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Introduction

Socialization & Retention-How do we keep our strategically selected employees?

Discussion Questions

Think of a past organization where you worked. What did they do to socialize you? Look at the types of socialization from Chapter 12. Identify what type of socialization it was. Could the organization have done a better job? If so, how?

Which strategies do you recommend for an organization to retain its employees? How does retention relate to selection?

Chapter 12
Managing Workforce Flow
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter you should
be able to:
• Discuss how onboarding and socialization differ
and the goals of each
• Discuss ways to make socialization more effective.
• Describe global mobility
• Describe the six different types of turnover.
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12-2
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter you should be
able to:
• Discuss employee retention strategies.
• Discuss various ways of downsizing a company’s
workforce.
• Describe how to effectively terminate an employee.
• Describe some of the ethical issues employers face
when onboarding and socializing employees and
managing employee separations
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12-3
Time to Productivity
Many organizations invest more money in hiring new
employees than in helping them acclimate and become
productive.
Most new hires want to get off to a good start, but need
help doing so.
It takes mid-level managers an average of six months to get
up to speed in a new job.
Even in restaurants and hotels it can take about 90 days for
a new employee to attain the productivity level of an
existing employee.
On average, the time for new external hires to achieve full
productivity is eight weeks for clerical jobs, 20 weeks for
professionals, and more than 26 weeks for executives.
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12-4
Orientation and Socialization
Onboarding (or orientation): the process of completing new
hires’ employment-related paperwork, and familiarizing them
with their jobs, coworkers, work spaces, work tools, and the
company’s policies and benefits
Socialization: a long-term process of planned and unplanned,
formal and informal activities and experiences through which an
individual acquires the attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge
needed to successfully participate as an organizational member
• The primary goal of socialization is to get new employees up to
speed on their jobs and familiarize them with the organization’s
culture, or the norms, values, behavior patterns, rituals, language,
and traditions that provide a framework that helps employees
interpret and understand everyday experiences
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12-5
Socialization
Can speed up the time it takes new hires to reach the point at
which they start generating a return on the company’s investment
in them.
Can improve employee retention and employee engagement,
lessen the impact of reality shock, and facilitate new hire
adjustment and integration.
People who are well socialized in their organizational roles tend to
have higher incomes, be more satisfied, more involved with their
careers and more adaptable, and have a better sense of personal
identity than those who are less socialized.
Socialization prepares employees to perform their jobs effectively,
fit into the organization, and establish productive work
relationships.
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12-7
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12-8
Socialization Choices
What to include: What people, politics, culture,
language, job requirements, and work processes
should be discussed? What elements of the
company’s history, business goals, and key strategic
objectives should be included?
Whom to include: Which people should be
involved in the socialization program—the hiring
manager, coworkers essential to the new hire’s job
success, or even the new hire’s family?
How to use technology: Should the program be
Web-based, or in-person?
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12-9
Effective Socialization
Actively involve new employees
• Encourage them to ask questions
• Clarify new roles and their connection to
business strategy
Manager must take the time to get the employee
up to speed
Pairing coworkers with new hires for days or weeks
can facilitate their transition
Assess transition progress using metrics including
engagement, 30-, 60-, and 90-day retention rates,
and supervisor satisfaction
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12-10
Global Mobility
Managing employees’ global and domestic
assignments and national and international
movements, helping employees manage tax,
immigration, and personal issues and preparing
and moving employees to jobs around the world
There should be a formal identification process
based on employees’ fit with the role and career
development needs, not be volunteer based
Repatriation should also be managed proactively
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12-11
Managing the Flow of the Workforce
Having the right people in the right jobs to
execute business strategy requires effectively
managing turnover and retention,
succession management, redeployment, and
separations.
