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Grand Canyon University, Phoenix Arizona
Introduction
Methodology
Literature Review
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1
A Proposal on Mental Health Issues Affecting Young People
Shyenne Sweet
Grand Canyon University
PSY-495 Professional Captsone Project
Professor Katz
8 August 2022
2
Abstract
This research proposal focuses on the issue of mental health of children below 12 years.
Guardians or parents who are at the Centre of focus in this research proposal, fail in various
ways; some guardians or parents fail to meet their responsibilities due to being in an unstable
financial situation, health issues, and other adulthood challenges, (Downs et al., 2019).
Others are mostly absent and fail to be there for the psychological support of the children
in the assumption that money would be their role. The participants of the proposal are the
guardians, their pre-school age children, and the primary school children. The participants would
be divided into groups and the study done and the findings recorded using the experimental
method. The use manipulation measures of the variables would be used but restricted due to
various constraints.
3
A Proposal on Mental Health Issues Affecting Young People
A safe and secure present that will pave the way for a golden future is the best gift a
father or guardian can give to his children. Early experiences shape a child’s future since it is
believed that today’s child is tomorrow’s future. Several abnormalities in brain structure and
function, as well as stress-responsive neurobiological systems, have been related to childhood
maltreatment (Downs et al., 2019). The influence of childhood maltreatment on health and
mental well-being has been demonstrated in epidemiological research.
Unstable and destructive guardians might be someone who does not create a safe and
stable environment for their children, or who is abusive to them. When necessary, fail to offer
emotional, social, and psychological support to children, and Instability is best defined as the
experience of abrupt, involuntary, and/or negative change in one’s or one’s family’s
circumstances, which is more likely to have negative consequences for a cognitive needs (Downs
et al., 2019). An unstable parent or guardian displays unsupportive or negative parental traits.
Problem statement
Overall cognitive health of a child is harmed by having a parent who is unreliable and
disruptive.
Hypothesis
From early childhood (2-7 years old) to preadolescence, having an irresponsible and
disruptive guardian is harmful to a child’s mental health (7-12 years old).
Literature Review
Effects of Maltreatment on young people living with abusive Parents
4
Trauma and Stigma
Various factors can lead to trauma in children, stigmatization being one of the factors.
Duke and Searby (2019) point out those young ladies have a high chance of falling victim to
sexual violence and sexual trauma. Duke et al. (2019) also suggest that other factors can
contribute to this situation, including financial pressure and domestic violence. All these factors
contribute to the nature and prevalence of childhood trauma in children.
Proper interventions can detect an individual’s biopsychosocial sequelae at the early
stages of development. According to Ford et al. (2018), Development Trauma Disorder (DTD) is
an assessment syndrome for early life stigmatization and attachment problems. Children can
experience stigmatizing moments early in life, which can affect their biopsychosocial life
(Simons et al., 2018). Ford et al. (2018) say that development adapted victimization can form a
complex traumatic situation in young people and suggests DTD assess and treat trauma disorders
in children.
Destructive behavior
Examining the emotional situation of young people is important because, in most cases,
the mental health situation tends to manifest in the behavior of young people. Yu et al. (2018)
developed a model to reduce maladaptive behavior in children. The main aim of this study is to
improve the attention and mental wellness of children with autism. Yu et al. (2018) suggest that
game-based exercise and training programs positively impact young people’s physical fitness and
mental health. Exercise interventions improve the behavioral outcomes in young people.
Role of the COVID-19 Pandemic
5
Quarantine
Although pandemics are universal (affect many people) and affect the overall group,
pandemics also affect the individual. Buheji et al. (2020) dug deep into the study in a view to
analyze the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on young people and noted that
the parent as role influences the mental being of their children: There is a possibility of
embedding new behaviors on the children through how the parents and the children interact. A
family is the first interactive model for a child (Buheji et al., 2020). Buheji concludes that it is
mandatory to balance the psychological status by putting in place interventions to create a
positive change in the young people’s mental-emotional and physical wellbeing.
Social Needs
The COVID-19 pandemic has its share of social distractions. People stay in isolation.
Imran et al. (2020) state that social exclusions can lead to stigma. This situation is due to the
anxiety, grief, and adjustment disorders associated with staying in isolation. However, these
effects can get handled through proper interventions.
Professional Intervention
Role of the School
A school forms the basic setting for identifying, assessing, and intervening on matters
relating to mental health in young people. This situation is because a school is pooled with
people from multiple backgrounds, making pinpointing abnormal personalities easier. A school
is also equipped with professionals capable of dealing with the biopsychosocial being of young
people.
6
Student-teacher relationship. The teachers act not only as mentors but also as mediators
among the young people and their environment. According to Yu et al. (2018), assessing
adaptive skills needs the intervention of teachers, parents, and caregivers. Whereas the childparent relationship is paramount, the teacher’s input is mandatory for a complete mediation
between young people and their mental health (Jiang et al., 2018). young people can manifest
social relationships through their relationships with their teachers. The teacher forms primary
social relations due to the time a child spends with their teacher in school. The teacher can also
suggest timely interventions to offer corrective therapy for any inappropriate situations
manifested in the children.
