+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

Description

Pick an advertising campaign that you have seen or heard recently from TV, the internet, podcasts, social media, etc. (This could be a traditional ad or sponsored content on social media.) Discuss the attitude the ad is trying to change and what methods are being used to persuade the audience. Support your response with scholarly material from this week’s readings.Need references

Social Psychology
Tenth Edition
Chapter 7
Attitudes and Attitude
Change: Influencing
Thoughts and Feelings
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
7.1 Describe the types of attitudes and what
they are based on.
7.2 Analyze the conditions under which
attitudes can predict behavior.
7.3 Explain how internal and external factors
lead to attitude change.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
7.4 Describe how advertising changes
people’s attitudes.
7.5 Identify strategies for resisting efforts at
persuasion.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Human Billboard
People have begun offering their bodies as venues for advertisers. A Utah woman,
shown here, received $10,000 to advertise Golden Palace casino on her forehead.
She plans to use the money to send her son to private school.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Advertising Can Have Powerful
Effects (1 of 2)
•Example
–Until early 20th century, men bought 99% of
cigarettes sold
â–ªAdvertisers began targeting women
–Virginia Slims “You’ve come a long way, baby”—
connecting smoking to women’s liberation
–Lucky Strikes “Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet”—
connecting smoking to weight control
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Advertising Can Have Powerful
Effects (2 of 2)
–In 1955
â–ª 52% of adult men and 34% of adult women
smoked
–In 2015
â–ª21% of adult men 14% of adult women smoked
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Nature and Origin of Attitudes
(1 of 4)
LO 7.1 Describe the types of attitudes and what they are based on.
•Attitudes:
–Evaluation of people, objects, and ideas
•People are not neutral observers of the
world
–They evaluate what they encounter
–They form attitudes
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Nature and Origin of Attitudes
(2 of 4)
•Attitudes are made up of three
components:
–Affective
â–ªEmotional reaction
–Behavioral
â–ªActions or observable behavior
–Cognitive
â–ªThoughts and beliefs
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Nature and Origin of Attitudes
(3 of 4)
•Example—attitudes about cars
–Affective
â–ªPerhaps feel excitement about getting a new car
â–ªU.S. autoworker examining a new foreign-made
model, may feel anger and resentment
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Nature and Origin of Attitudes
(4 of 4)
•Example—attitudes about cars
–Behavioral
â–ªTest-drive the car and actually buy it
–Cognitive reactions
â–ªAdmire hybrid engine and fuel efficiency
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Where Do Attitudes Come From?
(1 of 2)
•Genetic origins?
–Identical twins share more attitudes than
fraternal twins.
â–ªe.g., similar attitudes about jazz music
–Indirect function of our genes
â–ªTemperament, personality
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Where Do Attitudes Come From?
(2 of 2)
•Social experiences
–Not all attitudes are created equally.
–Though all attitudes have affective, cognitive,
and behavioral components, any given
attitude can be based more on one type of
experience than another.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Cognitively Based Attitudes
•An attitude based primarily on people’s
beliefs about the properties of an attitude
object
•Sometimes our attitudes are based
primarily on the relevant facts.
–Example—a car
â–ªHow many miles to the gallon does it get?
â–ªDoes it have side-impact air bags?
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Affectively Based Attitudes (1 of 3)
•An attitude based more on people’s
feelings and values than on their beliefs
about the nature of an attitude object
•Sometimes we simply like a car, regardless
of how many miles to the gallon it gets
•Occasionally we even feel great about
something or someone in spite of having
negative beliefs
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Affectively Based Attitudes (2 of 3)
•Affectively based attitudes don’t come from
examining facts
–Where do they come from?
â–ªValues
–Example—religious, moral beliefs
â–ªSensory reaction
–Example—liking the taste of something
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Affectively Based Attitudes (3 of 3)
•Affectively based attitudes don’t come from
examining facts
–Where do they come from?
â–ªAesthetic reaction
–Example—admiring lines and color of a car
â–ªConditioning
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Classical Conditioning
•A stimulus that elicits an emotional
response is paired with a neutral stimulus.
