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Essentials of Human Communication
Tenth Edition
Chapter 5
Nonverbal Messages
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Learning Objectives
5.1
Explain the major principles that describe how nonverbal
communication works.
5.2
Describe the channels of nonverbal communication.
5.3
Paraphrase the guidelines for improving your skills in decoding
and encoding nonverbal messages.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Principles of Nonverbal Messages (1 of 7)
Learning Objective 5.1 Explain the major principles that describe how nonverbal
communication works.
Nonverbal Communication Competence
• Increases accuracy in understanding people
• Increases interpersonal effectiveness
• Increases personal attractiveness
• Enables effective self-presentation
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 5.1 In Preview: The Power of
Nonverbal Messages
For long description, see slide 41, Appendix A
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Principles of Nonverbal Messages (2 of 7)
Nonverbal Messages Interact with Verbal
Messages
• Accent
• Complement
• Contradict
• Control
• Repeat
• Substitute
• Emoticons, emojis compensate while online
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Principles of Nonverbal Messages (3 of 7)
Nonverbal Messages Help Manage Impressions
• Strategies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
To be liked
To be believed
To excuse failure
To secure help, indicate helplessness
To hide faults
To be followed
To confirm self-image and communicate it to others
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Principles of Nonverbal Messages (4 of 7)
Nonverbal Messages Help Form Relationships
• Prevalent within relationships
• Can signal nature of a relationship
• Tie signs
• Vary in intimacy
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
The Divorce Ring
An especially interesting nonverbal message is the Divorce Ring, which some
women wear on their right hand. The ring communicates a variety of messages:
I’m divorced. I’m not ashamed of being divorced; there is no stigma. I want
others to know I’m divorced. I’m available for a possible relationship. What do
you think of this type of nonverbal message? What do you see as its
advantages and its disadvantages? Source: HeikeKampe/E+/Getty Images
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Principles of Nonverbal Messages (5 of 7)
Nonverbal Messages Structure Conversation
• Turn-taking cues
• Signal you are ready to speak, listen, or comment
• Can be verbal, but often nonverbal
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Principles of Nonverbal Messages (6 of 7)
Nonverbal Messages Can Influence and Deceive
• Ability to influence coexists with ability to deceive
• Hard to detect deception in others
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Principles of Nonverbal Messages (7 of 7)
Nonverbal Messages Are Crucial for Expressing
Emotions
• Facial expressions and posture convey emotions
• Useful for messages hard to put into words
• Can also hide emotions
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(1 of 19)
Learning Objective 5.2 Describe the channels of nonverbal communication.
Body Communication
• Referred to as kinesics
• Body gestures
•
•
•
•
•
Emblems translate to words and phrases
Illustrators enhance verbal messages
Affect displays are facial movements showing emotion
Regulators maintain speech of another
Adaptors satisfy a personal need
•
Self-, alter-, and object-adapters
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 5.2 Some Cultural Meanings of Gestures
Cultural differences in the meanings of nonverbal gestures are
often significant.
For long description, see slide 42, Appendix B
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(2 of 19)
Body Communication continued
• Body appearance
•
•
•
•
Tallness can have impact
Body gives clues to race, nationality
Attractiveness generally gives an advantage
Positive facial expressions enhance attractiveness
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
The Importance of Appearance
On a 10-point scale, with 1 indicating “not at all important” and 10 indicating
“extremely important,” how important is body appearance to your own romantic
interest in another person? Do the men and women you know confirm to the
stereotypes that say males are more concerned with the physical and females
more concerned with personality? Source: Andor Bujdoso/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(3 of 19)
Facial Communication
• Facial movement alone can reflect emotions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Happiness
Surprise
Fear
Anger
Sadness
Disgust
Contempt
Interest
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(4 of 19)
Facial Communication continued
• Facial management
• Facial management techniques
• Facial feedback
• Facial feedback hypothesis
• Culture and facial expression
• Emotions similar; permissible display differs
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(5 of 19)
Eye Communication
• Oculesics shows duration, direction, and quality of
eye movements influence messages
• Direction of eye glance also important
• Suggestions when visual impairment exists
•
•
•
•
Identify yourself, ask for identity
Encode all meanings into speech
Help sighted person understand specific needs
Be patient with sighted person
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(6 of 19)
Eye Communication continued
• Eye avoidance
• Civil inattention to express respect for privacy
• Can signal lack of interest; avoid conflict
• Culture, gender, and eye messages
• Direct eye contact forthright in US, disrespectful in Japan
• Women make more, longer eye contact
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(7 of 19)
Spatial Communication
• Proxemic distances
•
•
•
•
Intimate – touching to 18 inches
Personal – 18 inches to 4 feet
Social – 4 to 12 feet
Public – 12 to 25 feet or more
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(8 of 19)
Spatial Communication continued
• Territoriality
•
•
•
•
Primary – areas you call your own; home field advantage
Secondary – areas you are associated with
Public – areas open to all
Territory markers: central, boundary, ear
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
Status Signals
Higher-status individuals
often feel they have the right
to intrude upon the territory of
others. The boss, for
example, may feel that he or
she can interrupt other’s work
by barging into their work
space, but the reverse would
be unacceptable. Have you
noticed this tendency in your
own workplace or in film or
television shows?
Source: FancyVeerSet4/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(9 of 19)
Artifactual Communication
• Messages through objects or arrangements made by
human hands
• Color communication
• Affects people physiologically
• Influences perceptions and behaviors
• Color meaning varies greatly across cultures
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(10 of 19)
Artifactual Communication continued
• Clothing and body adornment
•
•
•
•
Affect others’ inferences and behaviors
Jewelry
Hair
Piercings and tattoos
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(11 of 19)
Artifactual Communication continued
• Space decoration
• Workplace furnishings can indicate status
• Home furnishings can reflect wealth, interests
• Space can express personality traits
• Smell communication
• Attraction messages
• Identification messages
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
The Power of Artifacts
The rainbow/gay pride flag—a good example of artifactual communication and flown
without incident in many places—has caused a rift between some parents and the GLBTQ
community over a teacher’s hanging the flag, as part of a club’s display on diversity, in the
high school classroom. Some parents filed a petition asking that the flag be removed
because they believed it created a hostile environment for students whose families do not
support gay rights. If you were a decision maker in this case, would you order the flag to
be removed or would you deny the petition and allow the flag to remain? What specifically
would you say in your decision? Source: Gordon Scammell
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(12 of 19)
Touch Communication
• Tactile is most primitive nonverbal communication
• Develops before other senses
• Meanings of touch
•
•
•
•
•
Emotions
Playfulness
Control
Ritual
Task-related
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(13 of 19)
Touch Communication continued
• Touch avoidance
• Positively related to oral communication apprehension
• High for those who self-disclose little
• Age and gender variations
• Touch and culture
• Task-related touching more negative in some cultures
• Contact versus noncontact cultures
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(14 of 19)
Paralanguage
• Vocal but nonverbal dimension of speech
• How you say something, not what you say
• Inflection, rate, volume, rhythm, and noises
• Judgments about people
• Judgments about communication effectiveness
• Paralanguage and culture
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
Gender Differences and
Nonverbal Communication
Here is a brief summary of findings from research on gender differences in nonverbal
expression. 1 Women smile more than men; 2 women stand closer to one another than
do men; 3 women are approached more closely than men; 4 both men and women, when
speaking, look at men more than women; 5 women both touch and are touched more
than men; 6 men extend their bodies, taking up greater space, more than women. What
problems might these differences create when men and women communicate with each
other? Source: Wavebreak Media ltd/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(15 of 19)
Silence
• Absence of words or gestures has meaning
• Functions of silence
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Give time to think
Signal importance, solemnity
Use as a weapon
Avoid rejection, exhibits shyness or anxiety
Communicate emotional responses
Used when nothing to say
Varies by culture
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(16 of 19)
Silence continued
• The spiral of silence
• More likely to voice agreement than disagreement
• Estimate rewards and punishments to determine which
opinions you’ll express
• Majority grows stronger while minority remains silent
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(17 of 19)
Temporal Communication
• Psychological time
• Present orientation
• Future orientation
• Influenced by socioeconomic class and experiences
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(18 of 19)
Temporal Communication continued
• Interpersonal time
•
•
•
•
•
Punctuality
Wait time
Talk time
Relationship time
Response time
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Channels of Nonverbal Communication
(19 of 19)
Temporal Communication continued
• Cultural time
• Monochronism – one thing at a time
• Polychronism – multiple things at a time
• Social clock – time schedule for the right time to do various
important things
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Competence in Nonverbal
Communication (1 of 3)
Learning Objective 5.3 Paraphrase the guidelines for improving your skills in decoding
and encoding nonverbal messages.