School connectedness. Social relations form a crucial background for overall
development in children. In a school setting, social relations are manifested through how young
people interact with their peers, teachers, parents, caregivers, and others. Parent-children
relations form an “at risk” social group due to lifestyle and relationship disruptions (Cusinato et
al., 2020). Children are more sensitive to changes compared to other populations. According to
Jiang et al. (2018), the student’s relationship with their teacher and peers offers a
multidimensional view of a family. The children have a chance through their teacher and peers to
experience a different feeling of a family away from their biological background.
Cognitive needs. The cognitive wellbeing reflects the biopsychosocial being of an
individual. Schools, a fundamental body in cognitive enlightenment, play a crucial role in
rectifying mental health problems in young people. According to Downs et al. (2019), There is a
vicious linkage between mental health, social, and education needs. The cognitive representation
of a situation affects the intensity of the psychological response to such an event (Cusinato et al.,
2020). Cavioni et al. (2021) say that cognitive appraisal in domains of self, family, and
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environment can shape a young person’s mental health through conceptualizing individual
factors. Social and economic classification forms one of the fundamental societal factors.
Socialeconomical status (SES) also reflects a person’s mental wellbeing, whereby low SES can
harm mental health outcomes (Jiang et al., 2018). Poverty impacts a community’s capacity to
provide for its members’ physical and mental health and the functioning and psychological
wellbeing of individual members (Ssewamala et al., 2021). The cognition element is paramount
for the mental wellbeing of an individual.
Psychological support
Various interventions can be put in place to promote young people’s mental wellbeing.
One of the interventions is theorized in Jiang et al. (2018) social convoy model. According to
this theory, social relationships are represented in three dimensions around people. A crucial
relationship encompasses an individual’s social relationship. These relationships can affect one’s
mental health (Jiang et al., 2018). This situation suggests that the relationships between the
children and their parents can impact the children’s mental health. There is, therefore, a need to
support the relationship between the child and other stakeholders (parents, caretakers, peers,
teachers) to promote the social and mental wellbeing of the young people.
Life satisfaction
The Social resources theory was originally suggested in 1981 by a scientist name Lin.
The social relationship theory looks at the relationships between the SES and an individual’s
social relations (Siregar, 2022). According to this theory, people with higher SES can access
more social resources from their immediate connections through their social networks (Jiang et
al., 2018). This situation means that high SES translated to better life satisfaction. According to
8
the ecosystem theory, the children’s social network involves the parents and other stakeholders
(Cao & Zhou, 2018). The child’s relationship and parents directly impact the child’s SES. This
situation, in turn, affects the child’s social dominance ability translating to their mental health.
Resilience towards Mental-Health Related Issues
Social stress, especially imposed by a change in social routine, can impact a young
person’s resilience abilities. Specifically, in the child-parent relationship, there are potential risks
and prospective protective factors for both parents and children’s well-being in a traumatic event
(Cusinato et al., 2020). Any shift in routine factors can have a drastic effect on the parent. Effects
on the parent’s side automatically lower their connection to the children, exposing them to
potentially traumatic events. According to Ford et al. (2018), children who experience traumatic
events in families have more likely biopsychosocial and developmental problems (Ford, 2018).
Negative effects on the parental psychological dimension affect the psychological
maladjustments to the negative events. Factors such as parental stress and working conditions
affect the overall psychological wellbeing. Inability to divert these effects from reaching the
children can adversely affect the parent-child relationship.
Methodology
This section of the research explains the respondents, instruments, and research design in
details.
Respondents
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Parents and their preschool-aged children identified with cognitive deficits (ages 2 to 7).
Guardians were recruited from early intervention and preschool programs with their children (7–
12 years) who had adjustment challenges as noted by their teachers in class.
The other group consisted of parents and their pre-school children, as well as children (712 years old) who had no problems as reported by the class teachers. Guardians are encouraged
to reply to recruitment flyers distributed by their child’s school or head start providers.
A research assistant to screen them over the phone after getting verbal consent to see if
their child satisfied the following intersectional guidelines:
1.
Age ranges from 2 to 7 years, with 7-12 years being the most common.
2.
For at least 6 months, you must live with the primary caregiver. If a child was
deaf or blind, they were not allowed to participate.
The study included both males and females. Native Americans make up the survey’s
demography.
The Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) was employed. It’s a technique for
determining a child’s or adolescent’s overall level of functioning and the severity of mental
illness.
The experiment is divided into two groups.
Experimental group 1: Parents and their children (2-7 years) with a school-reported issue.
Experimental group 2: Parents and their children (7-12 years old) with a school-reported
issue.
10
Controlled group 1: Guardians and their children (2-7 years) who have not been reported
to the school as having a problem.
Controlled group 2: Guardians and their children (2-7 years) who have not been reported
to the school as having a problem.
A team of specialists to evaluate the children in Experimental group 1 and Control group
1 on the following parameter:
1. Reactive attachment disorder (RAD)
2. Feeding ailment.
3. Hyperactivity or motor regulation.
The Children’s Global Assessment to administer its Scale to children in experimental
group 2 and control group 2.
The Teacher Report Form (TRF) was used to assess all of the groups using an ageappropriate version. A structured open-ended and closed-ended interview was conducted for
parental instability and destructive behavior, and the results were recorded for further analysis.