Optimal turnover: not the lowest turnover
possible, but the level that produces the
highest long-term levels of productivity and
business improvement
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12-12
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12-13
The Cost of Turnover
“Measuring the Cost of Staff Turnover”
(3:18)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X
MF_ka1nPRQ
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12-14
Why Top Performers Leave
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12-15
Identifying Turnover Causes
Exit interviews: asking departing
employees why they are leaving to
acquire information that can be used to
improve conditions for current
employees
Employee satisfaction surveys can
identify problems that can be
addressed to prevent additional
turnover
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12-16
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12-17
Maintaining Relationships With ExEmployees
Ex-employees can continue to affect a
previous employer as potential clients,
future business partners, employee
referrers, brand ambassadors, and possible
high-quality rehires
• Make ex-employees feel appreciated as they
leave
• Provide a social network and access to useful
information
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12-18
Retention Strategies
“Employee Retention Strategies” (7:35)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dB
mrSCawhc0
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12-19
Retention During Mergers
and Acquisitions
Create financial agreements with key talent that serve as golden
handcuffs and create mobility barriers.
Financial incentive packages such as retention bonuses or stock
options that mature over time can retain essential employees,
and increase their commitment to making the merger successful.
Companies can also increase the value of severance packages
offered to workers who stay until a merger or acquisition is
completed to keep important talent from leaving prematurely.
• These types of agreements are typically solidified in a written
contract that specifies the financial incentives that the
employee will receive if they stay with the company for a
specified time.
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12-20
Managing Succession
Succession management should integrate talent
management with the organization’s strategic plan.
• Succession plans need to support the organization’s long-term
direction, growth, and planned change, and should enable an
organization to have the right people in the right place at the right time
to execute the business strategy.
• Career planning and succession management are often integrated to
ensure that employees are motivated to accept the higher-level jobs.
Mobility policies: specify the rules by which people
move between jobs within an organization and clearly
document the rules for opening notification, eligibility
qualification, compensation and advancement, and
benefit changes related to advancement.
• Mobility policies should be well developed, clearly communicated, and
perceived as fair by employees.
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12-21
Workforce Redeployment
Workforce redeployment: the movement of employees
to other parts of the company or to other jobs the
company needs filled to match its workforce with its
talent needs.
• Workforce redeployment software and services help
organizations match their talent to specific business needs in
the most profitable way.
• Matching employees’ expertise and knowledge to customers’
needs and deploying the right people is the same way a supply
chain deploys assets.
• For firms trying to maximize the efficiency of their workforce,
which is particularly important for companies pursuing a lowcost strategy, workforce optimization is critical.
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12-22
Involuntary Employee Separations
Downsizing: the intentional reduction of employees intended to
improve the efficiency or effectiveness of the firm.
• Can improve the financial standing of a firm by reducing and changing the
workforce structure in a way that improves operational results.
• Downsizing is usually done in response to a merger or acquisition, revenue
or market share loss, technological and industrial change, new
organizational structures, and inaccurate labor demand forecasting.
• Downsizing is a popular intervention for organizations looking to improve
flexibility, reduce bureaucratic structure, increase decision-making
efficiency, and improve communication.
• Private sector employers often downsize to reduce costs to maximize
shareholder returns, and to remain competitive in an increasingly global
economy.
• Public sector downsizings are driven by budget reductions and technology
improvements that allow fewer workers to do the same amount of work.
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12-24
Effective Downsizing
Fully planning the downsizing is important to reduce negative
outcomes including:
• Increased costs from voluntary turnover, training, and consultants
• Reduced shareholder value
• Decreased efficiency due to the loss of expertise
• Reduced morale and motivation (waves of downsizing are the worst)
• Increased absenteeism and turnover of desirable employees due to stress
and uncertainty
• Lower employee trust in the company
• A damaged reputation as an employer
• When a company’s employees take advantage of unemployment
insurance, the company’s future premiums rise
• Higher cost of attracting top talent after a downsizing
Because downsizing is a traumatic event, no matter how well
prepared the workforce is for the impending change, the process
should be carried out in the most expedient manner possible.
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12-25
Survivor Syndrome
Survivor syndrome refers to the emotional effects of the
downsizing on surviving employees, during and after a
downsizing.
• These effects include fear, anger, frustration, anxiety, and mistrust, which
can threaten the organization’s survival.
Survivors often are preoccupied with whether additional layoffs
will occur, and feel guilty about retaining their jobs while
separated coworkers are struggling.