Suggestions
• Become mindful when sending and receiving
nonverbal messages
• Observe others, both effective and not effective
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
Nonverbal Competence in Relationships
What benefits might couples derive from improved nonverbal
competence? What problems might be caused by nonverbal
incompetence? Source: Roman Kosolapov/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Competence in Nonverbal
Communication (2 of 3)
Decoding Skills
• Don’t jump to conclusions
• Mindfully seek alternative explanations.
• Accept you may be incorrect
• Measure against a baseline
• Factor in cultural context
• Consider extenuating factors
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Competence in Nonverbal
Communication (3 of 3)
Encoding Skills
• Consider choices you make carefully
• Monitor your own nonverbal messages with care
• Keep verbal and nonverbal messages consistent
• Adapt messages by situation
• Maintain appropriate eye contact
• Be careful with touching
• Avoid inappropriate behaviors, adaptors
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Appendix A
Long description for Figure 5.1
Nonverbal messages contain the following attributes:
• nonverbal messages interact with verbal messages.
• nonverbal messages can influence and deceive.
• nonverbal messages are crucial for expressing emotions.
• nonverbal messages help manage impressions.
• nonverbal messages help form relationships.
• nonverbal messages help structure conversation.
Return to presentation
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Appendix B
Long description for Figure 5.2
Common hand gestures have the following meanings in different countries.
• Okay sign. France, you’re a zero. Japan, please give me coins. Brazil and
Mediterranean countries, an obscene gesture.
• Thumbs up. Australia up yours. Germany, the number one. Japan, the
number five. Saudi Arabia, I’m winning. Ghana, ,an insult. Malaysia, the thumb
is used to point rather than the index finger.
• Thumbs down. Most countries, something is wrong or bad.
• Thumb and forefinger. Most countries, money. France, something is perfect.
Mediterranean, a vulgar gesture.
• Open palm. Greece, an insult dating to ancient times. West Africa, you have
five fathers, an insult akin to calling someone a bastard.
Return to presentation
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Essentials of Human Communication
Tenth Edition
Chapter 3
Listening in Human
Communication
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Learning Objectives
3.1
Define listening and its five stages and describe the ways you can
increase listening accuracy at each of these stages.
3.2
Describe the four major barriers to effective listening and describe
how you can improve effectiveness in your own listening.
3.3
Define the four styles of listening and explain how each may be
used effectively.
3.4
Explain the major cultural and gender differences found in
listening and their influence on listening.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Stages (1 of 8)
Learning Objective 3.1 Define listening and its five stages and describe the ways you can
increase listening accuracy at each of these stages.
Introduction
• Expanded definition of listening with advent of
online communication
• Not just auditory
• Listening skills crucial
• Both for personal and professional lives
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Stages (2 of 8)
Contemporary Definition of Listening
• Collection of five skills (stages)
•
•
•
•
•
Attention and concentration (receiving)
Learning (understanding)
Memory (remembering)
Critical thinking (evaluation)
Feedback (responding)
• Circular process, all stages overlap
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 3.1 In Preview: A Five-Stage
Model of the Listening Process
This model, which depicts
the various stages involved
in listening, draws on a
variety of previous models
that listening researchers
have developed (e.g.,
Alessandra, 1986; Barker,
1990; Brownell, 2013;
Steil, Barker, and Watson,
1983). In what other ways
might you visualize the
listening process?
For long description, see slide 35, Appendix A
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Stages (3 of 8)
Receiving
• Unlike hearing, listening does not just happen
• Begins only when messages are received
• Suggestions
• Focus your attention
• Maintain your role, do not interrupt
• Avoid assuming
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Stages (4 of 8)
Receiving continued
• Considerations when hearing disorders are involved
• Set up comfortable context
• Avoid overlapping speech
• Don’t avoid common terms
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Table 3.1 Six Myths of Listening (1 of 2)
Myths
Realities
Hearing and listening are the
same.
Hearing is just the first step in the
listening process; it is not the
entire process.
Listening just happens; it’s a
natural, passive process.
Listening takes effort; it’s an active
rather than a passive process.
Listening is an objective process;
you receive was it said.
As you listen, you process the
message along with all your
preconceptions, knowledge, and
attitudes.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Table 3.1 Six Myths of Listening (2 of 2)
Myths
Realities
Listening denotes powerlessness.
Listening can also communicate
power, thought it is often
perceived as less powerful than
speaking.
Listening is the same regardless of Listening should be situational;
the situation.
you don’t listen the same way
during a class lecture and on a
date.
Listening can’t be learned or
improved, and, anyway, I’m
already a good listener.
Listening can be improved; it
involves skills just like public
speaking or leadership.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
The Rights of Listeners
Here, Betsy DeVos speaks at Bethune-Cookman University amid considerable
student protest; it’s one instance of a growing number that has sparked the
debate about the role of students versus the administration in selecting
commencement speakers. What’s your viewpoint? Source: John Raoux/AP Images
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Stages (5 of 8)
Understanding
• Occurs when you decode signals
• Grasp thoughts and emotional tones
• Suggestions
• Relate new information to your own knowledge
• See from speaker’s point of view
• Paraphrase message back to speaker
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Stages (6 of 8)
Remembering
• Memory is reconstructive, not reproductive
• Short-term memory limited, long-term “unlimited”
• Facilitating passage from short- to long-term memory
•
•
•
•
Focus on central ideas
Organize what you hear
Unite the new with the old
Repeat key concepts
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
False Memories
The term false memory syndrome refers to a phenomenon in which you “remember” past
experiences that never actually occurred, such as in the situation depicted here from the
1995 movie Indictment: The McMartin Trial. Most of the studies on false memory
syndrome have centered on erroneous recollections of abuse and other traumatic
experiences. Often these false memories are implanted by therapists and interviewers,
whose persistent questioning over a period of time can create such a realistic scenario
that you come to believe these things actually occurred. In what other ways can false
memory syndrome occur and create problems? Source: Everett Collection
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Stages (7 of 8)
Evaluating
• Judging the messages you hear
• Speaker’s intention
• Critical analysis of information
• Suggestions
• Ensure understanding first
• Assume goodwill
• Distinguish facts from opinions
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Stages (8 of 8)
Responding
• Backchanneling cues while speaker is talking
• More elaborate after speaker has stopped
• Express empathy, request clarification, challenge, or agree
• Suggestions
•
•
•
•
Express support
Used varied backchanneling cues
Own your responses
Avoid problematic responses
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Barriers (1 of 4)
Learning Objective 3.2 Describe the four major barriers to effective listening and describe
how you can improve effectiveness in your own listening.
