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Noncommunicable Diseases
The topic I selected for discussion is related to diseases, that is, noncommunicable or
chronic diseases. Noncommunicable diseases are of long duration and cannot be easily passed
from one person to another. Noncommunicable diseases result in reduced quality of life,
premature morbidity, and dysfunction. The diseases mostly develop over a long period, and once
they are evident in the body, they result in impaired death. Chronic diseases have contributed to
60% – 70% of global mortality (Kämpfen, Wijemunige, & Evangelista, 2018). Examples of
chronic diseases include stroke, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic lung disease. Mostly,
death resulting from chronic diseases occurs in middle and low-income countries and mostly
affects younger adults of working age (Bollyky, J., Templin, Cohen, & Dieleman, 2017).
Risk Factors
Risk factors associated with chronic diseases include metabolic risk factors and
modifiable behavioral risk factors. Modifiable risk factors can be controlled or reduced through
intervention and include behaviors such as the use of tobacco and alcohol, unhealthy diet, and
physical inactivity (Kämpfen, Wijemunige, & Evangelista, 2018). Such behaviors are driven by
urbanization, globalization, increased unhealthy foods, and unhealthy lifestyles. Metabolic risk
factors cannot be controlled or reduced even through intervention and include genetics, gender,
age, and race (Kämpfen, Wijemunige, & Evangelista, 2018). Metabolic risk factors are
associated with increased blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and overweight. The
most common metabolic risk factor is high blood pressure which is mostly associated with age
and genetics.
Control and Prevention
The major way of controlling noncommunicable diseases is focusing on reducing the risk
factors associated with the diseases. A comprehensive approach to finance, agriculture, transport,
and education, among other aspects, will help in reducing the risk of chronic diseases (Kluge et
al., 2020). Also, individuals should invest in management ways such as screening the diseases
and looking for palliative care for the sick to improve their health and increase the quality of life.
Besides, the government and other non-governmental organizations should intervene to ensure
every citizen has a right to access quality healthcare by introducing insurance (Kluge et al.,
2020). For instance, in developing countries, most people cannot afford the management and
treatment of chronic diseases; hence the government should intervene to control mortality rates.

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