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Week 9  Activities Select Only One

Create   a study aid that you can use for review and self?testing. The study sheet   should be written as a Three?Column table (add as many rows as you need):

Your study sheet must be thorough and cover all   concepts in the text and Lesson Notes and must include the following   headings:?

Factors that influence aggression cues

The difference between aversive incidents   and arousal

Influence of media

Video games

Group Influences

Catharsis

9.2: Exam Question

Individual

Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab).

Create 2 exam questions on week 9 material that   could be used on a midterm or final exam in this course. In each exam   question you must assess students’ ability to apply two or more concepts from   week 9. Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the   same concepts in each question.

apply two or more concepts from weeks   readings

Each exam question must assess different   concepts – do not assess the same concepts in each question.

Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy   that your questions assess.

Identify the two specific concepts that   your question assesses

Provide a thorough answer to that   question that could serve as an exam key if you were marking this question

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Measurable Verbs
Benjamin Bloom created a taxonomy of measurable verbs to help us describe and classify observable
knowledge, skills, attitudes, behaviors and abilities. The theory is based upon the idea that there are levels
of observable actions that indicate something is happening in the brain (cognitive activity.) By creating
learning objectives using measurable verbs, you indicate explicitly what the student must do in order to
demonstrate learning.
Verbs that demonstrate Critical Thinking
KNOWLEDGE
List
Name
Recall
Record
Relate
Repeat
State
Tell
Underline
APPLICATION
Apply
COMPREHENSION Complete
Compare
Construct
Describe
Demonstrate
Discuss
Dramatize
Explain
Employ
Express
Illustrate
Identify
Interpret
Recognize
Operate
Restate
Practice
Tell
Schedule
Translate
Sketch
Use
ANALYSIS
Analyze
Appraise
Categorize
Compare
Contrast
Debate
Diagram
Differentiate
Distinguish
Examine
Experiment
Inspect
Inventory
Question
Test
SYNTHESIS
Arrange
Assemble
Collect
Combine
Comply
Compose
Construct
Create
Design
Devise
Formulate
Manage
Organize
Plan
Prepare
Propose
Setup
EVALUATION
Appraise
Argue
Assess
Choose
Compare
Conclude
Estimate
Evaluate
Interpret
Judge
Justify
Measure
Rate
Revise
Score
Select
Support
Value
Watch Out for Verbs that are not Measurable
In order for an objective to give maximum structure to instruction, it should be free of vague or ambiguous
words or phrases. The following lists notoriously ambiguous words or phrases which should be avoided so
that the intended outcome is concise and explicit.
WORDS TO AVOID
Believe Hear Realize
Capacity Intelligence Recognize
Comprehend Know See
Conceptualize Listen Self-Actualize
Depth Memorize Think
Experience Perceive Understand
Feel
PHRASES TO AVOID
Evidence a (n): To Become: To Reduce:
Appreciation for… Acquainted with… Anxiety
Attitude of… Adjusted to… Immaturity
Awareness of… Capable of… Insecurity
Comprehension of…. Cognizant of…
Enjoyment of… Conscious of…
Feeling for… Familiar with…
Interest in… Interested in….
Knowledge of… Knowledgeable about….
Understanding of… Self-Confi dent in.
Graded Activity Document
PS 270 Social Psychology – OC
Purpose:
The content activities are to help you think about and process the course materials in a way that promotes
creative and critical thinking, as well as active learning. The activities are to ensure that you are getting
maximum involvement with the course material.
This document details the requirements for completion of the graded activities, answers frequently asked
questions, and provides a grading rubric, a variety of examples, and concludes with the weekly graded activity
menu. Please read the menu carefully.
Requirements:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A total of six activities are required and represent approximately 20 to 30 minutes of course work time
each.
Students may choose to complete 12 graded activities (one per week) however only six will be
marked.
If more than six graded activities are submitted the lowest mark will be dropped.
The activities are not to be exact reproductions of the material; they should represent your
understanding of the material after you have read the textbook and considered any additional journal
readings provided.
Submissions that are exact replications of text, journal articles, or of another students work will NOT be
given full credit.
Turinitin Similarity will be used for submissions and any work with a similarity score greater than
55% will not be marked
Please note that the ONLY permitted format for your Assignment submissions is Microsoft Word.
Adobe PDF files will NOT be graded. All Laurier students have free access to Microsoft Office 365 for
students — follow this link if you don’t already have your copy: https://students.wlu.ca/servicesandspaces/tech-services/software/microsoft-office-365.html If you typically use Google Docs rather
than Microsoft Word and you’re not entirely sure how to make the “translation” between file types, here
is a link that walks you through the process of saving your Google Docs material as a Microsoft Word
(.docx) file — please refer to the section labelled “How to export your document” :
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1hNOLvYKQunyFF6_AzefwtO7Si_8F0uLHOnL1yRL2fAY/edit
Submissions should be formatted according to the templates provided. There are two different types of activities
available each week. 1) Study aids 2) Generating higher order thinking skill exam questions and answers,
1) Study aids
2) Generating higher order thinking skill exam questions and answers, and
Graded Activities FAQs:
Can I choose to do two graded activities from the same week? Yes and No. If you would like to engage
with more of the material please feel free, however you may only submit one activity for grading per week.
This is to stop the flood of graded activities that sometimes come in at the end of the semester. So remember,
only ONE graded activity per week for marking.
Graded Activities
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 1
If I complete more than six learning activities will I get more marks? Yes and No. Yes, because the more
you engage with the course material, the better you will likely do on the online tests, midterms and final
exam. If you are aiming for a high mark in this course then it would be a good idea to work through all or
most of the graded activities. No, because I am not awarding more marks for completing more activities.
There will be bonus mark questions on your midterm and final exam.
Late Policy: Please Note that all due dates for each learning activity are non-negotiable and that no
exceptions will be made.
Graded Activities
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 2
Graded Activities Rubric: Activities will be graded according to the following criteria:
Criteria
Score
Clarity
Excellent
2
Thoughts clearly
expressed
Point of view easily
identifiable
Very Good
1.75
Able to convey meaning
Viewpoint fairly easily
identifiable
Organization of
ideas fair;
somewhat
hard to follow
Details are relevant
to chapter and
convey meaning.
Mechanics
Graded Activities
There are no
misspelled words or
grammatical errors in
the document.
Satisfactory
1.25 – 1.5
Conveys
meaning
adequately
There are no more than
two spelling or
grammatical errors.
There are no
more than
three spelling
or grammatical
errors.
Needs Work
.5-1.0
Illogical or
inconsistent
organization of
ideas, feelings
or descriptions
Incomplete
0
Ideas and
thoughts not
complete
Not completed
on time
Organization
illogical
There are four
or more errors .
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Errors
exceeded five
or more and or
exceeds 55%
of Turnitin
Similarity.
Page 3
Graded Activity Examples: The examples below are abbreviated are intended only to
provide a sample of how the activities can be designed.
Columns
Question
Answer
Explanation
Define the Self-Concept
Self-concept is who you think you
are. Consists of all our thoughts
about ourselves, and everything
we believe about ourselves. This
includes personal identity.
What does self-concept
clarity mean?
Self-concept clarity is defined as
the extent to which knowledge
about the self is clearly, or
consistently defined.
Social experience plays
a big part in the selfconcept. Explain the six
developments of the
social self
1) Our Social Identity
2) Social Comparisons
3) Our success and failures
4) Other peoples judgment
5) Surrounding Cultures
Personal identity is those attributes that
we see as defining who we are and what
makes us unique individuals. An
example would be physical attributes,
our beliefs, our traits or our different
abilities.
For example some individuals have a
very clear and confident sense of who
they are, and on the other hand some
individuals are a lot less sure of
themselves and do not have a clear
sense of who they are
1) Social identity are those
characteristics that link us to other
people including social groups that we
belong too and our social roles, which
refer to our relations to other people
2) Social comparison is evaluating your
abilities and opinions by comparing
yourself to others.
3) Self-concept is also fed by our daily
experiences. Whether you fail or
succeed can lead to high self-esteem or
low self-esteem.
4) When people think well of us it helps
us think well of ourselves. What
matters for our self-concept is now how
others actually see us but the way we
imagine they see us. 5) If you are from
Western culture you likely have
developed an independent view of
yourself. Defining ones identity in terms
of personal attributes rather than group
identification – individualism. Most
cultures native to Asia, Africa, and
South America place a greater value on
collectivism – giving priority to the
goals of ones groups and defining ones
identity according
Graded Activities
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 4
Exam Question
1. Psychologists that believe we are bio-psycho-social organisms and that, to understand social
behaviour, we must consider both the biological and the social influences most likely support
what type of human behaviour?
A. Biological
B. Social neuroscience
C. Social psychology
D. Sociological
Two levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension (identify the major themes of social
psychology and the different views and fields related), and knowledge (Recall which social
behaviour was biologically rooted.)
Specific concepts: the specific concepts this question evaluates is comparing all the major
themes in social psychology and identify which theme is founded on the premise of biology.
Page Numbers: 9-10, 210 and 265
Thorough answer: As stated on page 9-10 in the textbook, social neuroscience is an integration
of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social
and emotional behaviours. We are bio-psycho-social organisms. We reflect the interplay of our
biological, psychological, and social influences. This level of analysis in which psychologists
study behaviour is known as social neuroscience.
Graded Activities
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 5
Graded Activity Menu
Title
Type
1.1: Study Aid Individual
Week 1 Graded Activities Select only One
Description
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self‐testing. The study sheet
should be written as a three column table
e.g., or as a Three‐Column table (add as many rows as you need):