Distractions: Physical and Mental
• Remove or adjust for physical barriers
• Hearing impairment, noise, multitasking
• Focus on the speaker
• Avoid mental distractions
• Focus on the present topic
• Control emotions to think clearly while listening
• Make what you speak compelling and relevant
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Barriers (2 of 4)
Biases and Prejudices
• May cause you to listen differently to person
• Stereotypes may lead to misinterpretation
• Occurs in a variety of situations
• Characteristics of speaker sometimes pertinent to
evaluation of message
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Barriers (3 of 4)
Lack of Appropriate Focus
• Focusing on speaker is necessary
• Don’t let details detract from main concept
• Don’t shift focus to how you will respond
• Suggestions
• Repeat main idea, relate all details back to it
• Hold responses until speaker is finished
• As speaker, avoid info that may divert from main idea
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Barriers (4 of 4)
Premature Judgment
• Assuming you know what speaker will say
• Stopping listening due to insensitive, contrary remark
• Suggestions
• Hear speaker out before drawing conclusions
• Concentrate listening, gather all info before judging
• As speaker, ask listeners to forego judgment
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
Your Right to Listen
In the last few years we’ve witnessed schools firing instructors for things they’ve said. For
example, the University of Tampa fired a professor for saying that hurricane Harvey
seemed like “karma” for its support of Donald Trump. Are actions such as this an
infringement on your right to listen to different views (after all that’s a major purpose of
college)? Or, are these responsible actions by college administrators against hate speech
or speech that is likely to result in rioting or other illegal acts? What’s your viewpoint?
Source: Dmitriy Shironosov/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Styles (1 of 6)
Learning Objective 3.3 Define the four styles of listening and explain how each may be
used effectively.
Introduction
• Listening is situational
• Important to make adjustments based on:
• Your purposes
• Knowledge of and relationship to person
• Four styles of listening
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 3.2
In Preview: Four Listening Styles
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Styles (2 of 6)
Empathic Listening
• Achieving empathy allows full understanding
• For effective empathy, do not lose your own feelings
• Suggestions
• See from speaker’s point of view
• Engage in equal, two-way conversation
• Seek to understand thoughts and feelings
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
Negative Effects of Empathy
This scene from True Blood illustrates a lack of understanding between two groups—in this
case between a seemingly human person (later revealed to be half fairy) and a vampire and
illustrates one of the effects of negative empathy: the more empathy you feel toward people
who are similar to you racially and ethnically, the less empathy you feel toward those who are
different (Angier,1995). The same empathy that increases your understanding of your own
group decreases your understanding of other groups. So, although empathy may encourage
understanding, it can also create dividing lines between groups. Have you ever experienced or
witnessed these negative effects of empathy? Source: HBO/Photo 12/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Styles (3 of 6)
Polite Listening
• Politeness important not just for speaker
• Suggestions
•
•
•
•
•
Avoid interrupting
Give supportive listening cues
Show empathy
Maintain eye contact
Give positive feedback
• Be sensitive to “forced” listening (cell phones)
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
Listening and Politeness
Much of the thinking and research on listening and politeness has been focused
on face-to-face communication skills. How would you describe listening
politeness on the phone or on social networking sites? Are the same principles
applicable or do we need an entirely different set of principles to describe social
networking listening politeness? Source: Hero Images Inc./Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Styles (4 of 6)
Critical Listening
• Thinking logically, dispassionately about messages
• Suggestions
•
•
•
•
•
Keep open mind
Avoid filtering out or oversimplifying complex messages
Recognize your biases
Combat tendency to sharpen
Focus on verbal and nonverbal messages
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Styles (5 of 6)
Active Listening
• Functions of active listening
• Check understanding
• Acknowledge and accept speaker’s feelings
• Stimulate speaker to explore his or her feelings and
thoughts
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Styles (6 of 6)
Active Listening continued
• Techniques of active listening
• Paraphrase speaker’s meaning, without leading in any
direction
• Express understanding of speaker’s feelings, without
sending “solution” messages
• Ask questions, without prying or challenging
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Differences: Culture and
Gender (1 of 3)
Learning Objective 3.4 Explain the major cultural and gender differences found in
listening and their influence on listening.
Culture and Listening
• Language and speech
• Meanings can vary even when speaking same language
• Accents further complicate
• Nonverbal behaviors
• Display rules and gesture meanings vary
• Can lead to mixed messages, misinterpretation
• Feedback
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Differences: Culture and
Gender (2 of 3)
Gender and Listening
• Men and women generally learn different styles
• Rapport and report talk
• Women seek to be liked; building rapport
• Men seek to show knowledge; reporting
• Listening cues
• Women give more supportive cues, make eye contact
• Men may appear less engaged
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Listening Differences: Culture and
Gender (3 of 3)
Gender and Listening continued
• Amount and purposes of listening
•
•
•
•
Men listen less to women than women listen to men
Speaking position viewed as superior
Men play up expertise by challenging speaker
Women build rapport with constructive criticism, support
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
Gender and Listening Differences
The popular belief is that men listen in the way they do to prove themselves
superior and that women listen as they do to ingratiate themselves. Although
there is no evidence to show that these stereotypes are valid, they persist in the
assumptions that people make about the opposite sex. What do you believe
accounts for the differences in the way men and women listen? Source:
moodboard/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Appendix A
Long description for Figure 3.1
The listening process is circular, and all stages
overlap. The five stages are:
•
Receiving: hearing, attending
•
Understanding: learning, deciphering meaning
•
Remembering: recalling, retaining
•
Evaluating: judging, criticizing
•
Responding: answering, giving feedback
Return to presentation
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Essentials of Human Communication
Tenth Edition
Chapter 4
Verbal Messages
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Learning Objectives
4.1
Paraphrase the principles of verbal messages.
4.2
Define and distinguish between disconfirmation and confirmation
and provide examples of appropriate cultural identifiers.
4.3
Explain the ways in which language can distort thinking and the
suggestions for communicating more logically.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 4.1 In Preview: Principles of
Verbal Messages
For long description, see slide 40, Appendix A
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Principles of Verbal Messages (1 of 8)
Learning Objective 4.1 Paraphrase the principles of verbal messages.
Message Meanings Are in People
• Words mean different things for different people
• Look into a person to discover meaning
• Meanings you created in past can change over time
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Principles of Verbal Messages (2 of 8)
Messages are Denotative and Connotative
• Denotation is common meaning
• Connotation is emotional, varies by person
• Snarl words are highly negative
• Purr words are highly positive
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Principles of Verbal Messages (3 of 8)
Messages Vary in Abstraction
• Abstraction: general versus specific
• Effective messages include words at many levels
• Specific terms generally better choice to direct
listeners’ attention
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Figure 4.2
The
Abstraction
Ladder
Try creating an abstraction ladder of four or five levels for an abstract term such
as food, building, asset, or any other abstract term. What do you see at the
major differences between the most abstract and the most concrete terms?