•Neutral stimulus takes on the emotional
properties of the first stimulus.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Operant Conditioning
•Freely chosen behaviors increase or
decrease when followed by reinforcement
or punishment.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 7.1
Classical and Operant Conditioning of Attitudes
Affectively based attitudes can result from either classical or instrumental
conditioning.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Affectively Based Attitude Similarity
•Affectively based attitudes are similar for
several reasons.
– Not a result of rational examination
– Not governed by logic
– Often linked to values
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Behaviorally Based Attitudes
•An attitude based on observations of how
one behaves toward an attitude object
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Self-Perception Theory (Bem, 1972)
(1 of 2)
•Sometimes people do not know how they
feel until they see how they behave
–Can form our attitudes based on our
observations of our own behavior
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Self-Perception Theory (Bem, 1972)
(2 of 2)
• People infer their attitudes from their
behavior only under certain conditions
– When initial attitude is weak or ambiguous
– When no other plausible explanation for
behavior
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Explicit vs. Implicit Attitudes
(1 of 5)
•Explicit attitudes
–Attitudes that we consciously endorse and
can easily report
•Implicit attitudes
–Attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable,
and at times unconscious
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Explicit vs. Implicit Attitudes
(2 of 5)
•Example
–Robert is a white, middle-class college
student who genuinely believes that all races
are equal and abhors racial bias.
▪This is Robert’s explicit attitude
–It is his conscious evaluation of other races
–Governs how he chooses to act
• e.g., Consistent with his explicit attitude, he signed a
petition in favor of affirmative action policies.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Explicit vs. Implicit Attitudes
(3 of 5)
•Example
–Robert has grown up in a culture in which
there are many negative stereotypes about
minority groups.
â–ªNegative ideas have affected him in ways of which
he is not fully aware.
–If, when Robert is around African Americans, some
negative feelings are triggered automatically and
unintentionally, this would be an example of a negative
implicit attitude.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Explicit vs. Implicit Attitudes
(4 of 5)
•We have explicit and implicit attitudes
about many things.
–Not just different races
–Example
â–ªStudents can believe explicitly that they hate math
â–ªAt an implicit level, can have a more positive
attitude
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Explicit vs. Implicit Attitudes
(5 of 5)
•Measurement
–Implicit Attitudes Test (IAT)
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
When Do Attitudes Predict Behaviors?
LO 7.2 Analyze the conditions under which attitudes can predict behavior.
•There is some evidence that attitudes are
not good predictors of behavior.
•LaPiere, in early 1930s, examined antiChinese attitudes and discrimination.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Predicting Spontaneous Behaviors
•Attitudes will predict spontaneous
behaviors only when they are highly
accessible to people.
•Attitude accessibility:
–The strength of the association between an
attitude object and a person’s evaluation of
that object, measured by the speed with
which people can report how they feel about
the object
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Predicting Deliberative Behaviors
(1 of 3)
•Theory of Planned Behavior
–People’s intentions are the best predictors of
their deliberate behaviors.
–Intentions determined by their attitudes
toward specific behaviors, subjective norms,
and perceived behavioral control
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Predicting Deliberative Behaviors
(2 of 3)
•Specific attitudes
–Only specific attitudes can be expected to
predict that behavior.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Predicting Deliberative Behaviors
(3 of 3)
•Subjective norms
–We also need to measure people’s subjective
norms— their beliefs about how people they
care about will view the behavior in question.
•Perceived behavioral control
–Intentions are influenced by the ease with
which they believe they can perform the
behavior.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Specific Attitudes
•Theory of planned behavior
–Predicts that more specific attitudes better
predict behavior
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 7.2
The Theory of Planned Behavior
According to this theory, the best predictors of people’s planned, deliberative
behaviors are their behavioral intentions. The best predictors of their intentions
are their attitudes toward the specific behavior, their subjective norms, and their
perceived behavioral control of the behavior. (Adapted from Ajzen, 1985)
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
How Do Attitudes Change?
LO 7.3 Explain how internal and external factors lead to attitude change.
•When attitudes change, it is often due to
social influence.
–This is why social psychologists are
interested!