1.2: Exam
Questions
Individual
Title
2.1: Study
Aid
Type
Individual
2.2: Exam
Questions
Graded Activities
Individual
Your study aid must be thorough and cover all concepts in the text and Lesson
Notes and must do the following:
• Identify what social psychology is and what it is not
• Identify the main themes in social psychology
• Identify the two main research methods described in this course.
• For each method, identify the main features of the method (i.e., when
it is used, where it can be used).
• Explain why causation cannot be proven in a correlational study.
• Define mundane realism and experimental realism
• Define internal validity and external validity (generalizability)
• Define the basic dilemma of the social psychologist
• Identify the main concerns with ethics
Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab). Create 2 exam questions on
week 1 material that could be used on a midterm or final exam in this course. In
each exam question you must assess students’ ability to apply two or more
concepts from week 1.
• apply two or more concepts from the weeks readings
• Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the
same concepts in each question.
• Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
• Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
• Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an
exam key if you were marking this question
• Provide page numbers from the text
Week 2 Graded Activities Select Only ONe
Description
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self‐testing. The study sheet
should be written as a Three‐Column table (add as many rows as you need):
Your study aid must be thorough and cover all concepts in the text and Lesson
Notes and the Dunning et al. (2003) article.
See example provided in week one.
Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab).
Create 2 exam questions on week 2 material that could be used on a midterm or
final exam in this course. In each exam question you must assess students’
ability to apply two or more concepts from week 2.
• apply two or more concepts from the weeks readings
• Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 6
•
•
•
•
Title
3.1: Study Aid
3.2: Exam
Questions
Graded Activities
Type
Individual
Individual
same concepts in each question.
Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an exam
key if you were marking this question
Provide page numbers from the text
Week 3 Graded Activities Menu Select Only One
Description
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self-testing. The study sheet
should be written as either a a Three Column table (add as many rows as you
need):
Your study aid must be thorough and cover all concepts in the text and Lesson
Notes and the Dunning et al. (2003) article.
See example provided in week one.
Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab).
Create 2 exam questions on week 3 material that could be used on a midterm or
final exam in this course. In each exam question you must assess students’
ability to apply two or more concepts from week 3.
• apply two or more concepts from the weeks readings
• Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the
same concepts in each question.
• Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
• Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
• Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an exam
key if you were marking this question
• Provide page numbers from the text
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 7
Title
4.1: Study
Aid
4.2: Exam
Question
Graded Activities
Type
Individual
Individual
Week 4 Graded Activities Select Only One
Description
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self testing. The study sheet
should be written as either a concept map or as a three column table.
Your study sheet must be thorough and cover all concepts in the text and Lesson
Notes and must clearly distinguish between:
• the factors that influence when attitudes predict behaviour
• the factors that influence when behaviour affects attitudes
• the theories that explain why behaviour affects attitudes
Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab). Create 2 exam questions on
week 4 material that could be used on a midterm or final exam in this course. In
each exam question you must assess students’ ability to apply two or more
concepts from week 4.
• apply two or more concepts from weeks readings
• Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the
same concepts in each question.
• Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
• Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
• Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an exam
key if you were marking this question
• provide page numbers
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 8
Title
5.1: Study
Aid
Type
Individual
5.2: Exam
Question
Individual
Graded Activities
Week 5 Graded Activities Menu Select Only One
Description
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self testing. See previous
weeks for examples.
Your study sheet must be thorough and cover all concepts in the text and
Lesson Notes and must clearly distinguish between:
• Routes of persuasion
• Elements of persuasion
• Persuasion strategies and principles
Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab). Create 2 exam questions on
week 5 material that could be used on a midterm or final exam in this course. In
each exam question you must assess students’ ability to apply two or more
concepts from week 5.
• apply two or more concepts from weeks readings
• Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the
same concepts in each question.
• Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
• Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
• Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an
exam key if you were marking this question
• provide page numbers
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 9
Title
Type
6.1 Study Aid
Individual
6.2: Exam
Question
Graded Activities
Individual
Week 6 Graded Activities Select Only One
Description
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self-testing. See
examples from previous weeks. Your study sheet must be thorough and
cover at least five major concepts in the text and Lesson Notes. If your
study sheet includes coverage of one of more of the classic studies, you
should be able to identify the following information on the classic
studies:
• Social Influences
• Resisting Social Pressure
• Researcher Study task for participants
• Social psychology concepts that this study identified
• Significance of study to social psychology (why is this considered a
classic study?
Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab).
Create 2 exam questions on week 6 material that could be used on a midterm
or final exam in this course. In each exam question you must assess students’
ability to apply two or more concepts from week 6.
• apply two or more concepts from weeks readings
• Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the
same concepts in each question.
• Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
• Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
• Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an
exam key if you were marking this question
• provide page numbers
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 10
Title
7.1 Study Aid
7.2: Exam
Question
Graded Activities
Type
Individual
Individual
Week 7 Graded Activities Menu Select Only One
Description
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self‐testing. The study sheet
should be written as a Three‐Column table (add as many rows as you need):
Your study sheet must be thorough and cover all concepts in the text and Lesson
Notes and must include the following headings:
• Concepts that relate to how a group influences behaviour and
performance
• Concepts that relate to how a group influences the decision‐making
process
• Groupthink
• Antecedent conditions
• Symptoms
• Strategies to Prevent
• Leadership styles that affect a group
• Strategies that minority group use to exert influence
Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab). Create 2 exam questions on
week 7 material that could be used on a midterm or final exam in this course. In
each exam question you must assess students’ ability to apply two or more
concepts from week 7.
• apply two or more concepts from weeks readings
• Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the
same concepts in each question.
• Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
• Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
• Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an exam
key if you were marking this question
• provide page numbers
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 11
Title
8.1 Study Aid
8.2: Exam
Question
Graded Activities
Type
Individual
Individual
Week 8 Graded Activities Select Only One
Description
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self-testing. The study sheet
should be written as a ThreeColumn table (add as many rows as you need) See
previous weeks examples.
Your study sheet must be thorough and cover all concepts in the text and
Lesson Notes and must include the following headings:
• Factors that affect why people help
• Factors that affect why people do not help
• The difference between
• The bystander effect
• Compassion fatigue
• The urban overload hypothesis
• How to increase prosocial behaviour
Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab). Create 2 exam questions on
week 8 material that could be used on a midterm or final exam in this course. In
each exam question you must assess students’ ability to apply two or more
concepts from week 8.
• apply two or more concepts from weeks readings
• Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the
same concepts in each question.
• Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
• Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
• Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an
exam key if you were marking this question
• provide page numbers
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 12
Week 9 Activities Select Only One
Title
Type
Description
7.1 Study
Aid
Individual
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self‐testing. The study
sheet should be written as a Three‐Column table (add as many rows as
you need):
9.2: Exam
Question
Individual
Title
10.1 Study
Aid
Type
Individual
10.2: Exam
Question
Individual
Graded Activities
Your study sheet must be thorough and cover all concepts in the text and Lesson
Notes and must include the following headings:
• Factors that influence aggression cues
• The difference between aversive incidents and arousal
• Influence of media
• Video games
• Group Influences
• Catharsis
Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab).
Create 2 exam questions on week 9 material that could be used on a midterm or
final exam in this course. In each exam question you must assess students’
ability to apply two or more concepts from week 9. Each exam question must
assess different concepts – do not assess the same concepts in each question.
•
apply two or more concepts from weeks readings
• Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the
same concepts in each question.
• Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
• Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
• Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an
exam key if you were marking this question
• provide page numbers
Week 10 Graded Activities Select Only One
Description
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self-testing. The
study sheet should be written as a Three Column table (add as many rows as
you need): See previous weeks examples.