For long description, see slide 42, Appendix B
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Principles of Verbal Messages (4 of 8)
Messages Can Deceive
• Lying is intent to give false information
• Large cultural differences
• Behaviors of liars
• Hold back, make less sense, negative impression, tense
• Can be hard to detect
• Truth bias, especially in long-term relationships
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Principles of Verbal Messages (5 of 8)
Messages Vary in Politeness
• Polite messages reflect positively, respect autonomy
• Directness
• Direct messages usually less polite
• Cultural differences can create misunderstanding
• Gender
• Women more indirect, polite in giving orders
• Men more indirect when expressing weakness
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VIEWPOINTS:
Gender Speech Patterns
When asked what they would like to change about the communication patterns
of the opposite sex, men said they wanted women to be more direct, and
women said they wanted men to stop interrupting and offering advice. What one
change would you like to see in the communication system of the opposite sex?
Of your own sex? Source: Tetra Images/Getty Images
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Principles of Verbal Messages (6 of 8)
Messages Vary in Politeness continued
• Online netiquette
•
•
•
•
Familiarize yourself with site rules before contributing
Be brief
Don’t shout by using all caps
Don’t spam or “flame”, sending unsolicited or repeat
information
• Avoid offensive language
• Be polite as if in face-to-face encounter
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Principles of Verbal Messages (7 of 8)
Messages Can Be Onymous or Anonymous
• Onymous messages have clearly defined author
• Anonymous messaging extremely easy via Internet
•
•
•
•
Opinions safer to voice, encourages honesty
People often disclose deeper feelings
Credibility hard to evaluate
Extreme opinions and unproductive conflict possible
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Principles of Verbal Messages (8 of 8)
Messages Vary in Assertiveness
• Respectful willingness to stand up for rights
• Cultural differences impact effectiveness
• Suggestions
•
•
•
•
Describe problem, don’t judge it
State how problem affects you, how you feel
Propose workable solutions that let person save face
Confirm understanding
• Assertiveness not always best response
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Disconfirmation and Confirmation (1 of 11)
Learning Objective 4.2 Define and distinguish between disconfirmation and confirmation
and provide examples of appropriate cultural identifiers.
Communication Patterns
• Disconfirmation pattern ignores someone’s presence
and communications entirely
• Confirmation pattern acknowledges person and
indicates acceptance of relationship
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Table 4.3 Disconfirmation and Confirmation
Disconfirmation
Confirmation
Ignore
Acknowledge
Make no nonverbal contact
Make nonverbal contact
Monologue
Dialogue
Jump to interpretation
Demonstrate understanding
Discourage
Encourage
Avoid responding
Respond directly
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Figure 4.3
In Preview: Disconfirmation with -isms
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Disconfirmation and Confirmation (2 of 11)
Racist Speech
• Puts down, minimizes, and marginalizes person due
to race
• Individual and institutional racism
• Things to avoid
•
•
•
•
Derogatory terms
Basing interactions on stereotypes
Mentioning race when irrelevant
Attributing problems to race, rather than actual source
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VIEWPOINTS:
Racial Differences on Campus
In May of 2017, students at Evergreen State College called for the firing
of a college professor who objected to an all-day campus event during
which white people (students and faculty) would not be allowed on
campus. What’s your viewpoint? Source: Paul Hennessy/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Disconfirmation and Confirmation (3 of 11)
Heterosexist Speech
• Individual heterosexism disparages all behavior that
is not heterosexual
• Heart of antigay violence
• Assumes homosexuals cannot follow laws, maintain
relationships, or raise families
• Institutional heterosexism manifests in laws
• Derogatory terms blatant or subtle
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Disconfirmation and Confirmation (4 of 11)
Heterosexist Speech continued
• Things to avoid
• Offensive nonverbal mannerisms
• Complimenting by saying someone “doesn’t look” gay or
lesbian
• Assuming every gay or lesbian knows what every other is
thinking
• Denying individual differences
• Overattribution
• Ignoring relationship milestones for gay or lesbian couples
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Disconfirmation and Confirmation (5 of 11)
Ageist Speech
• Prejudice against older people, or any age group
• Individual and institutional
• Media portrayal of older persons often ageist
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Disconfirmation and Confirmation (6 of 11)
Ageist Speech continued
• Avoid illogical stereotypes
• Don’t talk down to older persons
• Don’t assume older people don’t know pop culture or
technology
• Refrain from refreshing older person’s memory
• Avoid implying relationships no longer important
• Speak at normal volume, distance
• Engage older people in conversation, as you would wish to
be engaged
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Disconfirmation and Confirmation (7 of 11)
Sexist Speech
• Individual sexism based on rigid beliefs based on
gender roles
• Institutional sexism manifests in discriminatory
customs and practices
• Women paid less than men
• Glass ceiling for women
• Mothers’ rights in custody cases
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Disconfirmation and Confirmation (8 of 11)
Sexist Speech continued
• Sexist language disparages someone because of
gender, often toward women
• Guidelines
• Avoid using man generically
• Avoid using he and his as generic
• Avoid sex role stereotyping
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VIEWPOINTS:
Refusing to Serve
Recently there has been a
variety of news items reporting
on the issue of whether it is
permissible/legal/ethical to
refuse to serve someone whose
views you disagree with. What’s
your viewpoint? Would you
support those who refuse to
serve GLBTQ people? Would
you support those who refuse to
serve “white nationalists”?
Would you support those who
refuse to serve those of a
particular race, religion, or ethnic
origin? Source: Brian Cahn/ZUMA Press,
Inc./Alamy Stock Photo
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Disconfirmation and Confirmation (9 of 11)
Cultural Identifiers
• Preferred identifiers for different groups
• Use language that includes, rather than excludes
• Race and nationality
• Many opinions, general preferences found in research
• Some terms clearly to be avoided
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Disconfirmation and Confirmation (10 of 11)
Cultural Identifiers continued
• Affectional orientation
• Gay and lesbian generally preferred terms
• Terms go beyond orientation to refer to self-identification
• Some terms not universally agreed
• Age
• Older person preferred term
• Terms designating age rarely necessary
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Disconfirmation and Confirmation (11 of 11)
Cultural Identifiers continued
• Sex and Gender
• Woman preferred over girl, unless very young
• Transgender people addressed by self-identified sex
• Transvestites addressed on basis of clothing
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VIEWPOINTS:
Negative terms
Many people feel that it’s permissible for members of a particular culture to refer to
themselves in terms that, if said by outsiders, would be considered racist, ageist, sexist,
or heterosexist. Some researchers suggest a possible problem with this—the idea that
these terms may actually reinforce negative stereotypes that the larger society has
already assigned to the group. Other would argue that, by using such labels, groups
weaken the terms’ negative impact. Do you refer to yourself using terms that would be
considered offensive or politically incorrect if said by “outsiders”? What effects, if any, do
you think such self-talk has? Source: Sam Edwards/Caiaimage/OJO+/Getty Images
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Using Verbal Messages Effectively (1 of 7)
Learning Objective 4.3 Explain the ways in which language can distort thinking and the
suggestions for communicating more logically.