Result
ANOVA
I’ll utilize ANOVA to construct a test statistic (the F-ratio) which may determine the
probability (the P-value) of receiving the data assuming the null hypothesis, much like with other
traditional statistical tests. A significant P-value (typically P0.05) indicates that at least one
group’s mean varies considerably from the others.
11
ANOVA is a statistical method for comparing differences in the mean between more than
two groups. It accomplishes this by examining data variation and where that variation is found
(hence its name). ANOVA contrasts the amount of variation within groups with the amount of
variation between groups. It’s suitable for both observational and experimental research.
Linear regression is also used to study continuous correlations; nevertheless, regression is
very similar to ANOVA. We determine the means and deviations of our data from the means
using ANOVA. In linear regression, the best line through the data is calculated, and the data
deviations from this line are calculated. In both cases, the F ratio can be calculated.
APA format
In addition to applicable laws and psychology board regulations, I must examine this
Ethics Code (APA) when making decisions about my professional activity. I may examine other
materials and principles adopted or endorsed by scientific and professional psychological
organizations, as well as the dictates of their conscience, when applying the Ethics Code to their
professional activity, as well as confer with others in the field. To satisfy the higher ethical
standard if this Ethics Code imposes a higher standard of conduct than is required by law. If a
psychologist’s ethical obligations conflict with the legislation, regulations, or other controlling
legal authority, the psychologist declares his or her commitment to this Ethics Code and takes
measures to address the dispute responsibly and following basic human rights principles.
If an apparent ethical violation has caused or is likely to cause significant harm to a
person or organization and is not eligible for informal resolution under Standard or is not
addressed effectively in that manner, psychologists take additional action as needed. Referral to
state or national professional ethics committees, state licensing boards, or equivalent institutional
12
authorities could be taken. When an intervention would violate confidentiality rights or when
psychologists have been hired to assess the work of another psychologist whose professional
conduct is in doubt, this criterion does not apply.
Conclusion
To wrap up my research, I’d want to make the following points: The experimental study
was chosen because it allowed for a comparison between two groups to be made. Because a large
population was not accessible, only 50 pupils (25-2-6 years old and 25-6-11 years old) were
included.
Future research
Due to time constraints, the current study solely used an experimental method. There is a
lot of room for more research, and long-term studies in combination with experimental studies
can be done, (Searby 2019).
13
References
Buheji, M., Hassani, A., Ebrahim, A., da Costa Cunha, K., Jahrami, H., Baloshi, M., & Hubail,
S. (2020). Children and coping during COVID-19: A scoping review of bio-psychosocial factors. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 10(1), 8-15.
https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ijap.20201001.02
Cao, Z., & Zhou, M. (2018). Research on the innovation and entrepreneurship education mode in
colleges and universities based on entrepreneurial ecosystem theory. Educational
sciences: theory & practice, 18(5). https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2018.5.060
Cavioni, V., Grazzani, I., Ornaghi, V., Agliati, A., & Pepe, A. (2021). Adolescents’ Mental
Health at School: The Mediating Role of Life Satisfaction. Frontiers In
Psychology, 12(1), 65-82. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.720628
Cusinato, M., Iannattone, S., Spoto, A., Poli, M., Moretti, C., Gatta, M., & Miscioscia, M.
(2020). Stress, resilience, and wellbeing in Italian children and their parents during the
COVID-19 pandemic. International journal of environmental research and public
health, 17(22), 8297. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228297
Downs, J., Ford, T., Stewart, R., Epstein, S., Shetty, H., & Little, R. et al. (2019). An approach to
linking education, social care and electronic health records for children and young people
in South London: a linkage study of child and adolescent mental health service data. BMJ
Open, 9(1), e024355. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024355
Duke, A., & Searby, A. (2019). Mental Ill Health in Homeless Women: A Review. Issues In
Mental Health Nursing, 40(7), 605-612. https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2019.1565875
14
Ford, J. D., Spinazzola, J., van der Kolk, B., & Grasso, D. J. (2018). Toward an empirically
based developmental trauma disorder diagnosis for children: Factor structure, item
characteristics, reliability, and validity of the developmental trauma disorder semistructured interview. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 79(5), 4337.
https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.17m11675
Imran, N., Aamer, I., Sharif, M., Bodla, Z., & Naveed, S. (2020). The psychological burden of
quarantine in children and adolescents: A rapid systematic review and proposed
solutions. Pakistan Journal Of Medical Sciences, 36(5), 1106.
https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.5.3088
Jiang, S., Li, C., & Fang, X. (2017). Socioeconomic status and children’s mental health:
Understanding the mediating effect of social relations in Mainland China. Journal Of
Community Psychology, 46(2), 213-223. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21934
Simons, A. M., Houkes, I., Koster, A., Groffen, D. A., & Bosma, H. (2018). The silent burden of
stigmatisation: a qualitative study among Dutch people with a low socioeconomic
position. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5210-6
Siregar, I. (2022). The Relationship between Conflict and Social Change in the Perspective of
Expert Theory: A Literature Review. International Journal of Arts and Humanities
Studies, 2(1), 09-16. https://doi.org/10.32996/bjahs.2022.2.1.2
Ssewamala, F., Sensoy Bahar, O., Nakasujja, N., Abente, B., Nabunya, P., & Peer, L. et al.
