Description

read the document below, do the experiment and write a lab report . I will uppload one example of lab report that I am expecting , so follow that model.

PHY 105

Name______________________

LAB: Graphing

Objective

The purpose of this introductory lab exercise is to gain experience in gathering and displaying

data from a simple experiment. Refer to Figure 1.1 for terminology used when discussing a

graph. This exercise will also familiarize you with using Microsoft Excel or Google Sheets to

create scatter plots.

Materials

ÃƒÂ¼Ã¯Æ’Â¼ 2 types of balls

ÃƒÂ¼Ã¯Æ’Â¼ Meter stick or tape measure

ÃƒÂ¼Ã¯Æ’Â¼ Microsoft Excel or Google Sheets

ÃƒÂ¼Ã¯Æ’Â¼ Tape

Theory

Scatter plots are similar to line graphs in that they use horizontal and vertical axes to plot data

points. However, they have a very specific purpose. Scatter plots show how much one variable is

affected by another. The relationship between two variables is called their correlation.

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Procedure

Part I: AVERAGED BOUNCE DATA

1. Position a meterstick vertically on a flat surface, such as the side of a table or kitchen

cabinet. Secure the meterstick with some masking tape.

2. As a team, pick five different heights on the meterstick from which you will drop the ball

and record them in Data Table 1.

3. Drop the ball from the predetermined height, and measure the resulting height bounced.

Make sure to be consistent with your measurements. (For example if your starting height

is measured from the top of the ball, measure the height of bounce at the top of the ball).

4. Make five bounce measurements for each of the height-dropped levels (25

measurements in all). Record data in Data Table 1.

5. Type all the data, except for the average values into Microsoft Excel or Google Sheets.

6. Calculate the averages using the average function in Excel or Sheets. This is a good way

to check your hand calculations. To do this you can type Ã¢â‚¬Å“=Average(Ã¢â‚¬Â in the cell and then

highlight the relevant cells, or:

Click a cell below or to the right of the numbers for which you want

to find the average. Click the arrow on the Standard toolbar, and then

click Average and press ENTER.

7. Make a graph of the average height bounced for each level that the ball was dropped.

You want to create an xy scatter plot with no markers.

8. (Be sure to have axes labels, units, graph titleÃ¢â‚¬Â¦etc). Remember, the x-axis of a graph is

always your independent variable (thing you control or time) and the y-axis is the

dependent variable. Make sure your graph title is descriptive enough so that the reader

understands the data you are trying to display.

9. Insert a Ã¢â‚¬Å“best fit lineÃ¢â‚¬Â or Ã¢â‚¬Å“trendlineÃ¢â‚¬Â into the graph. The type you want is Linear. Click

on the options to display equation and R-squared value.

A trendline is most reliable when its R-squared value is at or near 1. When you fit a

trendline to your data, Excel or Sheets automatically calculates its R-squared value. A

linear trendline is a best-fit straight line that is used with simple linear data sets. Your

data is linear if the pattern in its data points resembles a line. A linear trendline usually

shows that something is increasing or decreasing at a steady rate.

vÃ¯ÂÂ¶ Click anywhere in the chart.

This displays the Chart Tools, adding the Design, and Format tabs.

vÃ¯ÂÂ¶ On the Design tab, in the Chart Layouts group, click the arrow next to the

Add Chart Element box, and then click the chart element that you want.

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PART II: PREDICTIONS & RESULTS

1. See how well your graph can be used for predictions.

2. Pick three un-tried height-dropped distances and read the resulting bounce height

predictions from the graph. Remember to use your trendline. Note the results in Data

Table 2.

3. Now test the predictions by dropping the ball from the three un-tried heights and record

the actual bounce height in Data Table 2.

4. Calculate the percent error between your predictions and the actual bounce heights using

the formula below.

To include your graph (chart) in the lab report you have a few options.

1. Sheets or Excel (easiest method): You can copy the chart in Sheets or Excel by Control-C

(Command-C on Macs), and then paste into Google Docs or MS Word with Control-V

(Command-V on Macs).

2. Sheets: From the Google Doc, click Insert > Chart > From Sheets.

3. Any app: Take a screenshot.

a. Windows: use the PrintScreen button to copy, then Control-V to paste. You will

need to crop (edit the edges) to show only the relevant chart.

b. Mac: use Command-Shift-3 to screenshot the whole screen, or Command-Shift-4

to highlight an area to screenshot. Then insert the image into your document.

Do not take a photo of your screen with your phone and then paste the cellphone photo.

Doing so may be counted as not submitting the graph.

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DATA TABLES

Data Table 1: Averaged Bounce Data

Dropped

Height

(cm)

Bounce Height (cm)

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

__________

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AVERAGE

__________

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__________

*CHECKPOINT: When your group has the data table filled out and the Excel graph with all

necessary components, raise your hand*.

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DATA TABLE 2: PREDICTIONS AND RESULTS

Trial

Dropped

Height

(cm)

Predicted Bounce

Height (cm) (from

graph )

Measured

Bounce (cm)

1

__________

__________

__________

2

__________

__________

__________

3

__________

__________

__________

Percent

Error

__________

__________

__________

Questions

a. What is the purpose of the trendline?

c. What does the steepness of the trendline (slope) tell you about the bounce of the ball?

d. What is the meaning of the R-Squared value? What does your value tell you about your

data? How accurate were your predictions based on your percent errors?

e. Go and look at the graph/trendline and equation created from a group that used a different

type of ball than your group. How do the slope values compare and what does that tell you

about the bounce of the different balls?

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f. Why is it better to either copy-paste the graph, or take a screenshot, instead of taking a photo

with your cellphone?

Lab originally developed by Anita Soracco, and modified by Andria Schwortz (Quinsigamond Community College,

Worcester, MA)

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