Six Things to Avoid
• Intensional orientation
• Allness
• Confusing facts and inferences
• Indiscrimination
• Polarization
• Static evaluation
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 4.4 In Preview:
Guides for Using Verbal Messages
For long description, see slide 42, Appendix C
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Using Verbal Messages Effectively (2 of 7)
Extensionalize: Avoid Intensional Orientation
• Intensional orientation
• Tendency to view things in terms of how they are
discussed, rather than actually exist
• Extensional orientation guides by what is actually
happening, rather than by how it is discussed
• Focus first on person, object, or event
• Labels useful only as secondary guide
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Using Verbal Messages Effectively (3 of 7)
See the Individual: Avoid Allness
• Can never know everything about a person
• Risk of premature judgment
• Can create a self-fulfilling prophecy
• Remind self there is always more to know and say
• Mentally end statements with et cetera
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Using Verbal Messages Effectively (4 of 7)
Distinguish Between Facts and Inferences: Avoid
Fact-Inference Confusion
• Sometimes hard to distinguish, but very different
• Fact-inference confusion creates problem when
inferences treated as facts
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Using Verbal Messages Effectively (5 of 7)
Discriminate Among: Avoid Indiscrimination
• Everything is unique
• Common nouns in language may lead you to focus
on similarities within the group
• Indiscrimination a form of stereotyping
• Use mental index to differentiate within group
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Using Verbal Messages Effectively (6 of 7)
Talk About the Middle: Avoid Polarization
• The fallacy of “either/or” looks at world in extremes
• Most people and situations exist somewhere
between extremes
• Opposites easier to think of than midway responses
• Polarizing categories sometimes appropriate, other
times cause problems
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Using Verbal Messages Effectively (7 of 7)
Update Messages: Avoid Static Evaluation
• Static evaluation retains judgment of a person,
despite inevitable changes
• Use a mental subscript, or date, to look at statements
in the context of time
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VIEWPOINTS:
Social Networks and Language
Can you identify examples of intensional orientation, allness, fact-inference
distinction, indiscrimination, polarization, or static evaluation in social
networking communication? What types of problems might be created when the
guidelines suggested here are violated? Source: VOISIN/PHANIE/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Appendix A
Long description for Figure 4.1
The aspects of verbal messages are as follows.
•
Meanings are in people
•
Messages are denotative and connotative
•
Messages vary in abstraction
•
Messages can deceive
•
Messages vary in politeness
•
Messages can be onymous or anonymous
•
Messages vary is assertiveness
Return to presentation
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Appendix B
Long description for Figure 4.2
From the top rung to the bottom rung are the following labels:
•
Entertainment
•
Film
•
American Film
•
Classic American Film
•
Classic American Western Film
•
Shane
Return to presentation
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Appendix C
Long description for Figure 4.4
Effective verbal messaging avoids intentional
orientation, avoids allness, avoids confusing facts
and inferences, avoids indiscrimination, avoids
polarization, and avoids static evaluation.
Return to presentation
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Essentials of Human Communication
Tenth Edition
Chapter 2
Perception of Self and
Others
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Learning Objectives
2.1
Define self-concept, self-awareness, and self-esteem and explain
the ways in which self-awareness and self-esteem may be
increased.
2.2
Define self-disclosure, its rewards and dangers, and explain the
suggested guidelines for making, responding to, and resisting
self-disclosure.
2.3
Define perception and its stages, and explain how to increase
perceptual accuracy.
2.4
Explain the nature of impression formation and the major factors
that influence it.
2.5
Explain the strategies of impression management.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Self in Human Communication (1 of 9)
Learning Objective 2.1 Define self-concept, self-awareness, and self-esteem and explain
the ways in which self-awareness and self-esteem may be increased.
Self-Concept
• How you perceive yourself
• Strengths and weaknesses
• Abilities and limitations
• Develops due to various influences
•
•
•
•
Others’ images of you
Comparisons with others
Cultural teachings
Self-evaluations
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Figure 2.1
In Preview:
The Sources of
Self-Concept
As you read about self-concept, consider the influence of each factor
throughout your life. Which factor influenced you most as a preteen? Which
influences you most now? Which will influence you most in 25 or 30 years?
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Self in Human Communication (2 of 9)
Self-Concept continued
• Others’ images of you
• Looking-glass self
• Significant others most impactful
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The Self in Human Communication (3 of 9)
Self-Concept continued
• Comparisons with others
• Social media tools make it easy
• Numerous gauges
•
Search engine reports
•
Network spread
•
Online influence
•
Twitter activities
•
Blog presence
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The Self in Human Communication (4 of 9)
Self-Concept continued
• Cultural teachings
• Provides benchmarks for measuring success
• Gender roles especially important
• Self-interpretations and self-evaluations
• If you believe you acted contrary to internalized beliefs, you
react negatively
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The Self in Human Communication (5 of 9)
Self-Awareness
• Basic to all communication
• Johari window
• Your four selves
•
•
•
•
Open self
Blind self
Unknown self
Hidden self
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Figure 2.2 The Johari Window
For long description, see slide 54, Appendix A
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The Self in Human Communication (6 of 9)
Self-Awareness continued
• Growing in self-awareness
•
•
•
•
Listen to others
Increase your open self
Seek information about yourself
Dialogue with yourself
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The Self in Human Communication (7 of 9)
Self-Esteem
• Measure of how valuable you feel you are
• Cognitive self-esteem
• Affective self-esteem
• Behavioral self-esteem
• Higher self-esteem leads to better performance
• Low self-esteem is learned
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 2.3 In Preview: Climbing to
Higher Self-Esteem
Here are just a few things
you can do to increase
your self-esteem.
For long description, see slide 55, Appendix B
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Self in Human Communication (8 of 9)
Self-Esteem continued
• Attack self-destructive beliefs
• Replace unrealistic should beliefs with realistic ones
• Beware the impostor phenomenon
• Don’t disregard outward signs of success
• Trust in knowledgeable mentor to guide, affirm
• Seek out nourishing people
• Avoid noxious people who criticize and find fault
• Become more nourishing yourself
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
Self-Esteem and Facebook
The difference between those with high and those with low self-esteem is even shown in
how they post on social media. Those with high self-esteem post information about their
family, work, and education. Those with low self-esteem do this less and spend their
social media time monitoring their wall and deleting any posts or photos that may reflect
on them negatively. How do you see the relationship between self-esteem and posting to
social media? Source: JGI/Tom Grill/Getty Images
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Self in Human Communication (9 of 9)
Self-Esteem continued
• Work on projects that will result in success
• Avoid impossible projects
• Failure happens, it’s not inside you
• Remind yourself of your successes
• Relive and consider why success occurs
• Secure affirmation
• How you talk to yourself matters
• Self-affirmation good, but most helpful from others
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Self-Disclosure (1 of 6)
Learning Objective 2.2 Define self-disclosure, its rewards and dangers, and explain the
suggested guidelines for making, responding to, and resisting self-disclosure.
Introduction
• Self-disclosure is any communication about yourself
to another person
• Occurs in many forms and settings
• Especially common online
• Disinhibition effect
• Changes over time
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
Coming Out
A special case of self-disclosure
frequently in the news is that of
coming out, publicly identifying
oneself as gay, lesbian, or
transsexual. Like all selfdisclosure, the decision to come
out would logically be influenced
by a variety of factors (for
example, your age, your position
in an organization, your family
situation) which, in turn, will
determine, in great part, the
advantages or disadvantages of
coming out. What factors should
a person consider before making
the choice to come out?