–Attitudes are social phenomena.
–Sometimes attitudes change dramatically over
short periods of time.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Changing Attitudes by Changing
Behavior
•People experience dissonance
–When their image is threatened
–When they cannot explain behavior with
external justifications
â–ªLeads to finding internal justification for behavior
â–ªBrings your attitude and your behavior closer
together
–Equals attitude change!
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Persuasive Communications and
Attitude Change (1 of 2)
•Communication (e.g., a speech or
television ad) advocating a particular side
of an issue
•How should you construct a message so
that it would really change people’s
attitudes?
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Persuasive Communications and
Attitude Change (2 of 2)
•Yale attitude change approach
–The study of the conditions under which
people are most likely to change their
attitudes in response to persuasive messages
▪“Who said what to whom.”
–Who: The source of the communication
–What: The nature of the communication
–Whom: The nature of the audience
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Central and Peripheral Routes to
Persuasion (1 of 4)
•Elaboration likelihood model:
–An explanation of the two ways in which
persuasive communications can cause
attitude change
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Central and Peripheral Routes to
Persuasion (2 of 4)
•Elaboration likelihood model
–Central route
â–ªWhen people are motivated and have the ability to
pay attention to the arguments in the
communication
–Peripheral route
â–ªWhen people do not pay attention to the
arguments but are instead swayed by surface
characteristics
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Central and Peripheral Routes to
Persuasion (3 of 4)
•Central route to persuasion
–Elaborate on a persuasive communication
â–ªListening carefully to and thinking about the
arguments
â–ªOccurs when people have both the ability and the
motivation to listen carefully
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Central and Peripheral Routes to
Persuasion (4 of 4)
•Peripheral route to persuasion
–People do not elaborate on the arguments.
–People can be swayed by peripheral cues,
such as by who delivers a persuasive
message rather than by the strength of the
message itself. An example is when
consumers buy certain products because a
celebrity tweets about them.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 7.4
The Elaboration Likelihood Model
The elaboration likelihood model describes how people change their attitudes
when they hear persuasive communications.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Motivation to Pay Attention to
the Arguments (1 of 3)
•Personal relevance of the topic
–How important is the topic to a person’s wellbeing?
–More personally relevant, pay more attention
â–ªCentral route
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Motivation to Pay Attention to
the Arguments (2 of 3)
•Need for cognition
–A personality variable reflecting the extent to
which people engage in and enjoy effortful
cognitive activities.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Motivation to Pay Attention to
the Arguments (3 of 3)
•People high in the need for cognition
–Form attitudes through central route
•People low in the need for cognition
–Rely on peripheral cues
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 7.5
Effects of Personal Relevance on Type of
Attitude Change
(Based on data in Petty, Cacioppo, & Goldman, 1981)
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Ability to Pay Attention to
the Arguments
•When people are unable to pay close
attention to the arguments, they are
swayed more by peripheral cues.
–Status of communicator
–Liking or trusting communicator
•Someone with a weak argument can still
be persuasive if they distract their
audience
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
How to Achieve Long-Lasting
Attitude Change
•People who base their attitudes on a
careful analysis of the arguments will be:
–More likely to maintain this attitude
–More likely to behave consistently with this
attitude
–More resistant to counter-persuasion
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Fear-Arousing Communications
(1 of 3)
•Persuasive messages that attempt to
change people’s attitudes by arousing their
fears
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Fear-Arousing Communications
(2 of 3)
•Strong amounts of fear fail if they
overwhelm people.
–Become defensive
–Deny importance of threat
–Cannot think rationally about issue
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Fear-Arousing Communications
(3 of 3)
•Do fear-arousing communications work?
–Moderate amounts of fear work best
–Provide information on how to reduce fear
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Fear and Smoking Ads
The FDA has tried to implement guidelines to require all cigarette packs sold in the
United States to display pictures that warn about the dangers of smoking, such as
the one shown here. Do you think that this ad would scare people into quitting?