Your study sheet must be thorough and cover all concepts in the text and
Lesson Notes and must include the following headings:
• Friendships vs Attraction
• Love
• Close Relationships
• Relationship End

Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab).
Create 2 exam questions on week 10 material that could be used on a
midterm or final exam in this course. In each exam question you must assess
students’ ability to apply two or more concepts from week 10. Each exam
question must assess different concepts – do not assess the same concepts in
each question.
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 13
•
•
•
•
•
•
Graded Activities
apply two or more concepts from weeks readings
Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess
the same concepts in each question.
Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an
exam key if you were marking this question
provide page numbers
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 14
Title
11.1 Study
Aid
11.1 Exam
Question
Graded Activities
Type
Individual
Individual
Week 11 Graded Activities Select Only One
Description
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self-testing. The
study sheet should be written as a Three Column table (add as many rows as
you need): See previous weeks examples.
Your study sheet must be thorough and cover all concepts in the text and Lesson
Notes and must include the following headings:
• Prejudice
• Stereotyping
• Discrimination
• Gender Bias

Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab).
Create 2 exam questions on week 11 material that could be used on a midterm
or final exam in this course. In each exam question you must assess students’
ability to apply two or more concepts from week 11. Each exam question must
assess different concepts:
• apply two or more concepts from weeks readings
• Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the
same concepts in each question.
• Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
• Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
• Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an exam
key if you were marking this question
• provide page numbers
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 15
Week 12 Graded Activities Select Only One
Title
12.1 Study
Aid
Type
Individual
12.1 Exam
Question
Individual
Graded Activities
Description
Create a study aid that you can use for review and self-testing. The
study sheet should be written as a Three Column table (add as many rows as you
need): See previous examples.

