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Impact of climate change on food security in Saudi Arabia: a roadmap to

agriculture-water sustainability

Project Management –Project Grade: 20%Deadline:
7- 20- 2022
Dr Nadia Adnan
The main objective of this project is to train students
to serve their country in the best possible way and
make this country to be a place of innovator, and build a
successful model for Saudi Arabia
Project Learning Outcome
Knowledge and Understanding
Identify key concepts and skills used by managers in managing a project
Explain the project life cycle and the role of organizational Project,
structure and culture on a project
Skills
Explain and apply project scheduling techniques such work break-down
structure, Gantt Chart and Project Network
Utilize project management software tools such as MS Project in planning
and executing project activities
Values
Identify, assess, and plan for risks in a project
Demonstrate an understanding of project monitoring tools and techniques,
and evaluate project performance including ethical and social impact
Tasks.
You must do the following tasks:
1- The students must work in the teams that were assigned on the blackboard
2- Each group will be assigned one industry Project (Saudia Arabia):
Group Number
1
2
Project
Interplay of food security, agriculture and tourism within GCC countries
Impact of climate change on food security in Saudi Arabia: a roadmap to
agriculture-water sustainability
3- Define the industrial Project that were assigned to you and check the sector.
4- The heading remains the same as the reference article, which I have shown in the class information.
You can gather it from anywhere else.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT –PROJECT GRADE: 20%DEADLINE: 7- 20- 2022DR NADIA ADNANTHE
MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROJECT IS TO TRAIN STUDENTS TO SERVE THEIR COUNTRY IN THE
BEST POSSIBLE WAY AND MAKE THIS COUNTRY TO BE A PLACE OF INNOVATOR, AND BUILD A
SUCCESSFUL MODEL FOR SAUDI ARABIA
Page 1
5- Illustrate your understanding of each Project by a real-life example of an organization that utilized
that Project.
6- How did the organization implement their Project?
7- Critically discuss in 6000 words maximum if the Project and implementation tactic used by the
organization were a success or a failure.
Important guidelines
•
•
•
•
Assignments will not be accepted after the deadline
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and their IDs, and submission date.
•
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Rubric
Task
Important notes
The overall Project
The application of each Project should be included. The
application should be accurate, precise, and aligned with the
content of the course.
The examples must accurately reflect the Project.
In addition, it has to adhere to the word count.
The tactics reflect the Project
Examples of the Project
Implementation tactic of the
Project
Discussion of the success of
the utilized Project and tactics
Organization
References Language
Presentation
Total
Page 2
The discussion has to be comprehensive and critical. In
addition, it has to adhere to the word count.
The assignment has to be organized in terms of the layout,
font, content, and structure
References must be included at the end of the assignment in a
dedicated section/ Errors in grammar, spelling and sentence
structure will be evaluated.
Assigned
percentage
2.5 %
1.5 %
3%
3%
2.5%
2.5 %
5%
20%
PROJECT MANAGEMENT –PROJECT GRADE: 20%DEADLINE: 7- 20- 2022DR NADIA
ADNANTHE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROJECT IS TO TRAIN STUDENTS TO SERVE
THEIR COUNTRY IN THE BEST POSSIBLE WAY AND MAKE THIS COUNTRY TO BE A
PLACE OF INNOVATOR, AND BUILD A SUCCESSFUL MODEL FOR SAUDI ARABIA
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
https://www.emerald.com/insight/2044-0839.htm
Impact of climate change
on food security in Saudi
Arabia: a roadmap to
agriculture-water sustainability
Mohammad Imdadul Haque
College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University,
Al Kharj, Saudi Arabia, and
Impact of
climate change
on crop
production
Received 25 June 2020
Revised 27 June 2020
Accepted 28 June 2020
Md Riyazuddin Khan
Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar College, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
Abstract
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of the trends in temperature and rainfall
over the period 1967–2016 (50 years) for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and estimate the effect of these climatic
changes on major crop production.
Design/methodology/approach – To set up an empirical association between crop yields and climatic
variables, the study uses a fixed effect regression framework. This approach makes it possible to capture the
effects of time-invariant indicators and farmers’ independent adaptation strategies in reaction to year-to-year
variations in precipitation and temperature.
Findings – The study observes a significant increase in average temperature by 1.9 degrees Celsius in the last
50 years and the greatest increase is noted in the summer. However, there is no significant change in rainfall.
The results indicate that a one-degree Celsius increase in temperature reduces crop yields by 7–25%. The
results also indicate that rainfall has a positive effect on all the crops. But, rainfall could not offset much of the
adverse effects of temperature.
Research limitations/implications – Future research can focus on the analysis of the climate change
impact assessment for different regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and develop a place-based policy.
Originality/value – The recent initiative to phase out crop production makes the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
entirely rely on imports. This may have little or no impact presently. However, in the future, it is possible that
any global shocks on agriculture due to climate change or geopolitical instability will make the situation worse
off. It will threaten both food and nutrition security in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Therefore, it is important
to study these in the present context to prepare a road map for future food, water and nutrition security.
Keywords Climate change, Agriculture, Crop yield, Food security, Saudi Arabia
Paper type Research paper
1. Introduction
With large oil reserves and fiscal surplus, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (henceforth referred
to as the Kingdom) is a food-secure country as it feeds its population through the import of
food commodities. However, the Kingdom is also prone to raise threats to overall food
security in terms of limited natural resources of agricultural nature, huge reliance on food
import, subsidies, trade policies, water scarcity, high rates of food losses and growing
pressure of climate change. The Kingdom is one of the extremely dry and hottest countries in
the Middle East and as well as in the world. In the last few decades, it has witnessed an
increase in day and night temperatures for the northern part of the country with warmer
nights throughout the country (Almazroui et al., 2017). Different climate simulation models
show an overall rise in the summer temperatures making the occurrence of warm summer
This project was supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz
University under the research project # 2019/02/11185.
Journal of Agribusiness in
Developing and Emerging
Economies
© Emerald Publishing Limited
2044-0839
DOI 10.1108/JADEE-06-2020-0127
JADEE
temperatures recurrent. The projected temperature increases for the Kingdom are up to 48C
that is to the high-end of changes in climatic conditions over the Middle East region.
Moreover, the country is also having low precipitation and projected to experience decreases
in precipitation (Waha et al., 2017).
Production and yield of staple food-crops are getting lower and sometimes uncertain due
to climate change threatening the livelihoods of farming populations and adversely affecting
national food and nutrition security. Huge negative impacts on agriculture and water
supplies in the Kingdom are reported due to climate change, such as an increase in
temperature and decrease in precipitation (Alkolibi, 2002; Alam et al., 2011; Allbed et al., 2017).
Also, Williams et al. (2012) asserted that climate change has a detrimental impact on a wide
range of desert animals in the country. The Kingdom is the world’s leading oil producer, is to
double its greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 2014 levels and is highly exposed
to climate shocks (UNEP, 2017). However, it is one of the few countries addressing climate
change issues more seriously, and this could well be the case because the country has realized
the high probability of the country’s vulnerability to climate variability. This is evident from
the fact that Saudi Arabia ratified the Paris climate agreement even before the deal came
into force.
In Saudi Arabia, soon after the oil-price boost of 1973–74, the government started a
flagship program to protect themselves against a boycott by the farming superpowers. The
Kingdom tapped aquifers and encouraged farmers to produce wheat, guaranteeing a huge
remunerative price and ended up with a large surplus in the early 1990s. During this process,
the wheat production grew enormously, making the Kingdom world’s sixth-largest wheat
exporting country. Later due to the lack of water, the country started reducing the production
for major crops, and earlier, they have ended the domestic production of barley and other
crops. In 2015–16, Saudi Arabia discarded a more than three-decade-old program to grow
wheat. The policymakers also targeted green fodder for gradual termination by 2019 (Ahmed
and Mousa, 2016).