(2021). Child Mental Health in HIV-Impacted Low-Resource Settings in Developing
Countries-Global Research Fellowship: A Research Training Program
15
Protocol. Frontiers In Public Health, 9, 632800.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.632800
Yu, C., Wong, S., Lo, F., So, R., & Chan, D. (2018). Study protocol: a randomized controlled
trial study on the effect of a game-based exercise training program on promoting physical
fitness and mental health in children with autism spectrum disorder. BMC
Psychiatry, 18(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1635-9
1
Methods Revision
Shyenne Sweet
Grand Canyon University
PSY-495 Professional Capstone Project
Professor Katz
23 August 2022
2
PSY-495 Methods Revision
Mental health issues are evident in the overall behavior of children. Whereas other factors
may lead to mental issues in children, prior studies denote that parent-children relationships
affect the psychological wellbeing of children. Abusive parenthood can be devoid of a safe and
stable environment, relational instability, and physical and emotional harm, all compounded in
the term “abusive parents”. Overall cognitive health of a child is harmed by having an unreliable
and disruptive parent. This research tests the hypothesis that “From early childhood (2-7 years
old) to preadolescence, having an irresponsible and disruptive guardian is harmful to a child’s
mental health (7-12 years old).” This research seeks to determine whether having abusive or
disruptive parents can affect a child’s mental health. This section of the research purposely
presents the methods, including participants, materials, procedures, and design that the research
will use to conduct the study.
Participants
This study consists of two demographic groups. The first group comprises pre-school
children (aged between two and seven years) and their parents. The second group consists of
children aged between seven and 12 years with their parents. The demographic is spread into
these two groups to allow for comparison. The deaf and blind participants are excluded from the
study. The demography includes both male and female participants and includes only native
Americans. This research needs 50 participants.
Material Instruments and Apparatus
This research will require the following materials:
3
•
Stationary (pens, plain papers, clipboards, pencils and erasers).
•
Furniture (Study desks, office chairs and tables and reception benches).
•
Machinery (a computer, a printer and scanner and a phone).
•
Statistical documents (Surveys, questionnaires and report forms).
•
Two rooms.
•
Refreshments.
Procedures
The parents give verbal consent for the research, and all families involved are informed
of the research details. The first step involves determining the parent-child relationship. This step
involves gathering prior data from caregivers and parents (Down et al., 2019). The information
gathering from parents is done on a self-reporting basis, such as through a phone call whereby
the parents answer questionnaires documenting the cases of probable abuse such as neglect,
sexual abuse, physical abuse, etc. The data is then coded according to parent-child interaction
(Ford et al., 2018). It is possible to narrow down the relational problems identified in the parentchild relationship as themes of relationship classifications using the relational problem checklist.
The second step involves psychological assessment. This research uses the Children’s
Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), which is aimed at rating children’s functionality and mental
wellbeing. The wellbeing of children is manifested in their cognition and behavior (Cusinato et
al., 2020). This study is experimental research to determine young people’s adaptive behavior,
psychopathology and functionality (Cavioni et al., 2021). on a scale of 0 to 100, the lowest value
is coded as extremely impaired, whereas the highest value is coded as doing very well. The full
list is:
4
•
0-10: Extremely impaired
•
11-20: Very severely impaired
•
21-30: Severe problems
•
31-40: Serious problems
•
41-50: Noticeable problems
•
51-60: Some identifiable problems
•
61-70: Some problems
•
71-80: Doing alright
•
81-90: Doing well
•
91-100: Doing very well
This study’s experimental factors include reactive attachment disorder (RAD),
feeding ailment, hyperactivity or motor regulation.
Design
This research is an experimental study whereby research aims at determining the
relationship between abusive parenting and psychological problems in children. The participants
are assigned into groups based on age. One group is for children between two and seven years
with their parents, whereas the second group is for children between seven and 12 years with
their parents. Each group has the experimental participants (those children pre-identified with
5
psychological issues) and a control group (those children identified as not having a psychological
problem) as per their class teacher’s report form, respectively.
Conclusion
This study consists of two demographic groups. The first group consists of children
between two and seven years with their parents, and the second group comprises children
between seven and 12 years. This research will require stationary, furniture, machinery,
statistical documents, two rooms and refreshments. The first step measures the parent-child
relationship through adaptive behavior to determine psychopathology and functionality in young
people on a scale of 0 to 100. The second step uses the CGAS) which is aimed at evaluating
children’s functionality and mental wellbeing. This research is an experimental study whereby
research aims at determining the relationship between abusive parenting and psychological
problems in children.
6
References
Downs, J., Ford, T., Stewart, R., Epstein, S., Shetty, H., & Little, R. et al. (2019). An approach to
linking education, social care and electronic health records for children and young people
in South London: a linkage study of child and adolescent mental health service data. BMJ
Open, 9(1), e024355. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024355
Ford, J. D., Spinazzola, J., van der Kolk, B., & Grasso, D. J. (2018). Toward an empirically
based developmental trauma disorder diagnosis for children: Factor structure, item
characteristics, reliability, and validity of the developmental trauma disorder semistructured interview. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 79(5), 4337.
https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.17m11675
Cavioni, V., Grazzani, I., Ornaghi, V., Agliati, A., & Pepe, A. (2021). Adolescents’ Mental
Health at School: The Mediating Role of Life Satisfaction. Frontiers In
Psychology, 12(1), 65-82. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.720628
Cusinato, M., Iannattone, S., Spoto, A., Poli, M., Moretti, C., Gatta, M., & Miscioscia, M.