Your study sheet must be thorough and cover all concepts in the text and Lesson
Notes and must include the following headings:
• Consequences of racial prejudice
• Consequences of Gender prejudice
• Prejudice and Reality
• Reaction to prejudice and stereotyping 
Review Bloom’s Taxonomy (see file in Content tab).
Create 2 exam questions on week 12 material that could be used on a midterm or
final exam in this course. In each exam question you must assess students’ ability
to apply two or more concepts from week 12. Each exam question must assess
different concepts:
• apply two or more concepts from weeks readings
• Each exam question must assess different concepts – do not assess the
same concepts in each question.
• Identify the level of Bloom’s Taxonomy that your questions assess.
• Identify the two specific concepts that your question assesses
• Provide a thorough answer to that question that could serve as an exam
key if you were marking this question
• provide page number
PS 270 OC
Success is the sum of small efforts, repeated day-in and day-out. (Robert Collier)
Page 16
Activity 1.3
1. Psychologists that believe we are bio-psycho-social organisms and that, to understand social
behaviour, we must consider both the biological and the social influences most likely support
what type of human behaviour?
A. Biological
B. Social neuroscience
C. Social psychology
D. Sociological
Two levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension (identify the major themes of social
psychology and the different views and fields related), and knowledge ( Recall which social
behaviour was biologically rooted.)
Specific concepts: the specific concepts this question evaluates is comparing all the major
themes in social psychology and identify which theme is founded on the premise of biology.
Thorough answer: As stated on page 9-10 in the textbook, social neuroscience is an integration
of biological and social perspectives that explores the neural and psychological bases of social
and emotional behaviours. We are bio-psycho-social organisms. We reflect the interplay of our
biological, psychological, and social influences. This level of analysis in which psychologists
study behaviour is known as social neuroscience.
2. The parameters of social psychologists focus on _____, while personality psychologists more
likely study _____.
A. emotion, individual differences
B. social thinking; social influence
C. situational influences; social relations
D. how individuals view and effect one another; individual differences
Two levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension (compare personality psychology to social
psychology), and Analysis (distinguish which themes embody each field of psychology)
Specific concepts: The specific concept this question evaluates is the understanding and defining
what social psychology is defined as, and what themes they study compared to personality
psychology.
Thorough answer: As stated on Pages 4-5 in the text, Social psychology is a science that
studies the influence of our situations, with special attention to how we view and affect one
another OR it is the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one
another. The text also continues to differentiate between social psychology, sociology and
personality psychology. It states, “Compared with personality psychology, social psychology
focuses less on differences among individuals, and more on how individuals, in general, view
and effect one another.”
LESSON NINE
INTRODUCTION
Just as altruism has been celebrated as representing all that is good about
humankind, aggression has represented the ‘dark side’ of human nature. We seem
to live in a world that is steeped in daily examples of vivid human
aggression. Let us start our investigation of human aggression by examining
our own thoughts first.
Take a Moment
Check out the 10 questions below and assess for yourself whether you believe
that the statement indicates aggression.
Is It Aggression?
Yes
No
Question
A murderer is executed by the state.
A father spanks his disobedient six-year old.
A woman shoots mace at her would-be rapist.
A Toronto Blue Jays batter’s line drive hits
the pitcher in the knee.
A frustrated wife yells at her “messy slob of
a husband”.
A cat kills and eats a mouse.
A professor lowers a student’s grade on a late
paper.
A man passes along rumours about his rival’s
sexual transgressions.
A teenager tells his proud little sister that
her art project is “dumb and ugly”.
Two girls sneak out at night and toilet paper
their mutual friend’s front yard.
Aggression is defined in your text as “physical or verbal behaviour intended
to hurt someone.” (p. 290). In a review of human aggression, Anderson and
Bushman (2002) defined aggression as “any behavior directed toward another
individual that is carried out with the proximate (immediate) intent to cause
harm” (p. 22). In addition, Bushman and Anderson (2001) suggest that:
1. the perpetrator must believe that the behaviour will harm the target. This
differentiates aggression from accidental harm.
2. the target needs to be motivated to avoid the behaviour. This differentiates
aggression from harm that is a by-product of a helpful action, such as a
dentist extracting a tooth. Similarly the pain administered in sexual
masochism is not aggression because the victim is not motivated to avoid it in fact, they want it (Baumeister, 1989).
Using either of these definitions, return to the 10 questions above and see if
any of your answers changed, and why.
Aggression can have many negative effects such as violent crime, child or
spousal abuse and general conflict between strangers, friends and/or family.
Your text makes a distinction between two different types of aggression:
1. Hostile Aggression – “aggression driven by anger and performed as an end
in itself.” (p.290). This type of aggression is described as being “hot” or
“impulsive” and commonly involves very strong emotions that can be quite
intense. If you were insulted by a friend and became angry enough to scream
insults back at him or her you would be illustrating hostile aggression.
2. Instrumental Aggression – “aggression that is a means to some other end.”
(p. 290). Instrumental aggression is often described as being ‘cool and
calculated’ and the act is usually planned out before it is performed. This is in
contrast to hostile aggression in which the aggressive act is usually
performed in the heat of the moment. Your text illustrates instrumental
aggression with the example of hockey players starting fights in order to
protect another member of their team. These fights are considered to be
instrumental aggression because they are started in order to achieve another
objective (e.g., protecting a star player or helping the team win). If, on the
other hand, a hockey player started a fight because he was frustrated that his
team was losing it would be considered an act of hostile aggression.
Now that we understand the definitions of aggression let’s begin by looking at
our own aggression and some of the more popular explanations!
Learning Objectives:
When you finish this unit you should be able to do the following:
•
Understand the concept of aggression and its various types.
•
Know the three major theories of aggression and their criticisms.
•
Know how different factors can influence aggression.
•
Understand the techniques for reducing aggression.
LESSON NINE
THE AGGRESSION QUESTIONNAIRE
The Aggression Questionnaire was designed by Arnold Buss and Mark Perry
(1992). When 1253 introductory psychology students first completed the
questionnaire, mean scores for males and females were 77.8 and 68.2,