The most important crops in the Kingdom include wheat, sorghum, barley, millets, dates,
vegetables and citrus fruits. More than 90% of crop production is irrigated; therefore,
significant crop yield losses could be possible if there is not enough groundwater irrigation
available for crops in the existence of climate change. A significant reduction in crop yields
and production will cause a rise in the prices of food and non-food commodities. A study
suggests a reduction by more than 30% in the yield of wheat, barley, date and vegetables due
to the change of temperature and rainfall (Alam et al., 2011). Therefore, food security in the
nation has been a great matter of concern for policymakers, as most of the food commodities
in the Kingdom are imported because the domestic production is not enough to fulfill the
domestic needs. Therefore, it is estimated that by 2050, the Kingdom is likely to import all its
domestic food demand (Faiz et al., 2018). Toward this, the researchers propose a study on
quantifying the effects of changing patterns in temperature and precipitation on food
production, yield in the Kingdom. This will help in preparing a roadmap for agricultural
water nexus for food and nutrition security in the country.
Climate is changing, and a further change in it is inevitable. In the previous century, global
climate temperature warmed by about 0.78C. This was accompanied by erratic changes in the
spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation and extreme events such as droughts,
heatwaves, floods and cyclones (IPCC, 2007). Such events are likely to become increasingly
frequent. By the end of the 21st century, it is predicted that global temperature will be further
warmed by another 1.1–6.08C. All emission scenarios from the low, medium and high
temperatures show an increase in the Kingdom. However, in most regions, a decrease in
rainfall is observed while the RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 showed variable patterns. The increase of
temperature and variable pattern of rainfall may increase ambiguity in expanding
sustainable water resource management strategies (Tarawneh and Chowdhury, 2018).
This may have serious implications on food production and nutrition security in a country
like Saudi Arabia that is already facing enormous water scarcity. The government is
inspiring previous wheat growers to involve in alternative sustainable agricultural activities
like greenhouse farming and adopt advanced water technologies like drip and sprinkler
irrigation techniques. And also, to produce high-value crops such as fruits and vegetables
and less water-intensive crops. However, small farmers may continue using traditional
farming techniques to produce wheat. However, the variability and risks associated due
to climate change may influence farmers’ decisions on crop choice and their decisions on
land-use intensity based on their perceptions of climate change. That may help smallholder
households better plan their coping strategies for the effects of climate change (Khanal et al.,
2017; Mishra et al., 2018). The focal purpose for the policy change was mostly because the
program has vastly depleted the country’s scarce water reserves, as the wheat crop is 100%
irrigated. This policy was a radical withdrawal from the country’s everlasting plan been
followed since the early 1980s of accomplishing self-sufficiency in wheat production.
The Kingdom is an arid and water deficit country, with inadequate freshwater supplies.
For the last five decades, the Arabian Peninsula has witnessed a significant change in the
climatic conditions become warmer. The Kingdom has observed a significant increase in
summer temperature by 2.058C while the winters have warmed by 0.88C (Gosling et al., 2011).
It is characterized by low precipitation and the absence of recurrent rivers and permanent
bodies of water. The researchers found that temperature has increased by 1.98C in the last 50
years (1967–2016), and rainfall has decreased. Water remains an extremely valuable resource
in the Kingdom due to its scarcity and occupies the prominent and key position among the
natural resources. According to the World Resource Institute, the Middle East is in a water
crisis since 14 out of the 33 most likely water-stressed countries in 2040 would be in the
Middle East, and the Kingdom is currently ranked 9th in the list (Luo et al., 2015).
Climate models show that in most of the Kingdom, temperatures will rise by up to 48C
toward the end of the 21st century. However, precipitation is low and expected to decrease
further, which is common in most of the Middle East countries. Climate forecasts show that
precipitation will decrease by up to 20% or more in the north-west, and a smaller decrease is
expected in the south and east. However, in the far southeast, there may be increases of up to
20% or more (Gosling et al., 2011). The Kingdom’s arable lands cover 3.42M ha (1.7% of KSA),
and 1.18M ha (0.6% of KSA) is used for agriculture; however, 40% of agricultural land suffer
from salinity due to improper irrigation methods. A recent study found that the increase in
temperature could surge agricultural water demands by 5–15 % to attain the current level of
agricultural productions (Chowdhury and Al-Zahrani, 2013).
In the Kingdom, more than 90% of crop production is irrigated; therefore, significant crop
yield losses could be possible if there is not enough groundwater irrigation available for crops
in the existence of climate change (MEWA, 2017). Results have shown that the crop
temperature increase could adversely affect the crop yields by 5–25% in Saudi Arabia.
Agriculture is the highest water-consuming sector in the Kingdom’s economy, with 84% of
total water consumption. Research also finds that in the future, much of the Kingdom will
become drier, putting excessive pressure on groundwater supplies and resulting in a greater
demand for large-scale desalination (MEWA, 2017; DeNicola, 2015). There is a close
connection between climate, agriculture, water and livelihood of the people. Agriculture is
extremely sensitive to variations in rainfall and temperature; therefore, any significant or
erratic change in climatic variables will affect agricultural crop production severely (Nelson
et al., 2009). These impacts will be further compounded as the land is fixed, and there is a little,
if any, scope to raise agricultural production by bringing additional area under agriculture.
A significant reduction in crop yields and production will cause a rise in the prices of food and
non-food commodities (Nelson et al., 2009). Therefore, climate change may also have serious
implications on the overall consumption patterns, especially in the Kingdom, as it is
Impact of
climate change
on crop
production
JADEE
discontinuing the cultivation of almost major crops. Depending entirely on imports is
dangerous. Any global shocks on agriculture due to climate change or geopolitical instability
can make the situation worse off, which will threaten both food and nutrition security in the
Kingdom. With its increasing threat, the issue of climate change turns out to be a question of
re-maximization production, taking into account the changes in the climatic factors.
2. Literature review
There is enough evidence from the literature that estimates the climatic trends in the
Kingdom and has estimated the loss in crop yields due to climate change. Besides, in 2015–16,
Saudi Arabia also discarded a more than three-decade-old program to grow wheat and ended
its purchase program that achieved self-sufficiency in the Kingdom due to water scarcity in
the region (Montero, 2008). Managing agricultural production in light of the climatic
conditions is a challenge for the Kingdom. Therefore, it is important to study these in the
present context to prepare a road map for future food, water and nutrition security.
2.1 Water security and climate change
Countries across the Middle East are endowed with very limited freshwater resources, and
the water sector is a highly sensitive sector to climate change. Since the Kingdom is one of the
driest regions of the world, water shortages are a persistent threat that needs immediate
attention (Alkolibi, 2002). Moreover, the Kingdom needs to seriously reconsider its water
policy, as the present water crisis seems to worsen more in the coming decade because of
negligence and poor governance and institutions. Decades of inefficient irrigation practices
and poor water policies dominated policy inertia have deteriorated both the water quantity
and quality as well. De Nicola et al. (2015) studied the interrelationship between climate
variables and water availability. Long-term climate trends have a strong and definitive
impact on water resources and have a major influence not only on agriculture productivity
but also on public health. The Kingdom also faces an increased risk of water-related diseases
with water quality rapidly deteriorating. The study highlighted the negative impacts of poor
water quality on public health and concluded that climate change adaption measures could
mitigate the impacts of climate change. Investing and promoting technologies such as
desalinization, wastewater recycling and reuse, and outsourcing virtual water trade can help
the Kingdom to be resilient to climate variability.
Despite low irrigation productivity, the agriculture sector contributes to a significant
share of the virtual water trade. Chowdhury et al. (2016) investigated the possible
implications of climate change on crop water requirements (CWRs) under four scenarios,
namely, (1) current temperature and rainfall (2) temperature in 2050 and current rainfall (3)
rainfall in 2050 and current temperature and (4) temperature and rainfall in 2050. On average,
1 degree Celsius increase in temperature may increase the overall CWR by 2.9% in Al Jouf
region of the Kingdom. Also, sensitivity analysis demonstrated that shifting cropping dates
might have significant implications on CWR. For instance, a shift in wheat production period
by 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days might decrease the CWR by 12%, 27%, 37%, 44% and 48%,
respectively.