• Can lead to a variety of adverse effects including higher turnover, lower
commitment and loyalty, and less flexibility among surviving employees.
Although some studies suggest that “survivor’s guilt” leads to
increased effort, other studies suggest that job insecurity reduces
productivity.
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12-26
Downsizing Assistance to Displaced
Employees
Help in locating listings of vacant jobs and central
pools of displaced workers for whom the employer
attempts to find positions.
Many large organizations help employees find
employment elsewhere in the organization through
central processing points that bring together
displaced employees and vacant positions.
Employers frequently provide résumé coaching, job
fairs, and access to office equipment to facilitate
employee transitions out of the company.
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12-27
Seven Typical Downsizing Activities
1. A workforce demographics review including retirement
and other loss projections and assessments of the age,
diversity, and skills of the workforce;
2. Assessment of available options to avoid involuntary
separations, such as a hiring freeze, buyouts, early
retirement, retraining, and relocations;
3. Detailing full-time employee reductions by year, location,
program, occupation, position, and person;
4. Conducting the downsizing or reduction in force;
5. Providing career transition/job placement assistance;
6. Providing assistance for survivors of downsizing; and
7. Ensuring that an adequate retraining program is in place.
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12-28
Evaluating Downsizing Effectiveness
• Meeting authorized full-time employee headcount goals
• Increase in the ratio of supervisors to employees
• Employee loss due to attrition versus incentive programs
• Demographics of buyout recipients
• Impact on diversity goals
• Ability to meet budgetary limits
• Productivity changes
• Reduction in total cost of wages and salaries
• Number of grievances, appeals, or lawsuits filed
• Number of voluntary participants in incentive and career
transition programs
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12-29
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12-30
Layoffs
Layoff: temporary end to employment.
Employers tend to dislike layoffs compared to other downsizing methods, in
part because they are forced by law (in the case of most public sector
employees) or by bargaining agreements to employ seniority-based criteria in
deciding which employees to separate during layoffs.
• This does not guarantee that the right competencies will remain in the company to
allow it to execute its business strategy and emerge from the downsizing in a more
competitive position, and often means the retention of the most expensive
employees.
• Layoffs also increase employee health problems and withdrawal behaviors.
• Layoffs often have a negative impact on employee diversity, since women and
minorities tend to be disproportionately affected by seniority-based layoff policies.
During a layoff, career transition assistance is usually provided to employees
along with job placement and training assistance, severance pay, and
continuation of benefits such as health insurance for a period of time.
Layoffs have a negative impact on a firm’s reputation that is significantly
stronger for newer than for older firms.
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12-31
Some Layoff Alternatives
• Attrition due to retirement, death, or resignation
• Hiring freeze: not hiring any new employees
• Early retirement incentives: allow retirement with full or reduced pension
benefits at an earlier age than normal
• Buyout incentives: a lump sum payment to encourage voluntarily quits
• Leave without pay
• Flexible work arrangements
• Workforce redeployment
• Cross training and retraining
• Reducing work hours and/or pay
• Sharing company ownership with workers in exchange for lower pay
• Increasing the use of temporary or contract employees who are let go rather
than laying off core workers
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12-32
Discharging Employees
May happen immediately after a policy
violation or other job misconduct (e.g.,
a safety violation, failure to renew a
professional license, etc.), or after a
long pattern of poor performance
Rather than separating multiple people
from the company as happens with
downsizing, terminations focus on
individual employees
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12-33
Discharging Employees
Even with employment at will, a termination should be well
documented and accurate records kept regarding the cause.
Having terminated (or laid off) employees sign a severance
agreement that includes a release stating that the departing
employee gives up some or all rights to sue you can reduce the
risk of future litigation.
• Releases are often used the proper documentation to fire
someone is lacking but the employer wants to end the
employment relationship and reduce the chance of a lawsuit.
• To be most effective, the release needs to involve some sort of
consideration, usually money beyond any standard severance
agreement; the employee needs to be given appropriate time
to consider the offer and even change his or her mind after
signing it; and the employee should be able to negotiate some
of its contents to show that it was willingly signed.