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 7.6
Effects of Fear Appeals on Attitude
Change
(Adapted from Leventhal, Watts, & Pagano, 1967)
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Emotions as a Heuristic (1 of 5)
•Heuristic–systematic model of persuasion
–An explanation of the two ways in which
persuasive communications can cause
attitude change
–One way is:
â–ªSystematically processing the merits of the
arguments
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Emotions as a Heuristic (2 of 5)
•Heuristic–systematic model of persuasion
–Second way is
â–ªWhen using peripheral route
–Use mental shortcuts (heuristics)
• e.g., “Experts are always right.”
–Use emotions as heuristic
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Emotions as a Heuristic (3 of 5)
•Use emotions and moods as heuristics to
determine attitudes
–“How do I feel about it?”
â–ªIf we feel good
–Must have a positive attitude about object
â–ªIf we feel bad
–Thumbs down!
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Emotions as a Heuristic (4 of 5)
•Problem with the “How do I feel about it?”
heuristic
–Can make mistakes about what is causing our
mood
â–ªMisattribute feelings created by one source to
another
â–ªIf so, people might make a bad decision
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Emotions as a Heuristic (5 of 5)
•Advertisers and retailers want to create
good feelings about their product
–Pair product with appealing music or showing
pleasant images
â–ªHope people will attribute feelings to the product
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Cartoon
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Emotion and Different Types of
Attitudes (1 of 2)
•Several studies have shown that it is best
to “fight fire with fire.”
–If an attitude is cognitively based
â–ªTry to change it with rational arguments
–If it is affectively based
â–ªTry to change it with emotional appeals
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Emotion and Different Types of
Attitudes (2 of 2)
•Some ads stress the objective merits of a
product
–Price, reliability, efficiency
•Other ads stress emotions and values
–Sex, beauty, youthfulness
•Which kind of ad is most effective?
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Attitude Change and the Body
•Body posture plays a significant role in
attitude change
–Cartoons rated as more funny when holding
an object between one’s teeth (mimicking a
smile) compared to holding it between one’s
lips (mimicking a frown)
–Nodding or shaking one’s head while listening
to strong or weak arguments also affects
attitude change
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 7.7
Effects of Confidence in One’s Thoughts
on Persuasion
(Figure adapted from Briñol & Petty, 2003)
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Power of Advertising (1 of 2)
LO 7.4 Describe how advertising changes people’s attitudes.
•People more influenced by advertising than
they think.
•Split cable market tests
–Advertisers work with cable companies and
stores
–Show commercial to randomly selected group
of people and keep track of purchases
–Results of over 300 of these reveal ads
effective, especially for new products
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Power of Advertising (2 of 2)
•Public health campaigns
–Meta-analysis on ads and substance use
among youths encouraging
–Television and radio better than print ads
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
How Advertising Works (1 of 2)
•Many take emotional approach of attitude
change
–Little difference between brands
–Associate product with excitement, youth,
sexual attraction
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
How Advertising Works (2 of 2)
•Attitudes that are more cognitively based
–Personally relevant?
▪Yes—then use logical, fact-based arguments
▪No—might use peripheral route
â–ªPeripheral route leads to attitude change that is not
long lasting
â–ªGoal to make product personally relevant
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Subliminal Advertising: A Form of
Mind Control?
•Subliminal messages:
–Words or pictures that are not consciously
perceived but may nevertheless influence
people’s judgments, attitudes, and behavior
•There is no evidence that the types of
subliminal messages encountered in
everyday life have any influence on
people’s behavior
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Bush to Gore: Rats
During the 2000 U.S. presidential race, George W. Bush aired a television ad about his
prescription drug plan, during which the word RATS was visible on the screen for a
split second. Do subliminal messages like this one have any effect on people’s
attitudes?
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Ice Cubes’ Hidden Messages
There is no scientific evidence that implanting sexual images in advertising boosts
sales of a product. In fact, subliminal advertising is rarely used and is outlawed in
many countries. The public is very aware of the subliminal technique, however—so
much so that advertisers sometimes poke fun at subliminal messages in their ads.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Laboratory Evidence for Subliminal
Influence (1 of 4)
•Evidence for subliminal influence in
carefully controlled laboratory conditions
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Laboratory Evidence for Subliminal
Influence (2 of 4)
•Example: Examined preference for product
after subliminal prime
–IV: Subliminal flashes of words
▪Condition 1: “Lipton Ice”
â–ªCondition 2: Nonsense words
–DV: Choosing Lipton Ice or Dutch mineral
water
–Results?