Ouda (2013), in his study, found that despite facing severe water shortages, there is a low
level of understanding and awareness among the community and public about the water
crisis. Therefore, there is a greater need to educate consumers and create awareness on
the importance of water conservation through water media campaigns. Therefore, the
involvement of educated young farmers, access to agricultural extension and effective policy
toward the promotion of adoption of agricultural innovations such as climate-smart
agriculture is crucial for achieving agricultural development which can translate into higher
harvest values and food security (Feder et al., 2011; Mshenga et al., 2016). A primary survey of
196 responses across Al Khobar City also revealed that the water charges are too low in Saudi
Arabia to drive any water conservation. Hence, there is an immediate need for a complete
overhaul and revision of the existing water pricing policies to drive water conservation
attitudes. Alazba and Elnser (2013) studied the spatio-temporal variability and effect of
climate change on water resources management across the Kingdom. Understanding the
evapotranspiration is very important to formulate effective water resources management
policies. Areas and zones with low evapotranspiration determined the future water demand
and supply. There was a gradual and consistent increase in the evapotranspiration rates
during the study period from 1980 to 2008. This persistent increase in evapotranspiration is a
significant cause of climate change across Arab countries.
Alkolibi (2002) noted that the shallow groundwater in the Kingdom dries up more
frequently because of low precipitation and excessive use. Due to very low precipitation, a
greater amount of withdrawal from deep aquifers is not replaced by enough natural recharge.
Disproportionate use of groundwater and predicted climatic change and variability endanger
all other existing sources of water. To mitigate the adverse effects of climate change on water
availability and demand, the Kingdom should optimize water use through pricing schemes or
distribution and exchange of user rights. This could also lessen the amount of energy needed
in the intensive desalination of domestic consumption water. The establishment of farm
water meters and plans to standardize irrigation practices would further boost the efficient
use of water (Chatham house, 2013). The Kingdom should upscale the adoption of various soil
conservation practices or using modern agricultural technologies such as short-duration
variety, high yielding and more drought-resistant crops, use of resource conservation
technologies, water management and risk management measures, to adapt to weather
fluctuations and climatic variability (Khan et al. 2016, 2018; Mishra and Pede, 2017; Tripathi
and Mishra, 2017).
2.2 Food security and climate change
The agriculture sector is a fast-growing industry as the country is committed to diversifying
its business from the export of oil and production. The sector contributes 54 billion SR
annually to the GDP, provides 30% of the food available for consumption and hence relies
majorly on imports. The sector, however, faces several challenges that are persistent and
impacts the prospects of the sector as the general climate is not suitable for irrigation with a
very hot and dry climate. Adding to this, soil salinization and low level of water availability
negatively impact agricultural production (Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture,
2017). As water and land are scarce, it is expected that by 2050 the country will be very
important all its domestic food demand (Fiaz et al., 2018). Hence, agriculture is one of the
sensitive sectors to climate change variability and is highly needed for adaptation strategies
and more than mitigation efforts.
Considering the importance of food security, the Kingdom is committed to moving toward
self-sufficiency in agricultural production. The demand for food safety, an integral
component of food security, is increasing and can be partly attributed to changing
consumer preferences induced by rising living standards and growing concerns about food
safety (Ortega and Tschirley, 2017). Fiaz et al. (2018) discussed possible adaptation measures
to achieve food security and self-sufficiency. The study proposed that the government and
agriculture sector should encourage and be willing to adopt innovative and water-saving
technologies such as hydroponics, greenhouse farming and seawater harvesting. The study
also highlighted the importance of the role of extension agent in the promotion of these
technologies and creating awareness among the farming community on efficient watersaving agricultural practices.
Impact of
climate change
on crop
production
JADEE
Alkolibi (2002) examined the possible effects of climate change and global warming on the
agriculture sector and water resources in the Kingdom using general circulation models. The
results from the scenarios and regression analysis implied that an increase in temperature
and decrease in precipitation might have a harmful effect on agriculture and water supplies in
the Kingdom. In the event of possible climate catastrophe, the government and policymakers
need to show high and positive willingness to invest in rainwater harvesting and recharge of
deep aquifers and generate political will for supplying an enabling environment for the
widespread adoption of climate-smart technologies (Raile et al., 2019). Several crops are
expected to see a decline in production because of climate change, and therefore this paper
proposes some policy recommendations to overcome extreme climate shocks. Reducing or
completely closing winter wheat and other crop production due to lack of water in the
Kingdom is not a viable solution in the long-run. The study proposed an increase in usage of
effective irrigation methods such as drip and sprinkler irrigation, expanding conservation
agriculture, adopt a more stringent water use policy and increase in research and
development are few of the policy suggestions for climate change adaptation and mitigation
to tackle the situation.
The Kingdom is the most negatively affected country by climate change. A recent study
by (Kompas et al., 2018) estimated gross domestic product (GDP) loss for RCP6.0 (mediumhigh emission) scenario with increasing global warming of 38C by 2,100 would reduce GDP by
more than 5% in the long-run (2099) in the Kingdom. The authors also estimated the GDP loss
from the long-run impacts of different global warming scenarios (1–48C) and found that it will
reduce GDP by 1.65%, 3.45%, 5.44% and 7.78%. In a related study, (Lafakis et al., 2019)
opined that oil demand declines quite dramatically as temperatures rise. The authors think
that the subsequent lowering of price implied by the reduction in oil demand will reach nearly
14% by 2048 in the RCP 8.5 scenario. This would create a great deal of economic stress, and
the Kingdom’s economy will be over 10% smaller by 2048 in the RCP 8.5 scenario.
Agriculture productivity in the Kingdom is limited by land space and has significant
spatio-temporal variation. The long-term climatic conditions are not suitable for the
production of various crops, and hence the country is forced to rely on imports. Alam et al.
(2011) studied the impact of climate parameters like maximum and minimum temperature,
water availability and humidity at different stages of plant growth for some of the major
crops that include wheat, dates and vegetables. PRECIS climate model and DSAT model is
used for prediction and forecasts of selected crop production under alternative climate
scenarios. The study finds that the production of all types of crops is highly affected by
limited water availability. The importance of crop diversification is highly stressed as the
country is expected to witness a substantial decline in agriculture productivity even under
normal climatic conditions.
The agriculture sector in the Kingdom uses over 70% of the annual water use. Multsch
et al. (2017) developed a water footprint assessment framework to understand irrigation
water consumption patterns and agriculture policy changes. The scenario analysis carried
out by the authors reveals that the cropping area has dropped by 33% since 2000 that is
associated with lower water consumption due to crop production. The study also highlights
the potential of further reduction of water for irrigation purposes with strong government
and policy support that encourages crop diversification. For instance, the authors
recommend that the cultivation of vegetables instead of cereals and fodder crops have a
water reduction potential of about 15%.
In contrast, the cultivation of fruits tends to increase water consumption. Other alternative
options for reducing irrigation water demand could be an optimization of crop timing and
quantity to improve water productivity. In a related study, Chatham house (2013) opined that
the present investment in agricultural production in the Kingdom is both economically and
environmentally inefficient, and there is a stronger need to stop and rationalize subsidies for
wheat a water-intensive crop. To tackle some of the pressing challenges posed by climate
change risks, the government should implement efficient water pricing reforms supported
by real income transfers. Agricultural policies should promote efficient pricing of inputs
and outputs that are economically efficient and create environmentally sustainable
infrastructure.
In the current study, the broad objective is to assess the impact of climate change on
agricultural crop production using historical data and identification of current and future
risks to livelihoods due to climatic variability. Also, we discuss an inventory of various
adaptation strategies, including technologies, agronomic and management practices and
institutional arrangements to cope with climate risks, food, water and nutrition security.
3. Data and methodology
The time-series data for the Kingdom consist of county-level data on crop yields of major food
crops and information on climatic variables such as rainfall and temperature of 50 years
starting from 1967 to 2016 to estimate the climate change impacts on main crops. The data on
major crops area and its production are collected from FAOSTAT of Food and Agriculture
Organizations (FAO) of the United Nations [1] and World Development Indicators (WDI) of
the World Bank longitudinal database [2]. Corresponding data on rainfall and temperature
for more than 100 years from The Climate Change Knowledge Portal (CCKP) of The World
Bank Group [3]. The average monthly temperature is converted to the average temperature
for the crop-growing period and monthly rainfall data are summed up as cumulative rainfall
during the growing period. CCKP of The World Bank Group also provides projections for
maximum, minimum and mean temperature and for rainfall and as well as for other different
climatic indicators such as dry days, rainy days, dry spell and harmful degree days which will
help us to forecast the effect of climate change impacts on crop production and allied
activities.