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12-34
Common Termination Errors
• Doing it publicly
• Writing a positive letter of reference after a termination for
cause (this opens the company to charges of negligent referral)
• Trying to document a termination for a just cause case that
doesn’t exist
• Firing an employee after a merit raise or favorable performance
review
• Stating that the person conducting the termination meeting
disagrees with the termination
• Juries have also looked unfavorably at terminations that were
done at end of a work day or work week, after the employee
returns from a business trip, or at beginning of holiday
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12-35
10 Sins of Employee Termination
“10 Sins of Employee Termination”
(13:06)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MWBXb2aPbQ&nohtml5=False
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12-36
Termination Tips
Remain impartial, calm, and in control of the conversation; be
respectful at all times
Listen to employee requests for severance terms, but reserve
final decisions for a later time; being heard and considered will
increase the employee’s perceptions of fairness
Be clear and don’t send mixed messages
The shock of being fired can prevent the employee from listening
to all of what you are saying; repeat yourself if you feel your
message is not being heard
Don’t give career advice to someone you’ve just fired
If the person is being terminated, don’t say “laid off” because it
implies the possibility of return
Hold the meeting in a private, neutral location
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12-37
Termination Tips
Deliver information without engaging in an argument; use prepared
notes if necessary. Do not ramble, make promises, or say a mistake is
being made
Discuss the effective termination date, any severance package, etc.;
have the details of the termination and any severance package in
writing so the employee can take them with him or her along with the
details of the termination
Be aware of legal compliance issues
Write up an accurate record of the termination interview and provide a
copy to the employee
Cover matters such as returning identification cards, keys, and how to
receive final paycheck
Involve company security, if needed
After discharge, notify all relevant parties of the termination
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12-38
Terminating an Employee
“Scene from ‘Up in the Air’” (2:03)

“How to Terminate an Employee” (2:25)

“Terminating a Problem Employee” (1:34)

“How to Fire Someone and Not Feel
Guilty” (3:41)

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12-39
Ethics
Common ethical issues at this stage:
• Whether to use divestiture socialization
practices
• Deciding to hire employees from competitors,
suppliers, or customers
• Communication and respect during separation
meetings
• Having an ethical downsizing plan ready in case
it is needed
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12-40
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12-41
Analytics
Good metrics to track:
• Time to new hire performance
• Productivity
• New hire voluntary and involuntary turnover
• New hire engagement
• New hires’ satisfaction with the onboarding and
socialization programs
• Supervisor satisfaction with the onboarding and
socialization programs
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12-42
Technology
Can help automate the delivery of some
onboarding and socialization content,
exit interviews, and metric tracking
Chatbots and virtual assistants may
help new employees and help
customize the onboarding experience
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12-43
Discussion Questions
1. Think of the time you first joined an
employer. In what ways did the company
and your coworkers socialize you? What
could have been done to enhance your
socialization experience?
2. How do you think technology can be best
used to socialize new employees and get
them productive as quickly as possible?
When would using technology not be a
good way to socialize employees?
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12-44
Discussion Questions
3. What are the factors that would make you
most likely to quit your current job (assuming
you are currently working)? What could your
organization do to keep you?
4. What downsizing targeting methods do you
feel are the most effective? Which are the
least effective, and why?
5. If you had to discharge an employee who you
thought had the potential for violence, what
would you do?
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12-45
Discussion Questions
6. What socialization methods would you most
enjoy? Which would you least enjoy? Why?
7. How would you feel if your socialization to a
new employer occurred entirely online and
through social media? Would this be effective?
Why or why not?
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12-46
Chapter 13
Staffing System Evaluation
& Technology
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to:
• Describe the effects staffing activities have on applicants, new
hires, and organizations.
• Explain the different types of staffing metrics and how each is
best used.
• Describe a balanced staffing scorecard.
• Explain how digital staffing dashboards can help managers
monitor and improve the staffing process.
• Describe how staffing technology can improve the efficiency
and effectiveness of the staffing function.