Source: dpa picture alliance/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Self-Disclosure (2 of 6)
Self-Disclosure Rewards
• Self-knowledge
• Improved coping abilities
• Communication enhancement
• More meaningful relationships
• Preventing inaccurate perceptions
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Self-Disclosure (3 of 6)
Self-Disclosure Dangers
• Personal risks
• Relationship risks
• Professional risks
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VIEWPOINTS:
Self-Disclosure and Culture
Different cultures view self-disclosure differently. Some cultures view disclosing inner
feelings as weakness. Among some groups, for example, it would be considered “out of
place” for a man to cry at a happy occasion such as a wedding, whereas in some Latin
cultures that same display of emotion would go unnoticed. Similarly, it’s considered
undesirable in Japan for workplace colleagues to reveal personal information, whereas in
much of the United States it’s expected. How would you describe your own culture’s
unwritten rules for appropriate self-disclosure? Source: ERIC LAFFORGUE/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Self-Disclosure (4 of 6)
Guidelines for Making Self-Disclosures
• Consider the motivation
• Consider the appropriateness
• Consider disclosures of other person
• Consider possible burdens disclosure might entail
• Can you accept possible consequences?
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Self-Disclosure (5 of 6)
Guidelines for Facilitating and Responding to
Others’ Disclosures
• Support and reinforce the discloser
• Be willing to reciprocate (generally)
• No obligation, but shows understanding
• Keep disclosures confidential
• Don’t use disclosures against the person
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Self-Disclosure (6 of 6)
Guidelines for Resisting Pressure to Self-Disclose
• Don’t be pushed
• Be assertive in your refusal
• Delay a decision
• Move to another topic
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Perception (1 of 6)
Learning Objective 2.3 Define perception and its stages, and explain how to increase
perceptual accuracy.
Introduction
• Perception is your way of understanding the world
• Results from external and internal forces
• Influences communication choices
• A continuous series of five processes
• Stimulation, organization, interpretation-evaluation, memory
recall
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Figure 2.4 In Preview:
The Five Stages of Perception
Perception occurs in five stages: stimulation, organization, interpretationevaluation, memory, and recall. Understanding how perception works will help
make your own perceptions (of yourself and of others) more accurate.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Perception (2 of 6)
Stimulation (Stage 1)
• Senses are stimulated
• We engage in selective perception
• Selective attention
• Selective exposure
• More intense or novel stimuli more likely to be
perceived
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Perception (3 of 6)
Organization (Stage 2)
• Sensed information is organized
• Rules of perception apply
• Proximity
• Similarity
• Contrast
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Perception (4 of 6)
Interpretation-Evaluation (Stage 3)
• Inseparable processes
• Influenced by personal factors
•
•
•
•
•
Experiences
Wants and needs
Expectations
Gender
Culture
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Perception (5 of 6)
Memory (Stage 4)
• Interpretations-evaluations stored for recall
• “Cognitive tags” associate elements
• Stereotypes play a role
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Perception (6 of 6)
Recall (Stage 5)
• Memories are accessed
• Memories can include inaccuracies
• Reconstructed, not reproduced
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Impression Formation (1 of 8)
Learning Objective 2.4 Explain the nature of impression formation and the major factors
that influence it.
Key Terms
• Impression formation
• Forming an impression of another person
• Impression management
• Processes used to give others the impression you want
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Impression Formation (2 of 8)
Impression Formation Processes
• Self-fulfilling prophecy
1.
2.
3.
4.
You make a prediction or form a belief.
You act as if the prediction or belief is true.
Because you act as if it is true, it becomes true.
You observe your effect, and what you see strengthens
your beliefs.
• Pygmalion effect study
• Students expected to do well performed at higher levels
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
Your Public Messages
Many college and graduate admissions offices and employees examine
your social media messages. Does knowing this influence your
postings? If so, in what way? If not, why not? Source: Lisa F. Young/Alamy Stock Photo
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Impression Formation (3 of 8)
Impression Formation Processes continued
• Primacy-recency
• Primacy effect, what comes first has most influence
• Recency effect, what comes last has most influence
• Stereotyping
• Fixed impression of a group of people
• Distorts perception; miss out on uniqueness of individual
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Impression Formation (4 of 8)
Impression Formation Processes continued
• Attribution of control
•
•
•
•
•
Process of explaining why someone behaved a certain way
Evaluation of whether person was in control
Self-serving bias error
Overattribution error
Fundamental attribution error
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Impression Formation (5 of 8)
Increasing Accuracy in Impression Formation
• Analyze your impressions
•
•
•
•
•
Recognize your role in perception
Avoid early conclusions
Look for a variety of cues
Seek validation
Beware of the just world hypothesis
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Impression Formation (6 of 8)
Increasing Accuracy in Impression Formation
continued
• Check your perceptions
• Description/interpretation
• Clarification
• “Galileo and the Ghosts” technique
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Impression Formation (7 of 8)
Increasing Accuracy in Impression Formation
continued
• Reduce your uncertainty
•
•
•
•
•
Observe
Construct situations
Get the lay of the land
Ask
Interact
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
VIEWPOINTS:
Predictability and Uncertainty
As you and another person
develop a closer and more
intimate relationship, you
generally reduce your
uncertainty about each other;
you become more predictable
to each other. What level of
predictability do you want in a
romantic partner? Are there
certain things about your
partner (best friend, lover, or
family member) that you’d
simply rather not know?
Source: Ampyang/Fotolia
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Impression Formation (8 of 8)
Increasing Accuracy in Impression Formation
continued
• Increase your cultural sensitivity
• Recognize differences, stereotypes
• Helps to better understand nonverbal behavior
• Differences within cultures; resist stereotyping
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Impression Management (1 of 11)
Learning Objective 2.5 Explain the strategies of impression management.
Communicating an Impression
• Impression management
• Largely via messages, verbal and nonverbal
• Also through associations
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Impression Management (2 of 11)
Communicating an Impression continued
• Seven goals with strategies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
To be liked
To be believed
To excuse failure
To secure help
To hide faults
To be followed
To confirm self-image
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Figure 2.5
In Preview:
Impression
Management
Goals
For long description, see slide 56, Appendix C
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Impression Management (3 of 11)
To Be Liked: Affinity-Seeking Strategies
• Appear active, enthusiastic, dynamic
• Follow cultural rules
• Communicate interest in others, include them
• Present yourself as comfortable, relaxed
• Stimulate other person to self-disclose and
reciprocate
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Impression Management (4 of 11)
To Be Liked: Affinity-Seeking Strategies continued
• Appear optimistic and positive
• Appear honest, reliable, and interesting
• Arrange for frequent contact
• Communicate warmth, supportiveness, empathy
• Demonstrate shared attitudes and values
• Overuse of strategies may be seen as insincere
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Impression Management (5 of 11)
To Be Liked: Politeness Strategies
• Positive face: desire to be viewed positively
• Negative face: desire to be autonomous
• Polite behavior allows others to maintain face
• Impolite behavior attacks “face”
• Overpoliteness viewed as phony
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Impression Management (6 of 11)
To Be Believed: Credibility Strategies
• Establish others’ perception of you
• Confidence, refer to your experience
• Character, express your fairness and honesty
• Charisma, use facial expressions and vocal variation
• Overly stressing these characteristics runs counter to
how someone with them would act
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Impression Management (7 of 11)
To Excuse Failure: Self-Handicapping Strategies
• When approaching a difficult task
• Prepare excuses for failure in advance
• Create obstacles making the task impossible
• Overuse creates impression of incompetence or
foolishness
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Impression Management (8 of 11)
To Secure Help: Self-Deprecating Strategies
• To be taken care of or protected
• Confess incompetence, inability
• Often brings assistance from others
• Overuse creates impression of incompetence or
laziness
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Impression Management (9 of 11)
To Hide Faults: Self-Monitoring Strategies
• Censor what you say or do
• Avoid your normal behaviors to improve impression
• Disclose only favorable aspects of an experience
• Overuse creates impression of someone untrusting
or dishonest
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Impression Management (10 of 11)
To Be Followed: Influencing Strategies
• Get people to see you as a leader
• Exhibit power via knowledge, expertise, or role
• Stress prior experience or successes
• Failures to influence can reduce power
• Self-serving attempts to influence can be resented
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Impression Management (11 of 11)
To Confirm Self-Image: Image-Confirming
Strategies
• Reinforce your positive perceptions about yourself
• Post pictures that affirm self-image
• Reveal aspects of yourself reflecting your desired image
• Overuse can give impressions of too perfect, not
genuine, self-absorbed
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Appendix A
Long description for Figure 2.2
All three examples contain the following four squares.