To set up an empirical association between crop yields and climatic variables, we
follow the time series data approach as described in the Deschenes and Greenstone (2007)
and Birthal et al. (2014). This approach gives a long-run time dimension to the problem,
making it better to estimate the true effect of climate change on crop production.
Additionally, this approach makes it is possible to capture effects of the time-invariant
indicators (e.g. geographic location, soil features, etc.) and the farmers’ independent
adaptations strategies (e.g. changing the planting dates, switching to a new modern
variety and proper use of input, better agronomic practices, etc.) in reaction to year-toyear variations in precipitation and temperature. The time series regression model
absorbs the technological change in the production decision with time, and the data model
is specified as:
Lnyt ¼ Tt þ βXt þ εt
The subscript t in the above time series model equation denotes the time. The dependent
variable term y is the crop yield (tones/hectare) while, ε denotes the error terms. T represents
the simple time dummy; therefore, time fixed effects will capture the changes in technology,
infrastructure, etc. that may influence crop yield, and X denotes the factors of weather
variables such as precipitation and temperature.
4. Analysis
Table 1 shows the information about the main crops grown in the Kingdom. Wheat has the
largest share of the area following sorghum, dates and barley. All these crops have different
growing periods except wheat and barley, which share the same growing period from
Impact of
climate change
on crop
production
JADEE
November to April. Sorghum growing period is August to January, and dates is an entire year
crop. The authors generated the average temperature and total rainfall for these crops
following the growing period. Both barley and yield have a higher yield. However, they are
most volatile when compared to dates and sorghum. Both wheat and barley grow at a
relatively lower temperature. The average growing temperature is 19 (8C) compared to 23 (8C)
for sorghum and 25 (8C) for dates. In addition, rainfall is scantly in the entire growing period
for all these crops and relies mostly on groundwater irrigation. Therefore, the conjecture is
that the effect of rising temperature and decrease in rainfall will have a greater impact on all
the crops and more so in wheat and barley production.
Figure 1 shows the yield distribution of the main crops. This graph plotted using
LOWESS stands for “locally weighted least squares” graphs for the yield distribution across
the different time-periods. A continuous increase in yield for wheat and barley for as well is
Wheat
Area (In ’000 ha)
Table 1.
Average yield (kg/ha),
temperature and
rainfall of major crops
growing period
Figure 1.
Trend in yield (tones/
hectare) of major crops
in the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia
(1967–2016)
323.36
(258.68)
Yield (tones/hectare)
3.96
(1.62)
Temperature (8C)
19.48
(0.73)
Rainfall (mm)
52.64
(15.58)
Note(s): Standard errors are in parenthesis
Source(s): Author’s estimation
Source(s): Author’s estimation
Sorghum
Barley
Date
141.10
(79.83)
1.37
(0.76)
23.89
(0.62)
26.13
(7.1)
37.87
(57.84)
4.26
(2.38)
19.48
(0.73)
52.64
(15.58)
91.37
(44.4)
6.6
(0.82)
25.07
(0.67)
72.2
(18.68)
seen. However, for sorghum yield, there is a decline in yield until 1985, but later it starts
increasing. However, the yield of dates is declining continuously.
Table 2 shows the test for the augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) test for unit root. Since
temperature and precipitation time series may be stationary over time and may have strong
trends, particularly in temperature. Thus, it can be removed by either introducing the trend
term in the regression model to make it stationary, which is the requirement of this method or
by differencing (lag 1). The researchers first check the stationarity of this using the ADF test
for unit root. If the non-stationarity is not controlled, then our regression model is
misidentified, and this can produce misleading results and inferences. Therefore, the ADF
test for stationary is applied, and it is found that the null hypothesis of a unit root cannot be
rejected, as the test statistics is smaller than the critical values. The ADF test statistics values
are at 3.60, 2.94 and 2.60 at 1, 5 and 10%, respectively. Therefore, from the above table, it is
concluded that all the time series variables are nonstationary over time, and after detrending,
the series becomes stationary over time. Moreover, in the analysis, the researcher also
controls the time trend in model estimation.
Figure 2 shows the temperature trend for each month across the time-period 1867–2019. A
continuous increase in temperature in each month is seen. The greatest increase is observed
from April to July. Some of the months have witnessed a greater deviation in temperature
across the years. For example, from November to April, temperature changes have been more
unpredictable and have huge deviations. For May to October, the deviations are small.
Figure 3 plots the trend in monthly total rainfall for each month over 50 years (1967–2016).
Two things are evident from the figures. First, all the months have witnessed a decrease in
total monthly rainfall except July and December. Second, the deviation in yearly rainfall for
each month is huge. It is also to note that throughout the months, less rainfall is observed.
Some of the months received very low rainfall, especially winters. However, in the summer as
well, there is not enough rainfall available. Therefore, the groundwater source is an alternate
source for potential irrigation for crops. Given the low rainfall, the aquifer is not recharged
well every year; therefore, complete reliance on groundwater leads to drying up of aquifer
every year. This makes the Kingdom more vulnerable as agriculture is greatly dependent on
groundwater irrigation.
To get the actual trend in temperature in rainfall and temperature, the researchers
regresses climatic variables with time trends to get the coefficients for time trend, which
ADF statistics
Detrending
Yield (tones/hectare)
Wheat
Sorghum
Barley
Date
Cereal
0.974
1.175
1.511
2.179
1.123
4.197
4.071
2.898
4.705
3.373
Temperature
Wheat/barley (Nov to April)
Sorghum (August to January)
Date/cereal (yearly)
1.409
0.98
0.792
5.837
5.9
5.208
2.247
2.425
2.164
5.452
6.019
6.088
Rainfall
Wheat/barley (Nov to April)
Sorghum (August to January)
Date/Cereal (yearly)
Source(s): Author’s estimate
Impact of
climate change
on crop
production
Table 2.
Unit root test and
detrending of the time
series variable
JADEE
Figure 2.
Trend in average
monthly temperature
in the last 50 years
(1967–2016)
Source(s): Author’s estimate
Impact of
climate change
on crop
production
Figure 3.
Trend in total monthly
rainfall in the last 50
years (1967–2016)
JADEE
shows the on an average change in the last 50 years (1967–2016). It is later multiplied by the
number of years to get the overall change in the climatic parameters.
Table 3 presents the summary statistics of weather variables. To estimate the trends of
climate variables, monthly mean temperature and aggregate rainfall were regressed with the
time trend. This gives the percent annual change over the last 50 years (1867–2016), and later,
the trend coefficient multiplied by 50 get the actual change in the climatic variables. During
the study period of 1967–2016, the average temperature in the Kingdom increased by almost
1.9 (8C), and the greatest increase is observed in April to August with an average increase of
more than 2.3 (8C). All the months have witnessed an increase in temperature significantly,
and it varies by 1.31–2.66 (8C). All these changes are significant at 1 and 5%, respectively. We
do not find an increase in annual rainfall as some of the months have witnessed both increase
and decrease in rainfall. 7 out of 12 months have witnessed a decrease in rainfall and the
greatest decrease observed in April. Not all the changes in rainfall are significant except for
May, in which rainfall increased on an average by 6.5 mm. To summarize, the temperature in
the Kingdom has increased significantly, and rainfall has decreased over the period 1967–
2016. This is not favorable for agricultural production, especially for the Kingdom that
already has scantly rainfall and less groundwater.