(2020). Stress, resilience, and wellbeing in Italian children and their parents during the
COVID-19 pandemic. International journal of environmental research and public
health, 17(22), 8297. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228297
Ethical Consideration
Shyenne Sweet
Grand Canyon University
PSY-495 Professional Capstone Project
Professor Katz
14 August 2022
Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) are locally administered, federally mandated bodies
that are tasked with the responsibility of evaluating the risks and benefits of taking part in
research at any institution (Eissenberg et al., 2004). Since any domain of human research often
presents potential risks and benefits, the IRB is one of the regulatory bodies in charge of taking
care of the human subjects’ interests (Eissenberg et al., 2004). The American Psychological
Association (APA) created a comprehensive list of ethical principles and a Code of Conduct that
guides the actions of psychologists throughout their professional practice. Therefore, the ethical
considerations that must be made to ensure that my research study adheres to the guidelines
presented and is approved by an IRB include maintenance of respect and dignity of all humans,
obtaining informed consent, providing the right to withdraw, maintaining participant privacy and
confidentiality, and conducting debriefing sessions (Evans, 2007).
The maintenance of respect and dignity of human participants is an important ethical
consideration that ensures that the worth of all human participants is maintained throughout the
research study despite the existence of gender, social status, ethnical, and any other differences
(Evans, 2007). Additionally, before embarking on any research study, the informed consent of all
participants must be obtained to confirm that all of them are doing it out of their own free will.
The participants should also be provided with the right to withdraw at any point of the study. It is
the responsibility of the researchers to provide the participants with all relevant information
about the study that may affect their willingness to participate, this way, they will volunteer to be
part of the research study (Evans, 2007).
It is also the responsibility of the researchers to ensure that the participants’ privacy and
confidentiality are maintained throughout the research study. Any personal information that the
participants provide for research much be kept private. The maintenance of participant
confidentiality has the potential to improve the study’s internal validity as the participants will be
more open and honest with their answers after receiving reassurance about the safety of their
data (Evans, 2007). It is also important that the researchers debrief their participants by providing
participants with the platform to ask any questions as the researchers provide all relevant
information concerning the objectives and findings of the study (Evans, 2007).
I will ensure that participants in my study are protected from harm by maintaining all the
ethical considerations discussed above and adhering to the ethical principles of beneficence and
maleficence (APA, 2017). It is the responsibility of psychologists to safeguard those who they
work with and take care of by safeguarding their rights and welfare. Whenever conflict or
dilemmas occur in the workplace, psychologists must approach these scenarios in ways that
avoid or minimize harm (APA, 2017). The scientific and professional judgments of
psychologists can greatly affect the lives of others therefore, they must remain alert and avoid
being influenced by factors that may cause them to misuse their influence.
References
American Psychological Association (APA). (2017). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and
Code of Conduct. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/ethics-code-2017.pdf
Eissenberg, T., Panicker, S., Berenbaum, S., Epley, N., Fendrich, M., Kelso, R., Penner, L., &
Simmerling, M. (2004). IRBs and Psychological Science: Ensuring a Collaborative
Relationship. American Psychological Association (APA).
https://www.apa.org/research/responsible/irbs-psych-science
Evans, J. (2007). Chapter 2: Ethics for Research Psychology. An excerpt from Your Psychology
Project: The Essential Guide. SAGE Publications Ltd. Retrieved from
https://us.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-assets/15489_book_item_15489.pdf
1
Mental Health
Shyenne Sweet
Grand Canyon University
PSY-495 Professional Capstone Project
Professor Katz
13 August 2022
2
Mental Health
Part 1: Limitations
Review all the articles you included in your reference list/literature articles assignment
focusing specifically on the limitations presented in each study (remember to cite the
information). List the limitations that you find below. Please note: limitations are often in the
discussion or conclusion of an article. Researchers/authors will note things like a small sample
size as a limitation.
The reference studies list a variety of restrictions. For instance, according to Ford et al.
(2018), the study was not geographically scattered and had a time constraint. Buheji et al. (2020),
on the other hand, claim that they did not identify the age range of the study group in their study.
Duke et al. (2019) review is constrained because it is only concerned with a research finished in
English and located on readily available journal search engines. Duke
& to Searby (2019), limitations include low reliability with some measures and lack of
generalizability.
The most limitations are listed in the Downs and Cavioni research. According to Downs
et al. (2019), study linkage work establishes a precedent in England for using education data to
benefit patients or the medical community. The study cannot evaluate false-positive matching
due to the restrictions on data exchange between data controllers. Due to complete private or
home school educational provisions, it was impossible to identify participants in this study who
were not eligible for matching.
A problem exists with the data’s applicability to the study’s demographics. The study
cannot extrapolate the findings of Cavioni et al. (2021) to young adolescents or adolescents with
abnormal development. Second, a sample of teenagers, mostly lyceum students, was used in the
3
study. Third, the results could not be automatically extrapolated to teenagers from the entire
Italian nation because the current data got only gathered in two regions of Italian schools.