â–ªIf thirsty, chose Lipton Ice significantly more often
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Laboratory Evidence for Subliminal
Influence (3 of 4)
•Subliminal effects require a controlled
environment
–Correct illumination of the room
–No distractions
–Right distance from screen
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Laboratory Evidence for Subliminal
Influence (4 of 4)
•Limitations
–No evidence that subliminal message can get
people to act counter to wishes, values, or
personalities
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Advertising and Culture (1 of 2)
•Western cultures
–Ads stress independence
–“It’s easy when you have the right shoes.”
•Eastern cultures
–Ads stress interdependence
–“The shoes for your family.”
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Advertising and Culture (2 of 2)
•Ads more persuasive when match the
thinking styles of target audience
•Western cultures
–May base attitudes more on individuality and
self-improvement
•Eastern cultures
–May base attitudes more on standing in social
group
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Resisting Persuasive Messages
LO 7.5 Identify strategies for resisting efforts at persuasion.
•Attitude inoculation
–Making people immune to attempts to change
their attitudes by initially exposing them to
small doses of the arguments against their
position
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Being Alert to Product Placement
(1 of 2)
• Advertisers increasingly place messages
about their product in shows.
• Pay the makers of a TV show or movie to
incorporate their products into the script
• When people are forewarned, they
analyze what they see and hear more
carefully and as a result are likely to avoid
attitude change
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Being Alert to Product Placement
(2 of 2)
• Without such warnings, people pay little
attention to the persuasive attempts and
tend to accept them at face value.
• So before kids watch TV or go off to the
movies, it is good to remind them that they
are likely to encounter several attempts to
change their attitudes.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Resisting Peer Pressure
• Peer pressure in adolescence
− Operates on values and emotions
− Liking and acceptance by peer group
• Not based in logical arguments
− To make adolescents resistant to attitude
change attempts via peer pressure
− Attitude inoculation that focuses on
inoculating against emotional appeals
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Jackie Chan Takes on Big Tobacco
A number of interventions designed to prevent smoking in adolescents have had
some success. Many celebrities have lent their names and pictures to the effort,
such as actor Jackie Chan, who was the spokesperson for an anti-smoking
campaign in Taiwan.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
When Persuasion Attempts Backfire:
Reactance Theory
•Reactance theory:
–Idea that when people feel their freedom to
perform a certain behavior is threatened, an
unpleasant state of reactance is aroused,
which they can reduce by performing the
threatened behavior
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Photo Credits
Chapter 7 Page 181: Pictorial Press Ltd/Alamy Stock Photo; Page 183: Deseret Morning
News, Keith Johnson/AP Images; Page 185: AP Photo/J Pat Cart er/AP Images; Page
187: © 2017 UCLA All Rights Reserved.; Page 190: Hero Images/Getty Images; Page
194: Joseph Sohm/ Shutterstock; Page 194: Monkey Business Images; Page 194:
SimpleB/ Shutterstock; Page 194: Wavebreak Media Ltd/123RF GB; Page 195:
Elizabeth Goodenough/Everett Collection/Alamy Stock Photo; Page 200: Martyn
Evans/Alamy Stock Photo; Page 201: Henry Martin/The New Yorker (c) Conde Nast;
Page 203: Craig Sjodin/ABC via Getty Images; Page 205: Bill Greenblat/Newsmakers/Getty Images; Page 206: Copyright ©2018 American Association of Advertising
Agencies, Reprinted with Permission.; Page 208: Stacy Walsh Rosenstock/Alamy Stock
Photo; Page 208: VCG/VCG via Getty Images; Page 209:
turgaygundogdu/Shutterstock; Page 210: Moviestore collection Ltd/Alamy Stock Photo;
Page 211: Kenny Wu/Reuters.
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Copyright
Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

  
error: Content is protected !!