Table 4 presents the estimated equations for climate shocks’ effects on all the crops (both
summer and winter). We find that an increase in average temperature has a significant
negative influence on yields for all the crops. The loss is yield varies from 6% to 25%. The
maximum loss due to 1-degree increase in temperature reduces barley yield by approximately
25%, while sorghum 7.6% and both wheat and dates experienced loss around 7% in the last
50 years during the period (1967–2016). The researcher also finds the non-linear effect of
temperature increase on yield production. There is a positive effect of rainfall for almost all
the crops except for wheat; however, it is not significant. The quadratic term for rainfall is
negative and significant. This indicates a non-linear effect as surplus rainfall has a harmful
effect on the crop yields. Except for wheat and sorghum, rainfall does not significantly affect
other crops as they are harvested with more irrigation/rainfall. Also, the time fixed effects are
significant, indicating the significance of farm-level changes in agronomic and cropping
practices resulting from climatic variations.
Mean
Table 3.
Changes in the
monthly mean
temperature and total
rainfall
Temperature
% Annual
change
Change
(8C)
Mean
Rainfall
% Annual
change
Change
(mm)
January
15.56(1.06)
0.0262**
1.31
6.7(4.05)
0.0042
0.21
February
17.43(1.27)
0.0402***
2.01
5.5(3.78)
0.0432
2.16
March
20.77(1.2)
0.0298***
1.49
12.17(7.28)
0.1076
5.38
April
25.08(0.99)
0.0433***
2.165
15.49(9.82)
0.1176
5.88
May
29.55(0.86)
0.0465***
2.325
8.81(7.32)
0.1303*
6.515
June
32.09(0.79)
0.0445***
2.225
2.05(0.84)
0.0003
0.015
July
32.57(0.79)
0.0439***
2.195
3.29(1.32)
0.0107
0.535
August
32.7(0.94)
0.0533***
2.665
3.43(2.09)
0.0193
0.965
September 30.69(0.68)
0.0377***
1.885
1.06(0.56)
0.0025
0.125
October
26.35(0.84)
0.0361***
1.805
2.16(1.78)
0.0075
0.375
November 21.07(0.86)
0.0259***
1.295
6.68(4.88)
0.0298
1.49
December
16.96(1.14)
0.0241**
1.205
6.1(3.13)
0.0264
1.32
Note(s): Figures in parentheses are standard errors, and ***, ** and * denotes significance at 1%, 5% and
10%, respectively
Source(s): Author’s
Wheat
Barley
Sorghum
Date
0.0698*
0.2564**
0.0765**
0.0688*
(0.0407)
(0.1033)
(0.0375)
(0.0360)
Rainfall (mm)
0.0240*
0.0005
0.0440
0.0033
(0.0121)
(0.0194)
(0.0278)
(0.0054)
Rainfall square (mm)
0.0002**
0.0000
0.0008*
0.0000
(0.0001)
(0.0002)
(0.0004)
(0.0000)
Time trend
0.0318***
0.0541***
0.0461***
0.0009
(0.0018)
(0.0053)
(0.0050)
(0.0015)
Constant
61.3445***
101.5309***
90.4309***
5.4497**
(3.4910)
(8.9882)
(8.6967)
(2.4696)
Time
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No. of observation
50
50
50
50
R-squared
0.8597
0.7579
0.8588
0.2055
F-statistics
83.1952
60.4422
95.0038
3.3407
Note(s): Figures in parenthesis are standard errors, ***, **, and * denotes significance at 1%, 5% and 10%
respectively; time dummy included but not shown, where the dependent variable is log yield of each
particular crop
Source(s): Author’s estimate
Temperature (8C)
Low
emission
(RCP2.6)
Temperature
Wheat
1.20
and
Barley
Sorghum
1.26
Date
1.18
2020–39
Medium- Mediumlow
high
emission
emission
(RCP4.5)
(RCP6.0)
High
emission
(RCP8.5)
Low
emission
(RCP2.6)
2080–99
Medium- Mediumlow
high
emission
emission
(RCP4.5)
(RCP6.0)
Table 4.
Impact of temperature
and rainfall shocks on
crop yields
High
emission
(RCP8.5)
1.18
1.29
1.53
1.00
2.24
2.80
4.49
1.41
1.24
1.57
1.38
1.68
1.54
1.18
1.14
2.54
2.34
3.18
3.00
5.02
4.68
1.51
7.37
3.66
11.06
0.37
0.79
38.22
42.55
3.81
3.60
5.17
0.04
2.56
3.49
23.01
41.62
5.71
5.00
Rainfall
Wheat
2.94
4.39
and
Barley
Sorghum
2.86
8.96
Date
3.09
4.12
Source(s): Author’s calculation
Impact of
climate change
on crop
production
Table 5 shows the climate change prediction in the Kingdom over the 21st century. The
projected temperature and precipitation and their uncertainties have been studied using the
predictions of the CCSM4 model adopted by the 5th Assessment Report of the IPCC (CMIP5
multimodel). The output data of temperature and rainfall are obtained under RCP2.6 (low
emission), RCP4.5 (Medium-low emission), RCP6 (medium-high emission) and RCP8.5 (high
emission) scenarios for the periods of 2020–2039 and 2080–2099 respectively. The CMIP5
data sets are widely used by the scientific community to understand various aspects of global
and regional climate. The researchers used the prediction data from the CCKP of the World
Bank for understanding the possible changes in climatic variables and its probable effect on
crop production. The CMIP5 experiments used a new generation of global models with
Table 5.
Climate Change
Prediction using
CMIP5 model
JADEE
improved physical parameterizations and new emission scenarios. The results indicate that
throughout all the emission scenarios, there is a significant increase in growing period
temperature for all the crops and predictions for rainfall varying. The highest temperature
increase is observed for the sorghum crop-growing period followed by wheat, barley and
date. The dates growing period comprise of all the 12 months; therefore it is concluded that by
the end of 2040 temperature is going to increase by 1.18–1.54 degree Celsius while by the end
of 21st century the temperature is going to rise by 1.14–4.68 degree Celsius under different
emission scenarios.
Rainfall change prediction under different emission scenarios was not consistent. For
example, there is an increase in rainfall for wheat and barley growing period (November to
April) in 2020–39, and this is consistent for 2018–99 as well except in the high emission
scenario where rainfall decreases slightly. Similarly, there is an increase in rainfall under low
and medium-low emission scenarios, but it decreases in medium-high and high emission
scenario. Therefore, it is concluded that temperature in both the time-periods 2020–39 and
2080–99 show a significant increase while there is an ambiguity in rainfall prediction.
However, we see on an average increase in rainfall by 5 mm by the end of the 21st century
under high emission scenarios. Thus, the increased temperature will have an adverse effect
on agriculture in the Kingdom, and this will have great implications for agricultural systems,
food security and nutrition security. This suggests that the Kingdom needs to increase its
resilience in agriculture through innovation, institution and technology development to make
climate-smart agriculture in the Kingdom.
5. Conclusion
This paper studies the trends in temperature and rainfall over the period 1967–2016 (50 years)
for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and estimates the effect of these climatic changes on crop
production of major four crops such as wheat, barley, sorghum and dates. The study finds
that there is an increase in temperature in each month, and an on average temperature has
been increased by 1.9 degree Celsius in the last 50 years. The study does not find a significant
change in rainfall overall. The estimated loss over the periods in all the crops ranges from 7 to
25%. The study also shows the projected change in temperature and rainfall by the end of the
21st century over the different emission period. There is a significant increase in temperature
and a slightly positive change in rainfall under the high emission scenario. Given the
estimates loss in crop yield at 1-degree Celsius increase in temperature shows the effect on
crop loss will be higher under all the emission scenarios by the end of the 21st century. This is
the business as usual case, therefore if the necessary adaption and mitigation strategies not
taken place in the Kingdom, then it will have will a bigger effect on both food and nutrition
security.
Food security is the ultimate result of the food production process. Climate change
influences food security through food availability, food access, food supply stability and food
price instability. In recent decades, increasing threat by a warmer climate, the decline in
precipitation and severe droughts in the Kingdom has resulted in the drying up of water
bodies and severe degradation of ecosystems that has affected the agriculture crops and
allied activities badly. Wheat is an important food for the Kingdom’s population, and the
results indicate a significant decline in crop yields with changes in climatic parameters. The
negative effects of climate change on sorghum and dates production appear to be similar;
however, the effect on barley is quite large. In the past five decades, the net sown area is
shrinking for all the major crops because lack of water in the Kingdom and government also
sensitizing farmers to stop cultivating water-intensive crops.