• Known to self and known to others. Open self. Information about yourself
that you and others know.
• Not known to self and known to others. Blind self. Information about yourself
that you don’t know but that others do know.
• Known to self and not known to others. Hidden self. Information about
yourself that you know that others don’t know.
• Not known to self and not known to others. Unknown self. Information about
yourself that neither you nor others know.
All four squares have equal weight in the first window. In the second window,
the hidden self is larger. Blind self is largest in the third window.
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Appendix B
Long description for Figure 2.3
The steps to achieving high self-esteem are as follows.
• Attack self-destructive beliefs.
• Beware the imposter phenomenon.
• Seek out nourishing others.
• Work on projects that result in success.
• Remind yourself of your successes.
• High self-esteem.
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Appendix C
Long description for Figure 2.5
The diagram illustrates impression management goals and strategies as a
circle with some impression management goals at center. Feeding from the
circle are the following.
• To be liked.
• To be believed.
• To excuse failure.
• To secure help.
• To hide faults.
• To be influential.
• To confirm self-image.
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Essentials of Human Communication
Tenth Edition
Chapter 1
The Essentials of Human
Communication
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Learning Objectives
1.1
Identify the forms, benefits, and myths of human communication.
1.2
Draw a model of communication that includes sources-receivers,
messages, context, channel, noise, and effects; and define each
of these elements.
1.3
Paraphrase the major principles of human communication.
1.4
Explain the role of culture in human communication, the seven
ways in which cultures differ from one another, and define ethnic
identity and ethnocentrism.
1.5
Define communication competence and explain its major
qualities.
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Forms, Benefits, and Myths of Human
Communication (1 of 4)
Learning Objective 1.1 Identify the forms, benefits, and myths of human communication.
Forms of Human Communication
• Interpersonal communication
• Small group communication
• Public communication
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Figure 1.1 In Preview: The Benefits of
Studying Human Communication
For long description, see slide 48, Appendix A
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Forms, Benefits, and Myths of Human
Communication (2 of 4)
Benefits of Studying Human Communication
• Influences personal and professional life
• Five specific skills to be learned
•
•
•
•
•
Critical and creative thinking skills
Interaction skills
Relationship skills
Leadership skills
Presentation skills
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Forms, Benefits, and Myths of Human
Communication (3 of 4)
Myths About Human Communication
• The more you communicate, the better your
communication will be.
• When two people are in a close relationship, neither
person should have to communicate needs and
wants explicitly; the other person should know what
these are.
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Forms, Benefits, and Myths of Human
Communication (4 of 4)
Myths About Human Communication continued
• Interpersonal or group conflict is a reliable sign that
the relationship or group is in trouble.
• Like good communicators, leaders are born, not
made.
• Fear of speaking in public is detrimental and must be
eliminated.
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VIEWPOINTS:
Importance of Communication
Both men and women want partners who know how to communicate and
listen. How important, compared to all the other factors you might take into
consideration in choosing a life partner or best friend, is the ability to
communicate or listen? What specific communication skills would you
consider “extremely important”? What communication behavior patterns
would be “deal breakers”? Source: Mint Images Limited/Alamy Stock Photo
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Communication Models and Concepts
(1 of 8)
Learning Objective 1.2 Draw a model of communication that includes sources−receivers,
messages, context, channel, noise, and effects; and define each of these elements.
Communication Process Models
• Earliest view linear
• Speaker spoke, listener listened
• Current view transactional
• Each person is both speaker and listener
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Figure 1.2 Two Views of Communication
For long description, see slide 49, Appendix B
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Communication Models and Concepts
(2 of 8)
Communication Process Models continued
• Aspects of transactional model
•
•
•
•
•
•
Simultaneous sending and receiving
Elements interdependent
Occurs within a context
One or more channels
Distorted by noise
Has some effect
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Figure 1.3 The
Essentials of Human
Communication
This is a general model of communication between two people and most accurately
depicts communication as a transactional process. It puts into visual form the various
elements of the communication process. How would you revise this model to depict
small group interaction or public speaking?
For long description, see slide 50, Appendix C
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Communication Models and Concepts
(3 of 8)
Sources-Receivers
• Speaker is source
• Encoding ideas into speech
• Listener is receiver
• Decoding sounds into ideas
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Communication Models and Concepts
(4 of 8)
Messages
• Verbal and nonverbal
• Feedforward messages
• Phatic communication
• Feedback messages
• Indicates effect on listeners
• Metamessages
• Refer to another message
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VIEWPOINTS:
Feedback
Based on your own experiences, what qualities do you attribute to
someone who accurately reads and responds to feedback? How
would this differ from the qualities attributed to those who ignore or
misread feedback? Source: Jim West/Alamy Stock Photo
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Communication Models and Concepts
(5 of 8)
Communication Context
• Determines meaning of message
• Aspects
•
•
•
•
Physical
Cultural
Social-psychological
Temporal
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Communication Models and Concepts
(6 of 8)
Channel
• Medium through which messages pass
• Usually more than one
• Vocal, visual, olfactory, tactile
• Also refers to means of communication
• Face-to-face, email, smoke signal
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Communication Models and Concepts
(7 of 8)
Noise
• Interferes with receiving message
• Types
•
•
•
•
Physical
Physiological
Psychological
Semantic
• Signal-to-noise ratio
• Identify noise to identify remedies
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Communication Models and Concepts
(8 of 8)
Effects
• Always a consequence
• Types
• Intellectual, or cognitive
• Affective
• Psychomotor
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Figure 1.4 In Preview: Principles of
Human Communication
For long description, see slide 51, Appendix D
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Principles of Communication (1 of 8)
Learning Objective 1.3 Paraphrase the major principles of human communication.
Communication Is Purposeful
• To learn
• To relate
• To help
• To influence
• To play
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Principles of Communication (2 of 8)
Communication Is Purposeful continued
• Relationship purpose dominates motivations for
using social networking sites
• Men
• Focus on information
• Chat online to play, relax
• Women
• Focus on relationships
• Chat online for relationships
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Principles of Communication (3 of 8)
Communication Takes Place in Varied Forms
• Face-to-face
• Online via multiple platforms and social media
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VIEWPOINTS:
Mixed-Media Communication
How would you describe the similarities and the differences in the
ways you communicate face-to-face versus on a phone?