Additionally, Yu et (2018) confront a demographic issue. There is virtually little usage of
randomized control trials in this study that target young children. For detailed and reliable
results, the demographic components are essential.
The setting in which the investigation is conducted presents another difficulty. The study
will only be able to be handled by a small number of people, according to SSewamala et al.
(2021). There aren’t many scientists in developing nations who can handle in-depth research in
this environment. On the other hand, Cusinato et al. (2020) highlight environmental issues as a
challenge. Second, the internet process prevented the study from verifying that participants
completed the questionnaire correctly. Third, the request to examine only one child for each
family may have resulted in a sample error. On the one hand, this made it possible for the study
to be free of any bias related to maximizing or minimizing differences between siblings.
The study does not consider the relationships between various entities in other cases.
Jiang and Fang (2017) fall short in examining how neighborhood relationships at the community
level affect children’s mental health. In other cases, the analysis lacks a unifying component.
Imran et al. (2020) cannot conduct a meta-analysis because the study designs, measurements,
findings, and rapid review methods are all dissimilar. Second, it’s important to evaluate the
psychological impacts carefully because they may result from the disaster itself, an illness, the
disaster containment methods, or a combination of both.
Part 2: Similarities of Limitations
Look for similarities in the limitations. Do several studies note the same limitation? Write
a paragraph that summarizes the similarities noted. Make sure you have cited all of the articles in
4
the text that notes similar limitations. (Please note: When your parenthetical citation includes two
or more sources, list in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author listed and separate
using a semi-colon.)
The literature review highlights similarities in the challenges that the diverse studies face.
For instance, there is a demographic and geographic dispersion challenge. Cavioni et al. (2021)
and Down et al. (2019) cite geographic limitations to their research, whereby linkages only apply
to England. Buheji et al. (2020) and Yu et al. (2018) cite demographic constraints. There is also a
limitation of data specifications whereby Down et al. (2019) and Imran et al. (2020) mention
data availability and data unification, respectively. Duke et al. (2019) and cavioni et al. (2021)
highlight the generality of the research. Still on the data idea, Cusinato (2020) and Down et al.
(2019) blame the respondent verification and false positive respondent matching, respectively.
Part 3: Reduction or Avoidance of Impact
Consider the limitations noted in previous studies. Might these limitations impact the
study you are proposing? Can you structure your study to help reduce or avoid the limitations
noted by previous researchers? If so, how? If not, why?
Most of the limitations highlighted due to this can impact the outlined research.
Geographical and demographical factors are prevalent challenges in similar research. Data
unification is also a major challenge due to the diverse data collected. The research can address
these challenges by setting standardized data constraints to limit the required type, metrics and
amount of data. On the demographic challenge, the study can look at a focused demographic
group more investigation needs to be prepared in relevance to minor alteration or alignment of
the basis when causes for differentiation as gender, level of child fitness, and the family
socioeconomic status are unified.
5
References
Buheji, M., Hassani, A., Ebrahim, A., da Costa Cunha, K., Jahrami, H., Baloshi, M., & Hubail,
S. (2020). Children and coping during COVID-19: A scoping review of bio-psychosocial factors. International Journal of Applied Psychology, 10(1), 8-15.
https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ijap.20201001.02
Cavioni, V., Grazzani, I., Ornaghi, V., Agliati, A., & Pepe, A. (2021). Adolescents’ Mental
Health at School: The Mediating Role of Life Satisfaction. Frontiers In
Psychology, 12(1), 65-82. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.720628
Cusinato, M., Iannattone, S., Spoto, A., Poli, M., Moretti, C., Gatta, M., & Miscioscia, M.
(2020). Stress, resilience, and well-being in Italian children and their parents during the
COVID-19 pandemic. International journal of environmental research and public
health, 17(22), 8297. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228297
Downs, J., Ford, T., Stewart, R., Epstein, S., Shetty, H., & Little, R. et al. (2019). An approach to
linking education, social care and electronic health records for children and young people
in South London: a linkage study of child and adolescent mental health service data. BMJ
Open, 9(1), e024355. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024355
Duke, A., & Searby, A. (2019). Mental Ill Health in Homeless Women: A Review. Issues In
Mental Health Nursing, 40(7), 605-612. https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2019.1565875
Ford, J. D., Spinazzola, J., van der Kolk, B., & Grasso, D. J. (2018). Toward an empirically
based developmental trauma disorder diagnosis for children: Factor structure, item
characteristics, reliability, and validity of the developmental trauma disorder semi-
6
structured interview. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 79(5), 4337.
https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.17m11675
Imran, N., Aamer, I., Sharif, M., Bodla, Z., & Naveed, S. (2020). Psychological burden of
quarantine in children and adolescents: A rapid systematic review and proposed
solutions. Pakistan Journal Of Medical Sciences, 36(5), 1106.
https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.36.5.3088
Jiang, S., Li, C., & Fang, X. (2017). Socioeconomic status and children’s mental health:
Understanding the mediating effect of social relations in Mainland China. Journal Of
Community Psychology, 46(2), 213-223. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21934
Ssewamala, F., Sensoy Bahar, O., Nakasujja, N., Abente, B., Nabunya, P., & Peer, L. et al.