As is the case with land, the water resources in the Kingdom experience huge stress.
Groundwater usage has already stretched to its limits of exploitation. An increase in
agriculture in the Kingdom will further undermine the availability of groundwater. Due to the
continuously changing climate and its increasing threats on society, socio-economic impacts
are rising in the form of a shortage of water, food insecurity, poor health, extreme events and
damage to infrastructure for future sustainable intensification. However, the recent
government initiative to phasing out main crop (wheat) production makes the Kingdom
entirely rely on imports, which may have no or little impact on global prices temporarily,
however in the future it may emerge as a serious issue in the Kingdom. It is also possible that
any global shocks on agriculture due to climate change or geopolitical instability will make
the situation worse off, which will threaten both food and nutrition security in the Kingdom.
Therefore, it is important to study these in the present context to prepare a road map for
future food, water and nutrition security.
The results suggest that in the absence of efficient adaptation and mitigation strategies
meeting food requirements will be a huge challenge because of climate change. Therefore, it is
necessary to encourage the adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices to overcome the
impending dangers to food security. The study recommends a comprehensive range of
adaptation measures. Some crucial methods that help in diminishing the harmful effect of
climate change include are planting dates and other crop varieties, growing drought-tolerant
crops, mixed/ intercropping, afforestation and sustainable agricultural use. Other key
adaptation strategies include water harvesting and management practices, its conservation
and efficient use through micro-irrigation techniques such as sprinkler and drip irrigation.
Conservation agriculture, such as laser land leveling and zero tillage, are ways to conserve
land and water resources. Adoption of modern agricultural technologies such as breeding for
stress-tolerance, hybrid variety and less water-intensive crops variety is the need of the hour
in the Kingdom for sustainable agriculture. In addition, enhancing credit delivery and crop
insurance products is crucial to support the farmers in adopting adaptation and mitigation
measures.
Notes
1. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home.
2. https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/world-development-indicators.
3. https://climateknowledgeportal.worldbank.org/.
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About the authors
Dr. Mohammad Imdadul Haque is an Associate Professor and Head of the Management Department,
College of Business Administration at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia. Dr. Haque obtained his Master’s and Ph.D. in Economics from Aligarh Muslim University, India.
He has published more than twenty-five research papers in journals of international repute and awarded
six funded university projects to his credit in the last 12 years of his teaching and research experience.
His research work focus on economic growth and development issues in the Middle East particularly
focused in Saudi Arabia. Mohammad Imdadul Haque is the corresponding author and can be contacted
at: m.haque@psau.edu.sa
Dr. Md Riyazuddin Khan is an Assistant Professor at the Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar College,
University of Delhi, New Delhi India. Dr. Khan received his Master’s, M.Phil, and Ph.D. from the
Department of Geography, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi. He has more than ten years of
teaching and research experience with a special focus on regional geography, peace and conflict, climate
change and development policy issues. He has published more than ten research articles and books to his
credit.
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System screens.
1
Application forms
Call:
()
Topic:
Type of Action:
Proposal number:
Proposal acronym:
Type of Model Grant Agreement:
Table of contents
Section
Title
1
General information
2
Participants
3
Budget
Action
How to fill in the forms
The administrative forms must be filled in for each proposal using the templates available in the submission system. Some data fields
in the administrative forms are pre-filled based on the stepsin the submission wizard.
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Proposal ID
Acronym
1 – General information
Field(s) marked * are mandatory tofill.
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Abstract
Short summary (max. 2,000characters, with spaces) to clearly explain:
o Objectives
o Activities
o Type and number of persons benefiting from the project
o Expected results
o Type and number of outputs to be produced
Will be used as the short description of the proposal in the evaluation process and in communications with the programme management
committees and other interested parties.
• Do not include any confidential information.
• Use plain typed text, avoiding formula and other special characters.
If the proposal is written in a language other than English, please include an English version of this abstract in the “Technical
Annex” section.
Same as organisation name
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Application forms
Proposal ID
Acronym
Acronym is mandatory
3- Budget
No.
Name of Country
A.
A.
B.
C.
C.
C.
Personnel Personnel Subcontra Purchase Purchase Purchase
beneficiary
costscosts –
cting
costscostscostswithout volunteers costs/€ Travel and Equipmen Other
volunteers
subsistenc
t/€
goods,
/€
e/€
worksand
/€
services/€
(a1)
1
Total
EACEA ver1.0020210406
(c1)
(b)
(a2)
(c3)
(c2)
Total
eligible
costs/€
(h)
Ineligible Total
Funding Maximum Requested Maxgrant Income In kind Financial
Own
Total
costs estimated
rate
EU
EU
amount generated contributi contributi resources estimated
project
contributi contributi
by the
ons
ons
project
costsand
on to
on to
project
income
contributi
eligible eligible
ons
costs
costs
(j)
(k)
(U)
(l)
(m)
(n)
(p)
(o)
(q)
(r)
(s)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0,00
0
0
0,00
0,00
0,00
0
0
0
0
0,00
0
0
0
0
0
0
0,00
0
0
0,00
0,00
0,00
0
0
0
0
0,00
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Application forms
Validation result
Show Error
The red ‘Show Error’ button indicatesan error due toamissing or incorrect value related to the call eligibility criteria.Thesubmission of the
proposal will be blocked unless that specific field iscorrected!
Show Warning
The yellow ‘Show Warning’ button indicatesa warning due toamissing or incorrect value related to the call eligibility criteria.Thesubmission
of the proposal will not be blocked (proposal will be submitted with the missing or incorrect value).
Section
Description
The form hasnot yet been validated, click “Validate Form” to do so!
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Call: [insert call identifier] — [insert call name]
EU Grants: Application form (CREA MEDIA and CROSS): V2.0 – 15.01.2022
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION (PART B)
COVER PAGE
Part B of the Application Form must be downloaded from the Portal Submission System, completed and then assembled
and re-uploaded as PDF in the system.
Note: Please read carefully the conditions set out in the Call document (for open calls: published on the Portal). Pay
particular attention to the award criteria; they explain how the application will be evaluated.
PROJECT
Project name:
[project title]
Project acronym:
[acronym]
Coordinator contact:
[name NAME], [organisation name]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ADMINISTRATIVE FORMS (PART A) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION (PART B) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
COVER PAGE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
PROJECT SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
1. RELEVANCE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
1.1 Background and general objectives……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
1.2 Needs analysis and specific objectives…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.3 European added value ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
1.4 Environment and sustainability ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
1.5 Gender balance, inclusion and diversity ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
2. QUALITY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
2.1 Concept and methodology …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
2.2 Format ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
2.3 Potential………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.4 Cost effectiveness and financial management ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.5 Risk management …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
3.1 Partnership and consortium, roles and tasks division ……………………………………………………………………………. 10
3.2 Project teams …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
3.3 Development strategy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
3.4 Financing strategy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
4. DISSEMINATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
4.1 Communication, promotion and marketing ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
4.2 Dissemination and distribution…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
4.3 Impact …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
5. WORKPLAN, WORK PACKAGES, TIMING AND SUBCONTRACTING ……………………………………………………… 15
5.1 Work plan………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
5.2 Work packages and activities ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
Work Package 1 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
Work Package ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19
Overview of Work Packages(n/a for Lump Sum Grants: European Co-development’, ‘European Slate
development’, ‘European Mini-Slate development’, ‘TV and Online content’, ‘European festivals’ and ‘Videogame
and immersive content development’) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19
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Events and trainings ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
5.3 Timetable ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
5.4 Subcontracting ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
6. OTHER ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
6.1 Ethics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
6.2 Security…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
7. DECLARATIONS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
ANNEXES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
PROJECT SUMMARY
Project summary
See Abstract (Application Form Part A).