• Explain how moral efficacy supports ethical staffing and HRM
behavior
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13-2
Strategic Staffing Outcomes
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13-3
Direct and Indirect Costs
Direct costs: charges incurred as an
immediate result of some staffing
activity (e.g., higher training costs,
lower productivity)
Indirect costs: not directly attributable
to staffing activities (e.g., lost business
opportunities, lower morale)
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13-4
Staffing System Evaluation
Staffing evaluation: the analysis of a staffing system to
determine its performance and effectiveness.
• Allows us to objectively identify which staffing activities are
related to business strategy execution and company
performance, assess how well different staffing initiatives are
working, and improve the staffing system based on what is
learned.
Competitive advantage can be created through staffing
by identifying the staffing activities that drive business
success and strategy execution, evaluating them, and
improving them.
Measurement occurs at a single point in time, and isn’t
as useful as is tracking and making comparisons over
time.
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13-5
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
Key performance indicator: measurable factor critical to the
firm’s success and long- and short-term goals that can help
understand, track, and improve organizational performance and
the bottom line.
• KPIs are the outcomes against which the effectiveness of the
staffing system is evaluated.
To design effective KPIs, it is essential to understand what is
important to the business and what key business measures exist.
The KPIs that promote and lead to organizational success are
those best able to enhance strategy execution and organizational
performance, such as financial outcome measures (e.g., revenue
growth) and strategy execution and performance drivers (e.g.,
customer satisfaction, innovation, and globalization).
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13-6
Leading and Lagging Indicators
Lagging indicator: information that is available
only after staffing decisions have been made.
Leading indicator: information that precedes or
predicts staffing outcomes.
Some indicators can be both leading and lagging
indicators.
• For example, while the availability of talent is generally
thought of as a leading indicator of the quality of hire
(the larger the talent pool, the more likely you are to hire
more qualified people), it can also be a lagging indicator
of a company’s employer image.
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13-7
Leading and Lagging Indicators
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13-8
Long- and Short-term Metrics
Short-term metrics help to evaluate the success of a staffing
system in terms of recruiting and new hire outcomes and include:
• Percentages of hires for each job or job family coming from each recruiting source
(e.g., college hiring, employee referrals, job fairs, newspaper advertisements,
Internet advertisements, etc.)
• Number of high-quality new hires coming from each recruiting source and recruiter
• Number of diverse hires coming from each recruiting source and recruiter
• Average time-to-start (by position, source, and recruiter)
• Average time-to-contribution (by position, source, and recruiter)
Long-term metrics help to evaluate the success of a staffing
system in terms of outcomes that take place some time after hire
and include:
• Job success by recruiting source and by recruiter
• Employee tenure by recruiting source and by recruiter
• Promotion rates by recruiting source and by recruiter
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13-9
Staffing Efficiency Metrics
Staffing efficiency: the amount of resources
used in the staffing process.
• Hiring costs include sourcing, recruiting, screening,
and hiring costs including referral bonuses, travel
expenses, advertisements, candidate assessments,
meals, transportation, and testing including drug
tests and background checks.
• Replacement costs include hiring costs as well as the
productivity loss while the position is unfilled.
Reducing time-to-fill and improving socialization and
onboarding can reduce replacement costs.
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13-10
Staffing Effectiveness Metrics
Staffing effectiveness: how well the
staffing process meets stakeholder
needs and contributes to strategy
execution and organizational
performance.
• Help answer questions such as, “Is the number and
caliber of finalists being sent to hiring managers meeting
their needs?” “Is the hiring experience and speed
acceptable to candidates?”
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Staffing Effectiveness Metrics
Job success
Quality of hire
Retention rates
Voluntary turnover rate of top
performers
Voluntary turnover rate of bottom
performers
Value of top performers
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Return on Investment
When using metrics and evaluating staffing activities, it
can be easy to focus on staffing efficiency and lose sight
of staffing effectiveness.
A balance must be struck between staffing efficiency
and staffing effectiveness.
ROI can be calculated for a firm’s investment in
individual staffing activities, such as the ROI of different
recruiting sources or assessment methods, or for the
staffing system as a whole.
