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Introduction to Philosophy Multiple Choice Question
Nozick argued that any attempt to set “patterns” of distribution of wealth must necessarily __________.
a. help the disadvantaged members of society
b. incorporate the idea of “justice as fairness”
c. follow entitlement theory
d. result in the violation of people’s rights
The social contract is __________.
a. an agreement among people to share certain interests and make certain compromises for
the good of them all
b. mainly an agreement of equally selfless and unselfish persons not to commit theft or
c. a choice to serve the public interest at the expense of a small number of individuals
d. the only popular political theory
Hobbes wrote, “To this war of every man, against every man, this also is consequent; that nothing can be
unjust. The notions of right and wrong, justice and injustice have there no place. Where there is no common
power, there is no law; where no law, no injustice.”
Hobbes was referring to __________.
a. the social contract
b. the state of nature
c. the “perilous future”
d. the immediate past, which is neither actual nor hypothetical, but manifest and true
Hobbes wrote, “To this war of every man, against every man, this also is consequent; that nothing can be
unjust. The notions of right and wrong, justice and injustice have there no place. Where there is no common
power, there is no law; where no law, no injustice.”
a. justice must be everywhere and always the same
b. justice must be enforceable, or there is no justice
c. people will always respect justice because they respect one another
d. justice does not require a contract, but it requires mutual care
Hobbes’s ethical theory is clearly a form of __________.
a. rational egoism
b. rational altruism
c. deontology
d. universalism in ethics
According to Hobbes, life in the state of nature was __________.
a. better than life in his own time
b. free and noble
c. poor, solitary, nasty, brutish, and short
d. difficult but honest
Hume wrote, “The laws of war, which then succeed to those of equity and justice, are rules calculated for the
advantage and utility of that particular state in which men are now placed. And were a civilized nation
engaged with barbarians who observed no rules even of war, the former must also suspend their
observance of them where they no longer serve to any purpose, and must render every action or
reencounter as bloody and pernicious as possible to the first aggressors.” Hume here recognized that
morality __________.
a. was a function of reason alone
b. was a matter of individual intuition
c. was a law of nature
d. was usually unnecessary
Hume also assigned great significance to the utility of __________.
a. the system of justice (for the interests of both the individual and the public)
b. ratiocination
c. logic
d. love
“From this fundamental law of nature, by which men are commanded to endeavor peace, is derived this
second law: that a man be willing, when others are too, as far-forth, as for peace, and defence of himself he
shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against
other men, as he would allow other men against himself.” The first fundamental law to which Hobbes
referred in this passage can be paraphrased as __________.
a. accept the state of nature, which is a war of every man against every other man
b. everyone ought to seek peace whenever possible, otherwise war
c. do unto others as you would have them do unto you
d. the mutual transferring of right
10. The first law of nature allowed Hobbes to derive the second. The second law can be paraphrased as
a. the violation of faith
b. the laying down of one’s rights to all things, so long as others do the same, namely, the
social contract
c. the law of the Gospel
d. a proof of the existence of God
11. For Rousseau, the first model of political society was based on the most ancient of all societies, which is
a. the family
b. the clan
c. the village
d. a circle of friends
12. Which of the following thought that the power of the people, that is, the general will, was the ultimate voice of
authority and liberty?
a. Aristotle
b. Mill
c. Hume
d. Rousseau
13. “The conception of justice which I want to develop may be stated in the form of two principles as follows:
first, each person participating in a practice, or affected by it, has an equal right to the most extensive liberty
compatible with a like liberty for all; and second, inequalities are arbitrary unless it is reasonable to expect
that they will work out for everyone’s advantage, and provided the positions and offices to which they attach,
or from which they may be gained, are open to all. These principles express justice as a complex of three
ideas: liberty, equality, and reward for services contributing to the common good.” Which of the following is
the author of this passage?
a. Rawls
b. Mill
c. Hume
d. Kant
14. Which of the following thought that you can judge which society has the fairest government by looking at the
well-being of the worst-off members of those societies? The higher the standard of living, education, job
opportunities, and so forth, of the lowest class, the better the overall society.
a. Plato
b. Aristotle
c. Mill
d. Rawls
15. Which of the following argued that the right to private property was so basic that it preceded any social
conventions or laws and existed quite independent of any government or state, that is, who penned the
original entitlement theory?
a. Locke
b. Mill
c. Hume
d. Nozick
16. According to Nozick, how much room do individual rights leave for the state?
a. The state is sovereign: Its function is to govern universally in all areas of an individual’s
b. The state is comprehensive: Its function is to regulate the major aspects of an individual’s
c. The state is moderate: Its functions regulate most aspects of an individual’s affairs and
protect against force, theft, fraud, enforcement of contracts, and so forth.
d. The state is minimal: Its functions are only to protect individuals against force, theft, fraud,
enforcement of contacts, and so forth.
17. One of the most basic rights, according to Locke, is the right to own private property, and the most basic
private property one can own is __________.
a. land
b. clothing
c. one’s own body
d. a home
18. The theory of social justice advanced by Rousseau and Hobbes, among others, is called __________.
a. utilitarianism
b. universalism
c. legal premise theory
d. social contract theory
19. The major reason for the worldwide lack of food is a problem with __________.
a. justice
b. supply
c. distribution
d. refrigeration
20. Concerning the problem of inequality toward blacks in the United States, why did Malcolm X want to change
labels from “civil rights” to “human rights”?
a. To avoid facing punishment from the law
b. To impress on people that the issue is about real human beings.
c. Because there is nothing “civil” about slavery, oppression, and prejudice.
d. To make it a world problem, that is, an international human rights issue

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