
you see the culture in which you live and work. Table 16.4 provides information from the GLOBE project about how subjects from different cultures
describe the dimensions of those cultures. The table also provides an overall
mean for how these dimensions were viewed by people from all of the cultures.
By entering your scores in the last column in Table 16.4, you can get a better understanding of how your perception of your own culture
compares to that of others. You can also compare your scores to other specific cultures (e.g., Middle East or Latin America). Do you see your culture
as more or less egalitarian than others? Do you think your culture emphasizes the future more than others? Do people from other cultures stress
performance less or more than your own culture? Like these questions, the
table and your scores can be used to bring to the surface the ways in which
your culture and the cultures of others are compatible or incompatible with
each other. Understanding how your culture relates to other cultures is the
first step to improved understanding between you and people from other
cultures.
Four Discussion:
Chapter 5 – Discussion
below is classmate’s work, please give a response
Chapter 6:
below is classmate’s work, please give a response
Chapter 7:
below is classmate’s work, please give a response
Chapter 9:
below is classmate’s work, please give a response
2 chapter of Questionnaire:
Chapter 5 – Gender-Leader Implicit Association Test:
Chapter 6 – Dimension of Culture Questionnaire:

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