respectively (scores can range from 29 to 145, with higher scores indicating
more self-reported aggressive behaviours). A factor analysis categorized the
scale has having four distinct subscales:
1. physical aggression,
2. verbal aggression (i.e., argumentative and hostile language),
3. anger (i.e., agitation and sense of control), and
4. hostility (i.e., resentment, social isolation, and paranoia).
Males scored higher than females on all subscales except on anger.
Learning Activity
Take the survey for yourself
at http://www.centralquestion.com/aggression/index.html
LESSON NINE
WHAT MAKES PEOPLE ANGRY?
What makes people angry? Obviously this question is central to understanding
the roots of hostile, if not instrumental, aggression. As an experiential
task, you might want to try recalling or keeping careful records of your own
personal experience of anger over the next week. Averill (1983) asked his
research participants to do this and found that most reported becoming mildly
angry several times a week. Often the anger came in response to a relative’s
or friend’s misdeed. Anger was most likely when another person’s act seemed
willful, unjustified, and avoidable.
Using descriptions of everyday provocations, Ben-Zur and Breznitz (1991)
investigated the effects of 9 dimensions of self-reported anger. The main
result was that the level of damage was the most important instigator of
anger. Two other dimensions, the intentions of the harm-doer, and his/her
ability to have prevented the damage, also had consistent, significant, and
independent effects on the subjective feelings of anger.
These results are surprising (even to the researchers!), because it is a
widely held assumption that people should not become angry if the damage is
high, provided it occurred by mistake or was unavoidable. Saying “I didn’t do
it on purpose” is a way of suggesting that another person should not be
getting angry. One possible explanation for the strong effect of damage may be
that the subjective feeling of anger in certain cases may be determined by
automatically-processed elements of the situation rather than by the cognitive
evaluations of mitigating circumstances. This means that in some cases we get
angry before we have time to think about the intent of the person behind the
action. Assessing damage is easier and quicker than judging intentions or
other causes. Once damage is determined, anger is proportionally aroused, and
then its level may be difficult to change. Ben-Zur and Breznitz (1991) suggest
that this analysis is not intended to imply that mitigating circumstances
never affect anger. More importantly, mitigating circumstances may be crucial
in determining anger’s duration and mode of expression. The initial response,
however, may be immediate, circumventing our more complex cognitive processes.
LESSON NINE
THEORIES OF AGGRESSION
A large part of the chapter in your text is devoted to describing three main
theories of aggression. I’ve added a fourth (Excitation Transfer Theory) to
our discussion here.
1. Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology
Historically, the first major theory of aggression suggested that aggression
was inborn or instinctive to all human beings. Instinctive Behaviour is defined
as “an innate, unlearned behaviour pattern exhibited by all members of a
species” (p. 292). Sigmund Freud was a big supporter of this view of
aggression. Freud believed that every human has a “death wish” which he
labeled thanatos. All people begin life with the destructive impulses caused
by the thanatos directed inward, but as one grows these aggressive acts are
redirected outward. According to Freud, these aggressive impulses must be
released occasionally or else they will accumulate and become
overwhelming. If one allowed their aggressive impulses to reach this point
they could easily cause one to perform very violent acts.
A more modern view of inborn aggression was offered by Konrad Lorenz.
Lorenz, as a zoologist, believed that many species possess a fighting instinct
because it is something that has helped them survive throughout the ages.
Although Lorenz agreed with Freud that unexpressed aggression could be
dangerous, he also believed that people have innate mechanisms that are
able to suppress aggression.
As intriguing as this theory is, the instinct theory of aggression has fallen out
of favour with modern social psychologists. As your text states, the theory’s
fall from popularity was largely due to the fact that psychologists began
labeling all human behaviours as instincts (almost 6000 instincts to be
exact!). There was a kind of circular reasoning or logic going on in which
there was often no evidence for instinct other than the behaviour itself (i.e.,
aggression was instinctual because it was a common behaviour). Due to this
and other problems with the instinct theory, many psychologists have shifted
their focus to more promising explanations of aggression.
2. Frustration-Aggression Theory
This view of aggression suggests that frustration – “the blocking of goaldirected behaviour.” (p. 297) is the main cause of aggression. Your text gives
the example of a malfunctioning vending machine. Your goal in using the
vending machine is to obtain a candy bar or a bag of chips. When a broken
machine refuses to deliver your candy (i.e., prevents you from achieving your
goal) your reaction is likely to be frustration or anger. The more motivated you
were to achieve your goal (or in this case the more hungry you are) the more
upset you are likely to get when you are prevented from reaching your goal.
In addition, the closer you are to achieving the goal (e.g., the candy bar gets
stuck just an inch out of reach) the more frustration, and possibly anger, you
will feel when the goal is thwarted. This may account for the large number of
dints I see in the vending machines in my building!
Another component of this theory is displacement – “the redirection of
aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the
new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target.” (p. 297). Frustration
is often taken out on an innocent. For example, receiving a poor job
performance rating from your employer (or a poor grade from your professor)
may lead to a great deal of frustration and anger especially if you feel the
evaluation is unjust. You may certainly want to take out your anger on the
authority figure, but will probably lash out at a target whose reaction will have
fewer social repercussions, such as a roommate or a pet.
As we saw in Unit 1, people tend to compare themselves with others. If that
comparison reveals that we are less well off than those to whom we are
comparing ourselves, then the feeling of relative deprivation can occur.
Common sense tells us that rich people are happy. In fact, many of us have
probably thought that winning the lottery would make us pretty darn happy
too. In social psychological terms then, individuals who are most dissatisfied
and frustrated will be those who possess the least; those with more will be
more satisfied. But to the contrary, there are now many documented
instances where those who have more of a valued outcome (i.e., promotions,
prosperity) are less satisfied than those who are objectively worse off (Martin,
1980). Researchers explain this puzzling phenomenon with the concept
of relative deprivation – the perception that one is less well off than others to
whom one compares oneself (Myers, Jordan, Smith, & Spencer, 2018,
p.299).
I am going to extend the textbook’s discussion of relative deprivation by
distinguishing between two types of relative deprivation: egoistic and fraternal
deprivation.
