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PHC 6410: Final Program PPT – Program Plan

1. Use the information from the Community Needs Assessment Assignment to determine the health priorities of the selected population

2. Complete a Program Plan Outline in the form of a PPT – Based on those health priorities, develop program goals and objectives (at least 3) and associated activities based on a health behavior theory or multiple health behavior theories and models.

3. Based on the selected population, explain how the program activities are culturally sensitive and appropriate.

Community Needs Assessment Project
Minority Health Disparities in East and West Baltimore City
Melika Adhanom
Health Behavior and Public Health
Dr. Biggs
March 28th
Community Needs Assessment Project
The neighborhoods, east, and west of downtown Baltimore, exhibit very high poverty
rates. They are home to some of the poorest black communities in the U.S. – a manifestation of a
prolonged history of policies (implicit and explicit) that have culminated in economic and racial
segregation of minorities(Berube & McDearman, 2016). The community is predominantly
composed of minority groups, with most people living below the national poverty line. A stark
description of this community is best given by Michelle R. Simmons, a resident of West
Baltimore who narrates a story of a once so prosperous community, with lawyers, politicians,
and doctors, which has now been warped by poverty (Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2017). The
segregation and the high level of poverty concentration in these neighborhoods help account for
the severe health disparities in these communities.
“Health disparities are preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence,
or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged
populations” (CDC, 2020). CDC (2013 as cited in Johns Hopkins Medicine 2017) reported that
African American men live less than men of other races by seven years and that adult African
Americans have a higher likelihood to suffer premature death from stroke and heart disease.
Further, CDC (2010 as cited in Johns Hopkins Medicine 2017) stated that 45% of adult Latinos
have a 45 percent more likelihood of dying from diabetes. These outcomes are attributed to the
health disparities present in minority communities in the U.S., mostly resulting from economic
inequality. Low-income families from this community are forced to face tough choices on health
issues which sometimes boil down to whether to eat or to buy medicine (Johns Hopkins
Medicine, 2017). The high unemployment rate in these communities makes it impossible to
afford good or any health insurance, meaning that they cannot access much-needed health care.
Moreover, their poor financial position compels them to live on unhealthy diets, leading to poor
Community Needs Assessment Project
health outcomes. A majority of these communities suffer from diseases like heart disease,
diabetes, cancer, and emphysema, mainly contributed by poor lifestyles.
The community in these neighborhoods is in dire need of drastic educational, economic,
and health interventions. The health disparities in this community are the evidence of a systemic
failure in public health and thus call for a serious restructuring of public health in these
neighborhoods. Although public health has helped improve many health outcomes in all
communities in the country and the world in general, poor economic conditions in this
community have put it at a disadvantage leading to these comparably poor health outcomes
(Chetty, 2016). Poverty is to blame for most of these health outcomes as it means people cannot
afford healthy food, access to good healthcare, medicines, and good housing (Kim et al., 2016, p.
20). Poverty also creates stressful situations which cause mental health issues. But one must
acknowledge that this poverty is the result of disproportionate access to education in this
community compared to communities with better financial abilities. Public health must address
the systemic issue of poverty which is to blame for these health disparities, by addressing the
systemic issues that contribute to it. Policymakers need to create programs that increase access to
education and healthcare.
All the main stakeholders in this community support expanding public health to address
the problems it has not solved. Policymakers like DeSalvo et al. (2016) made a bold claim that
“it is time to boldly expand the scope and reach of public health to address all factors that
promote health and well-being, including those related to economic development, education,
transportation, food, environment, and housing” (para. 1). Politicians also support the idea of
addressing public health issues in poor neighborhoods. For instance, before his death in October
2019, the late Elijah E. Cummings, a former U.S. congressman for Maryland’s 7th District,
Community Needs Assessment Project
advocated for this effort claiming that the U.S. could only become a healthy nation by making its
people healthy (Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2017). Cummings believed that the country needed to
do everything in its power to stem out health disparities. The medical communities like Johns
Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Hospital are already spearheading this initiative by
creating advisory and advocacy boards to help understand and alleviate the situation (Johns
Hopkins Medicine, 2017). There is a consensus among relevant stakeholders on the need to
eradicate health disparities in minority communities.
If I had the time and money to conduct scientific research on health disparities in the
minority community of east and west Baltimore, I would use surveys to collect quantitative data
and interviews, focus groups, and literature review methods to collect qualitative data. Surveys
would help me collect important quantitative data such as patients’ medical history, family
medical history, access to healthcare, financial position, access to healthy foods, and access to
insurance, which I would use to test my hypothesis. The qualitative methods – focus groups and
interviews, and literature review – would help me explore ideas in-depth by giving me a unique
understanding of the subjects’ experiences and guiding me in generalizing ideas based on
previous research.
Community Needs Assessment Project
Berube, A., & McDearman, B. (2016, August 3). Good fortune, dire poverty, and inequality in