1. RELEVANCE
1.1 Background and general objectives
Background and general objectives
For ‘European Co-development’, ‘European Slate development’, ‘European Mini-Slate development’, ‘TV and Online
content’ and ‘Video games and immersive content development’:
– Provide a presentation of the applicant company (and partners for the European Co-Development and TV and Online
actions), its management, its activities, its present position in the national and European markets and its editorial line
in terms of development and production.
– For European Slate and Mini-Slate development, also describe the company’s development plans and its present
and forecast financial status (this must include the company’s total turnover and total development expenditure in the
last two financial years in €).
For ‘Fostering European media talents and skills’, ‘Markets & networking’, ‘Innovative tools and business models’,
‘MEDIA360°’ ‘Networks of European cinemas’, ‘Networks of European festivals’, ‘European VOD networks and
operators’, ‘European festivals’, ‘Subtitling of cultural content’, ‘Audience Development and Film Education’, ‘Creative
Innovation Lab’, ‘Media Literacy’, ‘Defending media freedom and pluralism’ and ‘Journalism Partnership‘: Define the
objectives of your proposal and explain their relevance to this call for proposals.
For ‘European Film Distribution’ and ‘European Film Sales’: Describe your company position on the national and
European/international market as well as your editorial line/catalogue (size, genre, speciality, etc.) and the latest
developments/changes in regards to release windows. Describe typical/planned marketing and promotion campaigns
for the release/sale of European non-national film(s). If a release is already planned please be specific on the release
campaign (number of prints and cinemas, type of marketing and promotion activities, innovative ways to attract
audiences, type of audience, objectives in terms of admissions, etc). For European Film Distribution, please also explain
how you intend to co-produce and/or acquire European non-national films. For European Film sales, you can also
indicate the festivals/markets that you principally target.
For ‘Films on the Move’: Describe the experience of the sales agent on pan-European projects, the number of
distributors involved and the experience of distributors and their involvement in the project.
Insert text
1.2 Needs analysis and specific objectives
Needs analysis and specific objectives (n/a for ‘European Film Distribution’ and ‘European Film Sales’,
‘Subtitling of cultural content’ and ‘Audience Development and Film Education’)
For ‘European Co-development’:
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– Describe the added value of the co-development approach, in particular with regards to the nature of the project and
the complementarity of the background and experience of the partners involved.
– Describe how the production companies will collaborate on the joint development of creative aspects and storytelling.
For ‘European Slate development’ and ‘European Mini-Slate development’: Describe how the slate will help improve
the company’s position on the European and international market in relation to its co-production approach, partnership
with players from different countries (including from countries with different production capacity), visibility at major film
festivals and physical and online markets, capacity to increase the company’s turnover, and capacity to increase the
number, ambition or size of projects in development.
For ‘TV and Online content’: Describe the strategies implemented so far in order to reach the confirmed financing of
the submitted project, the level of cooperation between operators and what, in your view, is original and innovative in
the financing structure.
For ‘Video games and immersive content development’: Describe the originality and creativity of the concept of the
project compared to existing work, including originality of the story.
For ‘Fostering European media talents and skills’, ‘Markets & networking’, ‘Innovative tools and Business models’ and
‘MEDIA 360°’, ‘Creative Innovation Lab’, ‘Media Literacy’, ‘Defending media freedom and pluralism’ and ‘Journalism
Partnership’: Describe how your activity meets the needs of the industry/sectors.
For ‘Networks of European cinemas’: Describe how you measure the expected impact of the action and list key
performance indicators. Describe the methodology for the allocation of the support to the network members.
For ‘Networks of European festivals’: Describe the network scope and strategy to reach a structured, effective and
sustainable coordination.
For ‘European festivals’: Describe the activities towards the audience, including year-long activities, satellite and/or
decentralised events, the communication strategy (traditional and innovative ways, including online activities) and the
film literacy initiatives as well as other actions for young audiences on European films.
For ‘European VOD Networks and operators’: Explain the added value of your project compared to the current position
and activities of the VOD platforms involved.
For ‘Films on the Move’: Describe the global strategy as sales agent and the geographic coverage of the proposal,
taking into account theatrical and/or online distribution territories confirmed (including countries outside of thegrouping
in Europe and outside of Europe) and existing partnerships with online platforms or festivals.
Insert text
1.3 Saudi Arabia added value

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1.4 Environment and sustainability
Insert text
1.5 Gender balance, inclusion and diversity
Gender balance, inclusion and diversity
Describe the strategies to ensure gender balance, inclusion, diversity and representativeness, either in the
project/content or in the way of managing the activities.
Insert text
2. QUALITY
2.1 Concept and methodology
r the implementation of the action (subjects, skills taught, learning outcomes and mentoring activities), as
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.
Insert text
2.2 Format
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−
Insert text
2.3 Potential
:
2.4 Cost effectiveness and financial management
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Insert text
2.5 Risk management
Risk No
Description
Work
package No
Proposed risk-mitigation measures
3. PROJECT MANAGEMENT
3.1 Partnership and consortium, roles and tasks division
.
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Insert text
3.2 Project teams
Project teams
Name and
function
Organisation
Role/tasks/professional profile and expertise
3.3 Development strategy
Insert text
3.4 Financing strategy
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Insert text
4. DISSEMINATION
4.1 Communication, promotion and marketing
.
Insert text
4.2 Dissemination and distribution

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4.3 Impact
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Insert text
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5. WORKPLAN, WORK PACKAGES, TIMING AND SUBCONTRACTING
5.1 Work plan
Work plan
Provide a brief description of the overall structure of the work plan (list of work packages or graphical presentation (Pert chart or similar)).
Insert text
5.2 Work packages and activities
WORK PACKAGES
Work Package 1
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Work Package 1: [Name, e.g. Project management and coordination]
Duration:
MX – MX
Lead Beneficiary:
1-Short name
Objectives
List the specific objectives to which this work package is linked.
â–ª
Activities (what, how, where) and division of work
Task No
Task Name
(continuous
numbering
linked to
WP)
Description
Participants
Name
In-kind Contributions
and Subcontracting
Role
(Yes/No and which)
(COO, BEN,
AE, AP,
OTHER)
T1.1
T1.2
Milestones and deliverables (outputs/outcomes)
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Milestones are control points in the project that help to chart progress. Use them only for major outputs in complicated projects. Otherwise leave the section on milestones empty.
Means of verification are how you intend to prove that a milestone has been reached. If appropriate, you can also refer to indicators.
Deliverables are project outputs which are submitted to show project progress (any format). Refer only to major outputs. Do not include minor sub-items, internal working papers, meeting
minutes, etc. Limit the number of deliverables to max 10-15 for the entire project. You may be asked to further reduce the number during grant preparation.
For deliverables such as meetings, events, seminars, trainings, workshops, webinars, conferences, etc., enter each deliverable separately and provide the following in the ‘Description’ field: invitation,
agenda, signed presence list, target group, number of estimated participants, duration of the event, report of the event, training material package, presentations, evaluation report, feedback
questionnaire.
For deliverables such as manuals, toolkits, guides, reports, leaflets, brochures, training materials etc., add in the ‘Description’ field: format (electronic or printed), language(s), approximate number
of pages and estimated number of copies of publications (if any).
For each deliverable you will have to indicate a due month by when you commit to upload it in the Portal. The due month of the deliverable cannot be outside the duration of the work package and
must be in line with the timeline provided below. Month 1 marks the start of the project and all deadlines should be related to this starting date.
The labels used mean:
Public — fully open (
automatically posted online on the Project Results platforms)
Sensitive — limited under the conditions of the Grant Agreement
EU classified — RESTREINT-UE/EU-RESTRICTED, CONFIDENTIEL-UE/EU-CONFIDENTIAL, SECRET-UE/EU-SECRET under Decision 2015/444.