Egoistic deprivation: occur when people compare their personal status to
that of similar other people. For example, a primary school teacher might
compare his/her salary raise to that awarded to other individual primary
school teachers and feel egoistic deprivation.
Fraternal deprivation: occurs when people compare their groups’ outcome
to that of another group that has more. So, in keeping with our example,
primary school teachers in city X may compare their salaries to primary
school teachers in city Y and feel fraternal deprivation
3. Social Learning Theory
People acquire aggressive responses the same way they acquire other
complex forms of social behaviour (refer back to altruism as an example) -either by direct experience or by observing others. Social learning
theory suggests that “we learn social behaviour by observing and imitating
and by being rewarded and punished.” (p. 301-303). This theory has been
well supported in research. There have been many, many studies that find
that the more frequently a child watches violent television, the more likely that
child is to be aggressive (Eron, 1987 for a review). It is possible that the
children are learning from and imitating the behaviour of the characters they
see on television. Reinforcing this issue is the fact that much of the violence
portrayed on television contains no negative consequences for the
perpetrator and often the most violent characters are also the ‘heroes’ of the
story. From these depictions, children learn not only the aggressive behaviour
itself but also the implicit notion that violent behaviour is, at the very least, not
punished, and at most, rewarded.
Now, if I have taught you anything about methodology in this course, you are
probably saying to yourself “but wait a minute, most of these studies are
correlational. You cannot conclude cause and effect.” And you would be
correct. If you believe that aggression has a genetic factor, you could very
well argue that aggressive children are drawn to aggressive television and
that’s how you get this correlation. So, let me tell you about a powerful
experimental study that does highlight both the issue of imitation as well as
cause and effect.
In a classic series of experimental studies, Albert Bandura and his colleagues
(1961; 1963) demonstrated the power of social learning theory. The basic
method in these experiments is to have an adult act very aggressively toward
a plastic air-filled “Bobo” doll, while a child watches. The adult smacks the
doll with his/her palm or fist, strikes it with a hammer, kicks it, and yells
aggressively at it. Then the child is given the opportunity to interact with the
doll. Children who have witnessed the aggressive adult imitate the aggressive
models. Children in control conditions (who did not see the aggressive adult
interact with the doll) almost never act aggressively toward the doll. The
interesting thing about these experiments is that the children in the treatment
condition, used the identical actions and identical aggressive words as their
adult models – powerfully illustrating the idea of imitation. For an online
version of Bandura’s classic “Bobo-Doll / Aggression experiment, check
out http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Bandura/bobo.htm
4. Excitation Transfer Theory
Excitation transfer theory – “A theory suggesting that arousal produced in
one situation can persist and intensify emotional reactions occurring in
subsequent situations.” (Zillman, 1983).
The excitation transfer theory (Zillmann, 1983, 1988, 1994) suggests that
physiological arousal tends to dissipate rather slowly. Because of this, a
portion of the arousal from one situation can have a carry over effect onto
other arousing situations. If the second event is related to frustration, the
added arousal from the first event tends to get misattributed to the second
event which then heightens the anger felt.
For example, if you skipped lunch to sneak in an aerobic workout and are
then forced to wait in line for the showers, your frustration with waiting may be
more intense than it would have been if you had not just finished exercising.
Your body recognizes that you are aroused while you are exercising and
attributes it appropriately to the aerobics class. However, once you move to a
different situation your body may misattribute your residual arousal to
something in your current situation (the waiting line). The result: you can
become enraged rather than just mildly irritated (see figure below). The notion
of excitation transfer also suggests that the anger may last for a long time if a
person has consciously attributed his/her residual arousal to the present
situation and not to its original source (Zillmann, 1988). Consciously
recognizing that your arousal is only due to your recent workout and not
anger may help to control your intensified emotions.
LESSON NINE
MEDIA VIOLENCE AND CHILDREN
Our section dealing with social learning theory raises concerns over the
amount of violent television children watch. Let us take a moment to examine
the relation between media violence and aggression further. Most researchers
today would argue that it is not the single exposure to TV violence that is
concerning but the cumulative effects of exposure to violent or antisocial
content that seeps into our personal thought and behaviour patterns over time.
I will leave it to your textbook to discuss the effects of violent television
on children but I did want to mention that the American Psychological
Association’s nine-member task force on television (1992) reported the
following facts:
•
The average child sees 100,000 acts of violence and 8000 murders
before the end of elementary school (typically grade 8).
•
The rate of violence on prime-time TV is 5 to 6 incidents per hour
but on Saturday mornings it is 20 to 25.
•
Minorities are virtually absent and when they do show up, they are
often victims or criminals.
Also of interest are the findings that …
o
Men are major prime-time characters three times more often
than women.
o
Sex-stereotyped TV messages do increase children’s sexstereotyped beliefs.
o
The probability of obesity in children increases by 2%
with every hour per day of TV viewing.
o
TV has no clear effect on school achievement or academic
skills.
o
Boys watch more TV than girls do – cartoons, action shows,
news, sports.
o
Girls who watch the most TV have the most negative
attitudes toward women.
More recently, Seppa’s (1997) study suggests that children’s TV remains
steeped in violence. The study covered programming on 23 channels, seven days
a week from 6 a.m. to 11 p.m. and explored the effect of ratings and public
service announcements. Some of the more important findings were:
•
58% of TV programs contained violence.
•
73% of those programs contained violence with no remorse, negative
evaluation or penalty for the violence.
•
Few programs showed the long-term consequences of physical
aggression.
•
The TV-program warning “parental discretion advised” and the agebased motion picture ratings “PG-13” and “R” made many children more
interested in watching a program rather than less.
The 1992 APA task force on television provided guidelines for parents in
helping them regulate their children’s viewing habits. They still seem as
relevant as ever. They include:
•
Maintaining an activities chart including TV viewing, playing with
friends, and homework. Discuss what to eliminate and its substitute.
•
Establish a weekly viewing limit at the beginning of each week.
•
Rule out TV at certain times (e.g., mealtimes, school nights).
•
Encourage the whole family to have a program choice before turning
the TV on.
•