Source: Anna Bizon/Alamy Stock Photo
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Principles of Communication (4 of 8)
Communication Takes Place in Varied Forms
continued
• Why integrate both forms?
• It’s the way we communicate.
• Research and theory on face-to-face and online
communication inform each other.
• It’s part of the skill set employers seek in applicants.
• Both vital to develop, maintain, dissolve relationships.
• Both forms are important to achieving goals.
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Principles of Communication (5 of 8)
Communication Is Ambiguous
• Language ambiguity
• Informal time terms
• Grammatical interpretations
• Relationship ambiguity
• All relationships ambiguous to some extent
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Principles of Communication (6 of 8)
Communication Involves Content and
Relationship Dimensions
• Content
• Used more by men
• Relationship
• Used more by women
• Must distinguish context and relationship levels
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Principles of Communication (7 of 8)
Communication Is Inevitable, Irreversible, and
Unrepeatable
• Inevitability
• Intentional and unintentional
• All behavior is not communication
• Irreversibility
• Cannot undo, only reduce effects
• Take special care in conflict, commitment, private situations
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Principles of Communication (8 of 8)
Communication Is Inevitable, Irreversible, and
Unrepeatable continued
• Unrepeatability
• Cannot recapture exact same situation
• Can only counteract initial impressions
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Culture and Communication (1 of 6)
Learning Objective 1.4 Explain the role of culture in human communication, the seven
ways in which cultures differ from one another, and define ethnic identity and
ethnocentrism.
Introduction
• Culture consists of beliefs, ways of behaving, and
artifacts of a group
• United States is a collection of cultures
• Gender is key cultural variable
• Gender roles changing
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Figure 1.5 A Model of Intercultural
Communication
This model of intercultural communication illustrates that culture is part of every
communication act.
For long description, see slide 52, Appendix E
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Culture and Communication (2 of 6)
The Importance of Culture
• Demographic changes
• Sensitivity to cultural differences
• Economic interdependence
• Communication technology
• Culture-specific nature of communication
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Culture and Communication (3 of 6)
The Dimensions of Culture
• Predominant aspects exist, yet individuals still vary
• Not a judgment of morality
• Great variations even within a culture
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Culture and Communication (4 of 6)
The Dimensions of Culture continued
• Key dimensions
• Masculinity−femininity
•
•
•
•
•
High and low context
Long- and short-term orientation
Indulgence and restraint
Power distance
Individualism−collectivism
• Uncertainty avoidance
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Culture and Communication (5 of 6)
The Aim of a Cultural Perspective
• Culture influences communication
• Understand similarities, degree of differences
• Awareness does not imply agreement
• Factors beyond culture also determine behavior
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VIEWPOINTS:
Campus Culture
How would you describe the level of cultural awareness and cultural
sensitivity of the average student on your campus, say on a ten-point
scale? Assuming you didn’t rate it a 10, what changes would be
necessary for you to rate it a 10? Source: Hill Street Studios/Blend Images/Getty Images
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Culture and Communication (6 of 6)
Ethnic Identity and Ethnocentrism
• Strong ethnic identity is generally good
• Ethnocentrism exists on a continuum
• Degree influences behavior toward other cultures
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Figure 1.6
The
Ethnocentric
Continuum
For long description, see slide 53, Appendix F
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Communication Competence (1 of 6)
Learning Objective 1.5 Define communication competence and explain its major qualities.
The Competent Communicator Thinks Critically
and Mindfully
• Logical thinking is essential
• Mindfulness especially effective
• Awareness of reasons for thinking and behaving
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Communication Competence (2 of 6)
The Competent Communicator Thinks Critically
and Mindfully continued
• Ways to increase mindfulness
•
•
•
•
Create and re-create categories
Be open to new information, points of view
Beware of relying too much on first impressions
Think before you act
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Communication Competence (3 of 6)
The Competent Communicator Makes Reasoned
Choices
• Three steps to approach choice points
• Identify available choices
• Identify advantages and disadvantages of each
• Effectively communicate most logical choice
• Course will help develop competence in executing
the steps
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Figure 1.7 The Process of
Communication Choice Making
For long description, see slide 54, Appendix G
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VIEWPOINTS:
Communication Choices
What are some of the important communication choices you made
this week? Did you make any choices you regret? Any choices that
you are particularly pleased with? Source: Ramiro Olaciregu/Moment Select/Getty Images
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Communication Competence (4 of 6)
The Competent Communicator Is an Effective
Code Switcher
• Code switching
• Using more than one language in conversation
• Changing language styles by situation
• Helps identify with group or clarify meaning
• Problematic if not genuine or appropriate
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Communication Competence (5 of 6)
The Competent Communicator Is Culturally Aware
and Sensitive
• Elements of culture
• Values, beliefs, artifacts, behavior
• Ways of communicating
• Gender differences
• Passed through generations
• Impacts communication effectiveness
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Communication Competence (6 of 6)
The Competent Communicator Is Ethical
• Ethics is concerned with actions
• Distinguishes right and wrong
• Ethics permeates all communication
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Copyright
This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is
provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their
courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of
any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will
destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work
and materials from it should never be made available to students
except by instructors using the accompanying text in their
classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these
restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and
the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.
Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Appendix A
Long description for Figure 1.1
These benefits include critical and creative
thinking skills, interaction skills, relationship skills,
group membership and leadership skills, and
presentation skills.
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Copyright © 2020, 2017, 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Appendix B
Long description for Figure 1.2
The linear view involves individual speakers and
listeners, where speakers always speak and
listeners always listen. The transactional view
involves an exchange between speakers and
listeners, each performing each task.
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Appendix C
Long description for Figure 1.3
The diagram shows that each person is both a source or
encoder, and receiver or decoder. Messages channels and
feedback move between each party.
The circular diagram is arranged in the following way.
• Noise sits at the center of the encounter. This goes in all
directions.
• On the right is a circle divided in half. The top reads source or
receiver. The bottom reads encoding or decoding.
• A message is passed from one person to the other through
feedforwarding, and feedback is returned.
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Appendix D
Long description for Figure 1.4
Communication contains the following traits:
Purposeful, varies in form, ambiguous, content
and relationship, inevitable, irreversible, and
unrepeatable.
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Appendix E
Long description for Figure 1.5
Each person performs the functions of source or
receiver, and encoding or decoding. Effects sit in
the center of each person’s functions. Cultural
beliefs, attitudes, and values surround each
individual. Messages move between the two
people.
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Appendix F
Long description for Figure 1.6
The elements listed are equality, sensitivity, indifference, avoidance, disparagement.
The diagram lists the degree of ethnocentrism, communication distances, and
communications. Data from the diagram is as follows in order from highest to lowest degrees
of ethnocentrism.
• Disparagement. Engages in hostile behavior, belittles others, views own culture as superior
to other cultures.
• Avoidance. Avoids and limits interpersonal interaction with others, prefers to be with own
kind.
• Indifference. Lacks concern for others but is not hostile.
• Sensitivity. Wants to decrease distance between self and others.
• Equality. Treats others as equals, evaluates other ways of doing things as equal to one’s
own ways.
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Appendix G
Long description for Figure 1.7
•
The process of making communications choices is as follows.
•
You identify as many choices for communicating as you can.
•
You evaluate and analyze the choices, selecting the one with the
most potential of being effective.
•
You communicate your best choice.
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