(2021). Child Mental Health in HIV-Impacted Low-Resource Settings in Developing
Countries-Global Research Fellowship: A Research Training Program
Protocol. Frontiers In Public Health, 9, 632800.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.632800
Yu, C., Wong, S., Lo, F., So, R., & Chan, D. (2018). Study protocol: a randomized controlled
trial study on the effect of a game-based exercise training program on promoting physical
fitness and mental health in children with autism spectrum disorder. BMC
Psychiatry, 18(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1635-9
Role Social Media Plays on Mental Health
Breanna Moore
Grand Canyon University, Phoenix Arizona
Introduction
Literature Review
Methodology
Ethical Considerations
The expansion of social media over the last decade has
seemingly had an immense impact on the mental health of
individuals, specifically young adults. Constant use of social
media platforms can lead to an individual gaining poor mental
health, and often is a target of one’s self-esteem and self-image.
Many studies have been done that show a strong correlation
between the usage of social platforms and the person’s mental
health, and those often express having symptoms of anxiety,
depression, loneliness, self-harm, and even suicidal thoughts
(Robinson, 2022). Media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram,
Snapchat, Twitter, and Tik Tok have become increasingly popular
among young adults over the last decade, and with the
prevalence of a global pandemic caused by COVID-19, these
platforms only gained users and popularity. However, email
continues to be the primary communication source of older adults,
and they share photos, videos, links, news articles, and status
updates with their contacts (Madden, 2020). Younger adults are
more drawn towards using social media for finding friends,
promoting a business, or entertainment purposes (Valentine,
2021). Young adults partake in the same activities that older
adults do via email, except when younger adults share their
posts, they are to a more widespread audience who may even be
complete strangers. These individuals share more openly about
their lives through daily activity and posting in order to feel seen
and receive validation from their peers online. Maintaining a large
network online, keeping up with the demands of messages
through social media apps, and constantly updating their status
can cause the person to become very overwhelmed and adds
unnecessary stress to their lives for the sake of impressing others
(Hampton, 2019). These things can also expose individuals to
subjective criticism, which may make them more hyper-aware of
their flaws and any insecurities they have. Younger individuals
who struggle with their body image tend to show lower levels of
self-esteem, which can be directly influenced by comparing
themselves to an ‘ideal’ body image seen through social media
(Body image, 2019).
Changes in social media usage over the years has put
younger adults more at risk for developing negative
coping mechanisms with effects of concern on oneself
and society for higher levels of depression (Fraser, et al.,
2022). A problem that has come up is the matter of
oversharing; content creators, influencers, and individuals
with a high number of followers have found that they no
longer enjoy social media because they do not know what
to share without divulging into their personal lives. While
viewers may feel connected to creators when they share
personal information, it can be detrimental to the mental
health of the creator themselves. Research done by
Roberts et al., (2022) found that heavy social media
usage and high disclosure of one’s personal life is linked
to negative consequences, and those who only scrolled
but did not actively engage in social media had greater
stress and lower sense of well-being. A study conducted
by Neophytou, et al., (2021) found that excessive screen
time, specifically time spent on social media, had a
negative impact on mental health and increased
symptoms of psychopathologies, specifically those of
anxiety, depression, and attention-deficit disorders. The
research further discussed that individuals also
experienced poor emotional regulation and self-control,
and comorbidity to an addiction to substances. Screen
based media may allow individuals to connect with one
another and expand their social networks, however, time
spent online had a direct effect on increased social
phobias and a decreased sense of community belonging.
Pre-pandemic social media usage was just as worrisome,
and in 2019, the number of social media users worldwide
was 3.484 billion, which was up 9% year-on-year (Karim,
et al., 2020).
Doomscrolling, a term used by Price, et al., (2022), is a
phenomenon that states there is a negative relationship
between a person’s mental health and the consumption of
pandemic-related media. While social media and other
.
types
of media exposure already puts an individual at an
increased risk of negative effects, pandemic-related
media is an added factor. However, with this study, it was
found that only those who have existing vulnerabilities are
associated with an increased risk of psychopathology
when consuming pandemic-related media. The Covid-19
pandemic made individuals rely on media sources to stay
in touch with friends and family and was even used in
schools as well. Since there has been a consistent
increase of social media usage each year, especially in
the past two years, some individuals have become reliant
on it to escape from their own lives and indulge into
someone else’s life.
There will be a total of 30 participants that will take this
survey; there will be an equal number of men and women
.
participants
and they will be pulled from a high-traffic
downtown shopping center that is ethically, culturally, and
socially diverse. All the participants that take this survey
must be able to provide verification that they meet the age
requirements; they must be able to partake without
needing the permission of a parent/guardian, yet below the
age of 35 since younger adults are more active on social
media. Survey Monkey will be the platform used to take the
survey, which includes 30 questions. Prior to taking the
survey, the participants will need to sign a consent form,
and then they will have as much time as they need to
complete the survey. Once finished, the participant will be
directed outside and given a debriefing form, this is where
they will be given contact information for any questions or
concerns they may have after they have finished the
survey. The design of this study is a correlational study, in
which it assess the relationship between an individual’s
mental health and social media. There is still so much that
can be explored at a greater level of analysis for a deeper
understanding as to why social media affects a person’s
mental health.