Remember that you are a role model. If you watch lots of TV, chances
are your child will too.
Additional Reading (optional):
•
•
•
APA Press Release (2003): Childhood exposure to media violence
predicts young adult aggressive behavior
[www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2003/03/media-violence.aspx]
APA Fact Sheet on Impact of Media on Children
(2017): https://www.apa.org/act/resources/fact-sheets/media-impact
APA Fact Sheet on Points to Teach Children about Media (fictionalized
depictions) (2017): https://www.apa.org/act/resources/factsheets/media-teach
LESSON NINE
ROAD RAGE
Ever given the one-finger salute to another driver? Or honked your horn
excessively or yelled at other drivers as you passed them on the street? Road
rage, an extreme form of aggressive driving, has made Canada’s highways and
roads dangerous for drivers – even more so in the U.S. where people have easy
access to guns! The most common manifestation of road rage is aggressive
tailgating, followed by headlight flashing, “obscene gestures”, blocking other
vehicles and verbal abuse. Drivers have been assaulted with weapons ranging
from canes to golf clubs (e.g., Jack Nicholson pulled this one on a fan!) to
tire irons and baseball bats to other vehicles, including buses, bulldozers
(This one happened in Colorado on June 4th of 2004!), forklifts, and military
tanks (Adler, 1997).
Is road rage a unique phenomenon, or is it yet another example of aggressive
behaviour? Although there is currently no definitive construct dealing with
aggressive drivers, Miles and Johnson (2003) suggest that the difference
between aggressive driving and road rage might actually parallel the
difference between instrumental aggression and hostile aggression from our
introduction (also see Myers, Jordan, Smith, & Spencer, 2018, p.290). The
suggestion here is that aggressive driving is instrumental because it is
simply a way to get to a destination (aggression as a means to some other
end). This means that aggressive driving could be part of a general pattern of
behaviour and there is some evidence of this since aggressive driving and
type-A personality patterns have been linked (Miles & Johnson, 2003). Road
rage, on the other hand, has been suggested as more closely aligned with
hostile aggression. It is the intentional infliction of harm directed at a
particular individual, as a result of situational factors (i.e., aggression as
a means in and of itself). This distinction might be helpful in identifying
those most likely to engage in road rage behaviour and the development of
prevention and intervention programs (Miles & Johnson, 2003).
This is a good example of how attributions play a role in social behaviour.
Your reaction may depend on what you attribute another person’s behaviour to if you think they deliberately tried to hurt you, your reaction would likely
be different than if you thought their behaviour was unintentional.
Take a Moment
The causes of road rage are a whole different issue. Although a number of
suggestions have been put forth by psychologists, I would like you to think
about two.
If you had to develop an explanation on the cause(s) of road rage how would
you do it using the concept of (1) crowding or (2) deindividuation?
Psychologist Arnold Nerenberg has identified four stimuli that provoke road
rage:
1. Feeling endangered by someone else’s driving (i.e., being cut off);
2. Resentment at being forced to slow down;
3. Righteous indignation at someone who breaks traffic rules;
4. Anger at another driver who takes his own road rage out on you.
LESSON NINE
REDUCING AGGRESSION
Have you ever been angry and slammed a door or punched a pillow in an attempt
to make yourself feel better? If you have done these things, you were engaging
in behaviour consistent with the Catharsis Hypothesis (see p. 319-321). The
Catharsis Hypothesis is the view that by engaging in vigorous but non-damaging
behaviour (such as yelling into a pillow), people are able to reduce their
level of arousal and minimize the chance that they will take out their
aggression on others. This type of expression of violent and aggressive
feelings has been very popular in the recent past. Many people punch a
punching bag when they are angry to avoid lashing out at others and some
therapists have even suggested partners who are angry at each other should hit
one another with foam baseball bats to release the tension! Despite the
popularity of these techniques there has been much research that supports the
idea that catharsis effects are only temporary and may even lead to
an increase in aggression (e.g., Bushman, Baumeister, & Stack 1999).
This research just goes to show that although certain aggression reducing
techniques may be popular, it does not necessarily mean that they are
effective. Keep this caveat in mind as you read the section on reducing
aggression. Try to think if you have ever used some of the techniques
suggested in the text. Did you find them effective or did they leave you even
angrier than when you started? Think carefully about the effectiveness and
practicality of the methods discussed in this section and throughout the
chapter.
An effective strategy would be to use a social learning approach, where one
targets the social environment (see p. 325-326 of your text). This strategy
includes such things as reducing cues for aggression, reducing the occurrence
of frustration by setting realistic demands, and modeling a non-aggressive
response to frustration. All of these are important strategies to remember,
especially if/when raising children, who are surrounded by aggressive cues in
our society.
Reducing sexual aggression
In recent years, the Ontario government and administrators at Ontario post-secondary
institutions have become more acutely aware of the need to address the high incidence of
sexual violence occurring in the university and college student population. Sexual violence has
been defined in Ontario law as “any sexual act or act targeting a person’s sexuality, gender
identity or gender expression, whether the act is physical or psychological in nature, that is
committed, threatened or attempted against a person without the person’s consent, and
includes sexual assault, sexual harassment, stalking, indecent exposure, voyeurism and sexual
exploitation.” (as per Bill 132, Sexual Violence and Harassment Action Plan Act (Supporting
Survivors and Challenging Sexual Violence and Harassment), 2016) The Ontario government
commissioned the Student Voices on Sexual Violence self-report online survey in an effort to
obtain data on these under-reported crimes. This survey, conducted from February-April 2018,
revealed that since the beginning of that academic year (i.e., September 2017), 23% of
university respondents disclosed having been subjected to some type of non-consensual sexual
contact and/or attempted genital/anal/oral sexual contact (the full report, together with results
presented by university/college is available here: https://www.ontario.ca/page/student-voicessexual-violence ).
Data obtained from both police sources and from self-report indicates women are more likely
than men to have experienced sexual assault (Benoit, Shumka, Phillips, Kennedy, & Belle-Isle,
2015). In the 2018 Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces conducted by Statistics Canada
with a representative sample of adults aged 15+, 30% of women and 8% of men reported that
they had been a victim of sexual assault at least once since the age of 15, with individuals in the
15-24 age group at highest risk for having been victimized in the last 12 months (Cotter &