Milestone No
Milestone Name
(continuous numbering
not linked to WP)
Work Package
No
MS1
1
MS2
1
Deliverable No
(continuous numbering
linked to WP)
D1.1
Deliverable Name
Work Package
No
1
Lead Beneficiary
Description
Due Date
Means of Verification
(month number)
Lead Beneficiary
Type
[R — Document,
report] [DEM —
Demonstrator,
pilot, prototype]
[DEC —Websites,
patent filings,
videos, etc] [DATA
— data sets,
microdata, etc]
[DMP — Data
Management Plan]
Dissemination
Level
Due Date
Description
(month number)
(including format and
language)
[PU — Public]
[SEN — Sensitive]
[R-UE/EU-R —
EU Classified]
[C-UE/EU-C —
EU Classified]
[S-UE/EU-S —
EU Classified]
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[ETHICS]
[SECURITY]
[OTHER]
D1.2
[R — Document,
report] [DEM —
Demonstrator,
pilot, prototype]
[DEC —Websites,
patent filings,
videos, etc] [DATA
— data sets,
microdata, etc]
[DMP — Data
Management Plan]
[ETHICS]
[SECURITY]
[OTHER]
1
[PU — Public]
[SEN — Sensitive]
[R-UE/EU-R —
EU Classified]
[C-UE/EU-C —
EU Classified]
[S-UE/EU-S —
EU Classified]
Estimated budget — Resources
Costs (n/a for Lump Sum Grants: ‘European Co-development’, ‘European Slate development’, ‘European Mini-Slate development’, ‘TV and Online content’, ‘European festivals’ and ‘Videogame
and immersive content development’)
Participant
A. Personnel
[name]
X person
X EUR
B.
Subcontrac
ting
X EUR
months
[name]
X person
months
X EUR
X EUR
C.1b
Accomod
ation
C.1c
Subsist
ence
C.2
Equipment
C.3 Other
goods,
works and
services
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X grants
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X prizes
C.1a Travel
X
X
travels
persons
travellin
g
X
X
travels
persons
travellin
D.1 Financial support
to third parties
E. Indirect
costs
Total costs
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
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g
Total
X person
X EUR
X EUR
months
X
X
travels
persons
travellin
g
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR
X grants
X EUR
X EUR
X EUR]
X prizes
For Lump Sum Grants, see detailed budget table/calculator (annex 1 to Part B; see Portal Reference Documents).
Work Package …
To insert work packages, copy WP1 as many times as necessary.
Overview of Work Packages(n/a for Lump Sum Grants: European Co-development’, ‘European Slate development’, ‘European Mini-Slate development’, ‘TV and
Online content’, ‘European festivals’ and ‘Videogame and immersive content development’)
Staff effort per work package
Fill in the summary on work package information and effort per work package.
Work
Package No
Work Package
Title
Lead
Participant No
Lead Participant
Short Name
Start Month
End Month
Person-Months
1
2
3
4
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Total PersonMonths
Staff effort per participant
Fill in the effort per work package and Beneficiary/Affiliated Entity.
Please indicate the number of person/months over the whole duration of the planned work.
Identify the work-package leader for each work package by showing the relevant person/month figure in bold.
Participant
WP1
WP…
WP2
Total Person-Months
[name]
[name]
Total Person-Months
Events and trainings
Events and trainings
This table is to be completed for events organised by the applicants as part of the activities in the work packages above
Give more details on the type, location, number of persons attending, etc.
Event No
(continuous
numbering
linked to WP)
Description
Attendees
Participant
Name
Type
Area
Location
Duration
Number
(days)
E1.1
[name]
[name]
[insert type, e.g.
training, workshop,
conference, event, etc.]
[insert
topics
addressed, types of
skills/knowledge
[city,country]
[number]
[number]
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acquired, etc]
E1.2
[name]
[name]
[insert type, e.g.
training, workshop,
conference, event, etc.]
[insert
topics
addressed, types of
skills/knowledge
acquired, etc]
[city,country]
[number]
[number]
5.3 Timetable
Timetable (projects up to 2 years)
Fill in cells in beige to show the duration of activities. Repeat lines/columns as necessary.
Note: Use the project month numbers instead of calendar months. Month 1 marks always the start of the project. In the timeline you should indicate the timing of each activity per WP.
MONTHS
ACTIVITY
M
1
M
2
M
3
M
4
M
5
M
6
M
7
M
8
M
9
M
10
M
11
M
12
M
13
M
14
M
15
M
16
M
17
M
18
M
19
M
20
M
21
M
22
M
23
M
24
Task 1.1 – …
Task 1.2 – …
Task …
Timetable (projects of more than 2 years)
Fill in cells in beige to show the duration of activities. Repeat lines/columns as necessary.
Note: Use actual, calendar years and quarters. In the timeline you should indicate the timing of each activity per WP. You may add additional columns if your project is longer than 6 years.
YEAR 1
YEAR 2
YEAR 3
YEAR 4
YEAR 5
YEAR 6
ACTIVITY
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4
Q
1
Q
2
Q
3
Q
4
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Task 1.1 – …
Task 1.2 – …
Task …
5.4 Subcontracting
Subcontracting
Give details on subcontracted project tasks (if any) and explain the reasons why (as opposed to direct implementation by the Beneficiaries/Affiliated Entities).
Subcontracting — Subcontracting means the implementation of ‘action tasks’, i.e. specific tasks which are part of the EU grant and are described in Annex 1 of the Grant Agreement.
Note: Subcontracting concerns the outsourcing of a part of the project to a party outside the consortium. It is not simply about purchasing goods or services. We normally expect that the participants
have sufficient operational capacity to implement the project activities themselves. Subcontracting should therefore be exceptional.
Include only subcontracts that comply with the rules (i.e. best value for money and no conflict of interest; no subcontracting of coordinator tasks).
Work Package No
Subcontract No
(continuous
numbering linked to
WP)
Subcontract
Name
(subcontracted
action tasks)
Description
Estimated Costs
Justification
Best-Value-for-Money
(including task number and
BEN to which it is linked)
(EUR)
(why is subcontracting
necessary?)
(how do you intend to
ensure it?)
S1.1
S1.2
Other issues:
Insert text
If subcontracting for the project goes beyond 30% of the total eligible
costs, give specific reasons.
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6. OTHER
6.1 Ethics
Ethics
Not applicable.
6.2 Security
Security
Not applicable.
7. DECLARATIONS
Double funding
Information concerning other EU grants for this project
Please note that there is a strict prohibition of double funding from the EU budget (except
under EU Synergies actions).
YES/NO
We confirm that to our best knowledge neither the project as a whole nor any parts of it have
benefitted from any other EU grant (including EU funding managed by authorities in EU
Member States or other funding bodies, e.g. Erasmus, EU Regional Funds, EU Agricultural
Funds, European Investment Bank, etc). If NO, explain and provide details.
We confirm that to our best knowledge neither the project as a whole nor any parts of it are
(nor will be) submitted for any other EU grant (including EU funding managed by authorities
in EU Member States or other funding bodies, e.g. Erasmus, EU Regional Funds, EU
Agricultural Funds, European Investment Bank, etc). If NO, explain and provide details.
Financial support to third parties (if applicable)
If in your project the maximum amount per third party will be more than the threshold amount set in the Call document,
justify and explain why the higher amount is necessary in order to fulfil your project’s objectives.
Insert text
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EU Grants: Application form (CREA MEDIA and CROSS): V2.0 – 15.01.2022
ANNEXES
LIST OF ANNEXES
Standard
Detailed budget table/Calculator (annex 1 to Part B) —mandatory for Lump Sum Grants (see Portal Reference Documents)
CVs (annex 2 to Part B) — mandatory, if required in the Call document
Annual activity reports (annex 3 to Part B) — not applicable
List of previous projects (annex 4 to Part B) — mandatory, if required in the Call document
Special
Other annexes (annex X to Part B) — mandatory, if required in the Call document
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Call: [insert call identifier] — [insert call name]
EU Grants: Application form (CREA MEDIA and CROSS): V2.0 – 15.01.2022
LIST OF PREVIOUS PROJECTS
List of previous projects
Please provide a list of your previous projects for the last 4 years.
Participant
Project Reference No
and Title, Funding
programme
Period (start
and end date)
Role
Amount
(COO,
BEN, AE,
OTHER)
(EUR)
Website (if any)
[name]
[name]
HISTORY OF CHANGES
VERSION
1.0
2.0
PUBLICATION
DATE
15.04.2021
15.01.2022
CHANGE
Initial version (new MFF).
Update for 2022 calls.
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