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13-13
Six Sigma
Six Sigma: a data-driven quality initiative and
methodology that uses statistical analysis to
measure and improve business processes and
their outcomes to near perfection
Six Sigma can be used to improve a variety of
staffing outcomes, such as:
• Lowering turnover among high performers
• Improving applicant quality
• Improving new hire fit with corporate culture
• Reducing time-to-fill
• Increasing the return on the company’s staffing
investment
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13-14
Six Sigma
Six Sigma methodology begins with a process map that defines
and graphically maps out the process to be improved.
The process map represents the entire process, and is helpful in
identifying important metrics for analysis.
After identifying the source of any defects, an improvement
program is created to remove the cause of the defects.
To improve the quality of a staffing process, each step of the
process must maximize the probability that the selected
candidate meets the hiring manager’s expectations by maximizing
the chances that unqualified candidates are screened out at each
step, and enhancing candidates’ interest in the job and in the
organization as an employer.
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13-16
Six Sigma
For existing internal processes, use DMAIC
(Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and
Control)
• Define the problem: reduce unwanted turnover
among high performers.
• Measure: identify key measurements underlying
turnover.
• Analyze: understand key factors and trends that
create turnover.
• Improve: identify and execute a plan to address those
factors.
• Control: implement controls to lower turnover on an
ongoing basis.
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13-17
Six Sigma
To create new processes, use DMADV (Define,
Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify)
• Define project goals and customer deliverables, such
as improved new-hire quality
• Measure: determine hiring manager needs
• Analyze the process of sourcing, recruiting,
screening, and making job offers
• Design the staffing process to screen out undesirable
candidates and maximize new-hire quality
• Verify the performance of the process and its ability
to meet hiring manager needs
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13-18
Balanced Staffing Scorecard
Balanced scorecard: a tool for managing
employees’ performance and for aligning all
employees with key business objectives by
assigning financial and non-financial goals and
monitoring and assessing performance
Balanced scorecards help organizations to:
• Compare performance within the organization
• Track trend performance within the organization
• Benchmark the organization against other
organizations
• Identify best performers in the company and its best
practices
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13-19
Balanced Staffing Scorecard
Balanced staffing scorecard: contains objectives, targets, and
initiatives for each activity that adds value to the staffing process.
The company’s goals and strategies should guide scorecard
development, with most measures focusing on value creation and
staffing effectiveness and a smaller number addressing staffing
efficiency and cost control.
The choice of scorecard criteria can be based on company strategy
and goals, anticipated challenges such as a tightening labor market
or changing workforce demographics, current problems such as
difficulty staffing key leadership positions, and practical reasons
such as ease of communication to hiring managers.
When choosing what to include on a staffing scorecard, be sure to
consider the company’s talent philosophy, and HR strategy. Set
clear and consistent goals, and carefully balance cost, time, quality,
and customer satisfaction.
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13-20
Balanced Staffing Scorecard
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13-21
Staffing Evaluation Process
Identify a problem area and assess how to measure and improve it. The
metrics you use shouldn’t be too complex or numerous to understand or
explain to others.
It is often a good idea to implement a staffing evaluation program
incrementally, rather than taking on the entire staffing system at once.
• Evaluate one component of the system at a time by calculating its impact on
relevant KPIs such as a division’s productivity, tenure, performance, labor
costs, and promotions. For example, a firm pursuing a cost-leadership
strategy based on an operational excellence competitive advantage might
be very concerned about labor costs.
Evaluating the impact of employee turnover and new hire quality on labor
costs helps build the case that these factors are important.
• Involve other units like finance and operations to acquire needed
information and data.
This process helps build your case that staffing activities influence important
organizational outcomes and can secure the buy-in needed to make staffing
improvements and increase the scope of the evaluation program.
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Résumé Screening Software
Screens résumés for certain words or phrases so
that recruiters do not have to look at every résumé.
Saves recruiters a lot of time, and makes Internet
recruiting much more manageable for companies
that receive thousands of responses to a job
posting.
Relying too heavily on software can lead to
overlooking highly qualified candidates who do not
match specific criteria.
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13-23
Applicant Tracking Systems
Applicant tracking system: software that allows you to maintain a
database of both applicant and job information to facilitate
finding matches between openings and applicants.