Savage, 2019). The vast majority of sexual assault incidents are never reported to authorities
(although recent movements like #MeToo and Time’s Up were associated with temporary
increases in the number of sexual assaults reported to police; Rotenberg & Cotter, 2018).
Individuals are often reluctant to disclose these crimes to authorities due to feelings of shame
and stigma, as well as the perception that a formal complaint will result in them either not
being believed or being blamed for the incident, and potentially being revictimized by the
investigative process (Venema 2014).
In response to the Sexual Violence and Harassment Action Plan Act passed in 2016, postsecondary institutions in Ontario have embarked upon efforts to clarify and improve their
responses to sexual violence. The Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance (OUSA), of which the
Wilfrid Laurier University Student Union is a member, has recommended making changes to
post-secondary institutions’ policies that are aimed at reducing stigma, and at increasing the
likelihood that students will report incidents (e.g., ensuring that complainants are not subjected
to irrelevant questions about their sexual history and/or disciplined for violations of an
institution’s drug and alcohol use policies;
see: https://news.ontario.ca/en/release/60131/ontario-strengthens-sexual-violence-andharassment-policies-at-postsecondary-institutions ).
Other initiatives involve efforts to prevent sexual violence before it happens. Most schools
offer at least one educational session for incoming students during Orientation Week
programming, and have updated their websites in an effort to provide all students with access
to information about the nature of consent (i.e., it cannot be assumed based on relationship
status, it cannot given by someone who is drunk, high, asleep or unconscious), together with a
clearer articulation of the nature of coercion (i.e., it ranges from the imposition of physical
force to verbal pressure tactics, inducing guilt, and nagging; please
see: https://students.wlu.ca/wellness-and-recreation/gendered-violence-prevention-andsupport/consent.html ). Recently, social psychologist Dr. Charlene Senn and her colleagues
have created a series of workshops that have had demonstrated success in reducing sexual
assaults; the Enhanced Assess, Acknowledge, Act (EAAA) sexual assault resistance program was
designed for university students who identify as women, training them to recognize risk cues
for sexual violence and providing them with the skills to overcome societal pressure to “be
nice” and to defend themselves (watch a 2 minute video describing the randomized control trial
study here: https://youtu.be/1allrEu8Dtw ). Dr. Senn has also spearheaded the introduction of
the Bystander Initiative at the University of Windsor, comprised of workshops focused on
providing students with the skills to intervene when they see situations that have the potential
to lead to sexual assault, and overcoming the situational barriers that sometimes result in
inaction (remember the “bystander effect” discussed in Week 8?); the overarching goal of this
intervention is to build a community that looks out for each other and does not tolerate sexual
violence.
Additional Resources:
What follows is a very small sampling of the vast number of web sites and
articles aimed at studying and preventing aggression and violence in our
society. I encourage you to visit and read at least two of these sites.
•
•
•
•
Adults and Children Together (ACT) Against Violence
www.actagainstviolence.org/
Family Violence (Statistics Canada)
https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/85-002-x/2021001/article/00001eng.htm
Violence Against Women (Public Health Agency of Canada)
https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/healthpromotion/stop-family-violence.html
Violence in the Workplace (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health
and Safety)
www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/psychosocial/violence.html
Laurier Resources:
Please be aware that Laurier has resources and support for students and all
Laurier community members who are experiencing/have experienced violence.
•
•
Domestic Violence (an umbrella term that includes Child Abuse, Elder
Abuse, Sibling to Sibling Violence, Adolescent to Parent Violence and
Intimate Partner Violence): https://students.wlu.ca/wellness-andrecreation/gendered-violence-prevention-andsupport/news/2020/spring/domestic-violence-and-covid-19.html
Gendered and Sexual Violence: https://students.wlu.ca/wellness-andrecreation/gendered-violence-prevention-and-support/index.html
Meet the Researcher:
•
Brad J. Bushman [http://bushman.socialpsychology.org/] is a full
professor and research scientist at the University of Michigan. His
current research interests focus on the causes and consequences of
aggression, violent media, narcissism, and meta-analysis. Dr. Bushman
has quite a number of his publications available to download from his
web site. Personal homepage: https://u.osu.edu/bushman.20/
LESSON NINE
PERSONAL STUDY
Read chapter 9. Aggression is a behaviour intended to harm another person and
which the target person is motivated to avoid. Your textbook starts by
examining many of the theoretical explanations that social psychologists have
developed over the years. There are three main theories described in your
textbook (and I have elaborated on a fourth in these course notes):
1. Aggression is based on biological instinct creating violent impulses that need
release,
2. Aggression is a drive elicited by frustration,
3. Aggression is a learned behaviour motivated by rewards, and
4. Aggressive behaviour is a response to arousal transferred to neutral
situations from frustrating events.
The best explanations of any concept are going to be ones that can combine the
relevant pieces of multiple theories into an integrated whole. As you read
through this section of this chapter, start thinking about how these theories
could be merged to form a more complete picture of the phenomenon we call
aggression.
There are numerous situational influences on aggression, such as pain, heat,
provocation, aggressive cues, and media. A quick look at the proportional
amount of space dedicated to each of these influences, tells you that media is
a hot topic – especially the influence of TV. Be sure to concentrate your
efforts on discerning exactly what the research says about the influence of
different kinds of televised images. Are these results going to be the same
for those who are heavy users of the Internet?
Sample Question
Give examples of hostile aggression and instrumental aggression from your life
experience, and from television. What is the difference in the outcomes of
both types of aggression on television versus in your life?
Criteria
Score
Clarity
Excellent
Very Good
Satisfactory
2
1.75
1.25 – 1.5
Thoughts clearly
expressed
Able to convey
meaning
Conveys
meaning
adequately
Point of view easily
identifiable
Viewpoint fairly easily
identifiable
Details are relevant
to chapter and
convey meaning.
Mechanics
There are no
misspelled words
or grammatical
errors in the
document.
Organization
of ideas fair;
somewhat
hard to follow
Needs
Work
.5-1.0
Illogical or
inconsistent
organization
of ideas,
feelings or
descriptions
Incomplete
0
Ideas and
thoughts not
complete
Not
completed
on time
Organization
illogical
There are no more
than two spelling or
grammatical errors.
There are no
more than
three spelling
or grammatical
errors.
There are four
or more errors
.
Errors
exceeded five
or more and
or exceeds
55% of
Turnitin
Similarity.

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