Baltimore: An American story. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/theavenue/2015/05/11/good-fortune-dire-poverty-and-inequality-in-baltimore-an-americanstory/
CDC. (2020, November 24). Health disparities among youth | Adolescent and school health |
CDC. Cdc.Gov. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/disparities/index.htm
Chetty, R., Stepner, M., Abraham, S., Lin, S., Scuderi, B., Turner, N., … & Cutler, D. (2016). The
association between income and life expectancy in the United States, 20012014. Jama, 315(16), 1750-1766.
DeSalvo, K. B., O’Carroll, P. W., Koo, D., Auerbach, J. M., & Monroe, J. A. (2016). Public
Health 3.0: Time for an Upgrade. American Journal of Public Health, 106(4), 621–622.
Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2017, April 18). Minority health disparities | Michelle’s story
[Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vlVZKZNXYBA
Kim, M., Budd, N., Batorsky, B., Krubiner, C., Manchikanti, S., Waldrop, G., Trude, A., &
Gittelsohn, J. (2016). Barriers to and Facilitators of Stocking Healthy Food Options:
Viewpoints of Baltimore City Small Storeowners. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 56(1),
17–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/03670244.2016.1246361
which will
help you
achieve your
Intended Audience
(Parents, teachers, health
care professionals,
Responsibility – By Whom?
Timeline – By When?
Subject Knowledge
0 – 69
Does not have a
grasp of the subject
Demonstrates basic
knowledge of the
subject matter
Doesn’t provide an
understanding of the
associated with the
health problem
Provides a basic
understanding of the
associated with the
health problem
decent knowledge
of the subject
Provides proficient
understanding of
the determinants
associated with the
health problem
knowledge of the
subject matter
Provides a
understanding of
the determinants
associated with the
health problem
At least 3 SMART
All of the
objectives or
activities are
appropriate and/or
aligned with the
selected community
Explain and
reinforce screen
text and
Provides a very
detailed, clear
discussion of the
proposed program
Provide a detailed
discussion of an
program evaluation
SMART Objectives
At least 2 objectives
At least 2 SMART
Only one or none of
the objectives or
activities are
culturally appropriate
and/or aligned with
the selected
At least 2 of objectives
are activities are
culturally appropriate
and/or aligned with the
selected community
Uses unnecessary
graphics or no
Occasionally uses
graphics that rarely
support text and
Relate to text and
Provides a statement
regarding the
proposed program
Provides a discussion
of the proposed
Provides a clear
discussion of the
proposed program
No evaluation
method is included
Appropriate program
evaluation method is
program evaluation
method is discussed
Spelling, grammar,
and APA format
for references
9 or more errors
6-8 errors
3-5 errors
Program Activities
At least 3
Some of the
objectives or
activities are
appropriate and/or
aligned with the
selected community
0-2 errors
Program Plan
Alexis Jones
Population: Maternal Mothers
suffering from Perinatal
● For my program plan, I decided to select a different population and health
issue. I will be targeting maternal mothers who are suffering from a mental
health disorder such as perinatal depression.
● Perinatal depression/postpartum depression is considered one of the
leading causes of pregnancy complications.
SMART Goals/ Objectives #1
1. Reduce maladaptive behaviors and
increase adaptive behaviors in
order to lessen suicidal ideations,
Associated Activities (activities
which will help you achieve your
1. Conduct psychotherapy treatments and
group counseling sessions.
Intended Audience (Parents,
teachers, health care professionals,
1. Licensed mental health counselors (LMHC) &
psychologists, social workers, Parents
Responsibility – By Whom?
1. Program coordinator, Lead psychologist,
Public health analyst.
Timeline – By When?
1. Pre and post test. They will attend
counseling sessions once a week for 5
months to evaluate behavioral and cognitive
change. It will begin from January-May.
SMART Goals/ Objectives #2
2. Increase physical activities and teach healthy
behavioral and eating habits.
Associated Activities (activities
which will help you achieve your
2. Attend workout classes. Educate mothers on
at-home healthy exercises and diet. HBM will be
Intended Audience (Parents,
teachers, health care professionals,
2. Fitness coach, Dietician, Health educators &
Open to community seeking maternal knowledge
and education
Responsibility – By Whom?
2. Program coordinator, Fitness coach, Dietician,
Outreach coordinator
Timeline – By When?
2. Program will last for 3 months. during the
summer from June-August. Participants will
attend fitness sessions twice a week. They will
meet with a dietician once every 3 weeks to
assess meal intake.
SMART Goals/ Objectives #3
3. Assess the development of the fetus and
mothers health.
Associated Activities (activities
which will help you achieve your
3. Mothers will meet with an obstetrician to
ensure they are up to health protocols to remain
in the program. HBM will be used.
Intended Audience (Parents,
teachers, health care professionals,
3. Obstetrician & Primary care physician, Parents
Responsibility – By Whom?
3. Program manager, Obstetrician, PCP
Timeline – By When?
3. The mothers will meet with an obstetrician
and their PCP once a month during the summer
program fitness session.
Health Belief
Model (HBM)
Perceived susceptibility: perinatal
depression causes women to experience
thoughts of suicide, have a loss in apetite,
develop insomnia, have deplenished
energy for level.
Perceived severity: perinatal depression
affects 1-5 women.
Benefits: mothers will have improved
cognitive functionality and it will reduce
suicidal thoughts.
Barriers: time management is a barrier in
order to engage in physical activity and
attend group sessions.
Cues to Action: group counseling
session, obstetrician, and fitness coach
will help motivate the participants
Self Efficacy: Mothers will be educated
on how to sustain exercise routine.
● The activities are culturally
sensitive because the
dietician will address meals
that are culturally
appropriate for the mothers.
● The mental health
professionals are culturally
trained to work with a
diverse population.
● The obstetrician and PCP
will receive implicit bias

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