Allow human resources and line managers to oversee the entire
recruitment and staffing process, from mining résumés to
identifying qualified candidates to conducting background checks
and facilitating onboarding by tracking completed tasks and
activities and automatically sending new hires relevant
information.
Reduce costs, speed up hiring process, and improve the
company’s ability to find people who fit its success profile.
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13-25
Human Resources Information Systems
(HRIS)
Human resources information system: a system of
software and supporting computer hardware specifically
designed to store and process all HR information and
keep track of all employees and information about them
Combine separate HR systems into a centralized
database that performs the majority of HR transactions.
HRIS include reporting capabilities, and some systems
are able to track applicants before they become
employees.
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13-26
Company Website
In addition to providing information about current job
openings, the careers site can also contain information
about the corporate culture and mission.
Online applications are possible, and prescreening tests
can be administered.
Thoughtfully developed careers sites can also result in
more effective interviews because applicants’ basic
questions will already have been answered by Web site
content and poor fits are more likely to have selfselected out after learning more about the organization
and job opportunity online.
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13-27
Digital Staffing Dashboards
Digital staffing dashboards: interactive
computer displays of indicators of how the
staffing function is meeting its goals
Well-crafted staffing dashboards help
companies monitor and manage their
workforce and chart progress toward
meeting strategic and tactical staffing
objectives.
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Seven Tips for Creating Digital Staffing
Dashboard
1. Identify drivers of staffing and business success.
2. Set specific goals. Each metric should have a target level or range that reflects a business
priority (e.g., hiring and retaining more top performers, promoting from within) or
financial return (e.g., reducing turnover saves money).
3. Prioritize. Dashboards are ineffective if they contain too much information. Identify
which metrics are key, and put them on the main dashboard page.
4. Identify how best to present the data. Bar charts, tables, pie charts, graphs, and even
speedometer-style displays are all possible. Test formats and warning colors with the
people who will be using it to identify what works best.
5. Assess user comprehension. Ensure that users are not misinterpreting the data and that
the communicated information is being quickly and clearly understood.
6. Consider including dynamic capabilities on the dashboard to allow for scenario planning
and growth projections.
7. Create data entry accountability. If data is not entered accurately or on time, the
dashboard will not be accurate. Assess and reward managers for maintaining the
database.
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13-30
Applicant Tracking System
Monster ATS (3:52)

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13-31
Technology Enables Evaluation
By creating a database of applicant and employee information,
and automating many of the steps of the staffing process,
technology greatly facilitates the staffing evaluation process.
When properly created and kept current and accurate, databases
enable the relatively fast generation of reports and analyses of
every step of the staffing process.
Digital staffing dashboards can pull information directly from the
database to reflect real-time staffing information.
Technology can also facilitate the administration of employee
surveys that can help evaluate the effectiveness of the staffing
system.
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13-32
Ethics
Everyone responsible for collecting data for a
staffing evaluation should ensure that it is accurate
Personal information about applicants and
employees should be kept private, confidential, and
secure
Data must only be used how applicants or
employees are told that it will be
Recruiter performance comparisons can be unfair
and be limited to year-to-year comparisons within
the same job family and within the same
geographic region
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13-33
Moral Efficacy
An individual’s belief that she or he has the
skills, abilities, and motivation to actively
and positively face the ethical issues that
may arise in the workplace and overcome
obstacles to developing and implementing
ethical solutions to ethical dilemmas
• Foundation for moral courage
• Increases propensity to convert intentions to be ethical
into ethical actions, particularly when there is opposition
or pressure that conflicts with doing so
• Can be improved through development activities
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Discussion Questions
1. What might prevent organizations from
evaluating their staffing systems, and what can
be done to remove these barriers?
2. In your opinion, what three metrics might a
university use to evaluate the effectiveness of its
efforts to fill instructor positions?
3. If your manager was reluctant to invest in an
applicant tracking system, how would you
persuade him or her to make the investment?
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13-35
Discussion Questions
4. As an applicant, how would you feel knowing that
technology was used to make an initial decision to
screen you out of the hiring process?
5. What information do you want to see when you
visit the careers section of a potential employer’s
web site?
6. How can you further develop and improve your
moral efficacy for staffing?
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