The chance of violating ethical guidelines is very low
because the participants are using self-reporting
techniques when completing the survey. A correlational,
non-experimental design observes the participants
behavior, and does not manipulate the independent
variable. Since my research study will be confidential, this
includes not stating the participants name or any other
identification aspects when it comes to recording and
stating the data represented; they will be known as
participants who are numbered or alphabetical. Neither
myself or anyone on my research team will go into further
detail than what needs to be said. All participants will be
given a review of a consent and debriefing form, and both
will be listed in the Appendices. All aspects of this
research study will be given to the Instructional Review
Board to eliminate all possibilities of ethical violations and
ensure that the safety of everyone involved is upkept.
Purpose of the Study
Ultimately, the objective of this research is to indicate
whether a correlation is set to exist, either positively or
negatively, between the use of social media and the
mental health of young adults. It is a very controversial
topic on whether it has impacted the newer generations
mental health, and if it has then to what extent.
Research Questions
Some research questions that are brought up are:
How does social media affect the mental health of
young adults?
What other research has previously been done to
address this problem?
Is there a way to help individuals who are mentally
affected by social media?
TEMPLATE DESIGN © 2008
www.PosterPresentations.com
Limitations
In the research done by Fraser, et al., (2022) one of the
biggest limitations they had was that their research
primarily consisted of women; Fraser, et al., (2022) stated
that women are more likely to experience mental health
disorders which could be overrepresented in their sample.
Another study done by Karim, et al. (2020), had the most
detrimental limitations when it came to determining the
causal relationship between the variable of interest; seven
out of sixteen of their research studies failed to determine
the relationship, and there were other factors that may
have contributed or exacerbated the relationship that did
exist. A limitation that was found in the study done by
Neophytou, et al., in 2021 was that the use of diverse
terminology can be interpreted differently among the
researchers who wish to conduct a similar study; while all
the terminology is used to describe excessive screen time,
such as problematic screen time or problematic phone
usage, each researcher holds their own value on what
each of these terms means. Many of these research
studies contained one limitation: most of the population
researched, or who took the survey, are white females
(Fraser, et al., 2022; Karim, et al., 2020; Price, et al., 2022;
Spitzer, et al., 2022). Two or more of the articles have also
reported that using self-report methods or interview-style
methods can lead to biases within the research, and unless
the research were to be over an extended period this is,
unfortunately, the best method to gain these results. Some
of the articles mentioned that this research should be
conducted as a longitudinal study instead of a crosssectional study in order to gain a better understanding and
identify a clearer causal relationship of why social media
has an impact on an individual’s mental health. Lastly,
another common limitation was identifying what aspect of
using social media impacts the mental health of individuals.
References
Body image: Pre-teens and teenagers. Raising Children Network.
(2019, June 12). https://raisingchildren.net.au/pre-teens/healthylifestyle/body-image/body-image-teens
Fraser, A. M., Stockdale, L. A., Bryce, C. I., & Alexander, B. L. (2022).
College students’ media habits, concern for themselves and others,
and mental health in the era of COVID-19. Psychology of Popular
Media, 11(2), 139–151. https://doiorg.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/ppm0000345
Hampton, K., Rainie, L., Lu, W., Shin, I., & Purcell, K. (2019, December
31). Psychological stress and social media use. Pew Research Center:
Internet, Science & Tech.
https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2015/01/15/psychological-stressand-social-media-use-2/
Karim, F., Oyewande, A. A., Abdalla, L. F., Chaudhry Ehsanullah, R., &
Khan, S. (2020). Social Media Use and Its Connection to Mental
Health: A Systematic Review. Cureus, 12(6), e8627.
https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8627
Madden, M. (2020, May 30). Older adults and social media. Pew
Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech.
https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2010/08/27/older-adults-andsocial-media/
Neophytou, E., Manwell, L. A., & Eikelboom, R. (2021). Effects of
Excessive Screen Time on Neurodevelopment, Learning, Memory,
Mental Health, and Neurodegeneration: a Scoping Review.
International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction, 19(3), 724–744.
https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00182-2
Price, M., Legrand, A. C., Brier, Z. M. F., van Stolk-Cooke, K., Peck, K.,
Dodds, P. S., Danforth, C. M., & Adams, Z. W. (2022). Doomscrolling
during COVID-19: The negative association between daily social and
traditional media consumption and mental health symptoms during the
COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research,
Practice, and Policy. https://doiorg.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/tra0001202
Roberts, J. A., & David, M. E. (2022). On the outside looking in: Social
media intensity, social connection, and user well-being: The
moderating role of passive social media use. Canadian Journal of
Behavioural Science / Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du
Comportement. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/cbs0000323
Robinson, L. (2022, April 9). Social Media and Mental Health.
HelpGuide.org. https://www.helpguide.org/articles/mental-health/socialmedia-and-mental-health.htm
Spitzer, E. G., Crosby, E. S., & Witte, T. K. (2022). Looking through a
filtered lens: Negative social comparison on social media and suicidal
ideation among young adults. Psychology of Popular Media. https://doiorg.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/ppm0000380
Valentine, O. (2021, March 30). Top 10 reasons for using social media.
GWI. https://blog.gwi.com/chart-of-the-day/social-media/

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