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Your presentation is based on the research you have conducted over the past month. Before posting, review

section 11.49 (Links to an external site.)

of your text, focusing on the content under the Discussion subheading.

Main Discussion Post – Due Wednesday by 11:59pm

First, create a PowerPoint presentation with a minimum of six content-rich and professional slides.

Introduction(1 slide)

Summarize the research – Include research topic/question, purpose, and your hypothesis.

Methods (1-2 slides)

Briefly summarize the methods by describing the following:

Sample – how many, gender, age range, how you recruited them.

Survey – include an overview of what it asked participants to do, at least one sample item,  the scale used (e.g., 5-point likert scale (1 = highly unlikely, 5 = very unlikely).

Design & procedure

Results (1-2 slides)

What did you find?

Describe how your results support or contradict your hypothesis.

Note: for the results section, you do not need to include any statistical information. Using everyday language, explain what the main findings were.

Discussion – Strengths, Limitations, and Future Research (1-2 slides)

Pick two strengths and two weaknesses/limitations of your research. Explain what these are and why these are counted as strengths and weaknesses of your research. When discussing the limitations, be sure to review how they they may have influenced the results and provide potential solutions for future research for each limitation you mention.

To get you started, here are strengths and limitations you may have encountered in conducting your research: convenience sampling, sample size, control of or impact of extraneous/confounding variables, participant recruitment, biases, types of survey items used (think about the cognitive model for responding to surveys and BRUSO), mistakes/mishaps/confusion on researchers part or participants’ part.

Be mindful that your knowledge and understanding of research methods is being assessed – so make sure the strengths and limitations you identify are informed by what you’ve learned throughout the semester, and use the appropriate terminology.

Running head: EFFECTS OF MOOD ON SLEEP QUALITY
Effects of Mood on Sleep Quality: Results Section of the Survey Report
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EFFECTS OF MOOD ON SLEEP QUALITY
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Results
In hypothesis, it is assumed that mood has effect on sleep. Using a sample size of 12
participants that anonymously volunteered to complete the sleep quality analysis survey, it was
ascertained that the time required for falling asleep does depend on the mood and emotional state
that persists before falling asleep. The sample size consisted of older teenagers and adults aged
between 17 to 40 years old where the mean age fell at 25.8 years old with a standard deviation of
6.74 and a median age of 25.5 years old. Discussing gender, the results of the survey articulate
that 66.7% of the anonymous sample, i.e., a total of 8 inputs for this survey, was contributed by
females while males account for 33.3% of the data sample standing at only 4 contributions (fig.
1). There were no contributions by anyone belonging to the transgender community. Figure 2
postulates the ethnicity of the surveyed sample. Talking about ethnicity, the survey results
articulate that a majority was Asians who held 66.7% of the survey sample with a total of 8
sample contributions. Asians in the survey sample were followed by 3 Hispanics, gaining over
25% of the sample, and a singular White person, making up 8.3% of the final sample size. The
contributors were selected through the random sampling method. As such, the participants were
selected without prejudice and were surveyed without any prerequisite conditions. This also
means that the volunteers contributed without any monetary incentive and that the sample set is
anonymous in nature.
Asians
Hispanics
White
8%
Male
33%
25%
Female
67%
Figure 2: Gender
67%
Figure 1: Ethnicity
EFFECTS OF MOOD ON SLEEP QUALITY
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According to the gathered results, over 50% of the contributors, or 6 out of 12 to be
exact, report that they have trouble falling asleep only sometimes. Meanwhile, 4 individuals
reported having no issues falling asleep. In contrast, only 2 participants added that they always
have trouble falling asleep. This data is found in figure 3 below.
Always
17%
Sometimes
50%
Never
33%
Figure 3: Trouble Falling Asleep
Moving further, it was found that over 50% of the participants reported having a mood
change due to sleeping difficulties. In contrast, 33.3% reported having no changes to their mood
due to lack of sleep while 16.7% consolidated their earlier resolve of having no difficulty falling
asleep regardless of mood changes (Table 1). Alternatively, in another closed-ended question,
75% of the participants noted that they can fall asleep easier when their mood is positive while
16.7% noted having better sleep with a neutral mood and 8.3% reported better sleep with a
natural mood. This means that almost none of the participants considers a negative mood capable
of sustaining quality of sleep.
Neutral
17%
Natural
8%
Positive
75%
Figure 4: Mood preference before falling asleep
Number of Whether mood changes
Participants
due to lack of sleep
6
Yes
4
No
2
Never any difficulty
Table 1: Connection between mood and sleep
EFFECTS OF MOOD ON SLEEP QUALITY
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Talking about the time required before one falls asleep, the participants were asked to
choose how long it takes for them to fall asleep on a usual basis. According to the submissions,
over 45.5% noted that they fall asleep within 2 hours of lying down while 36.5% held up that
they don’t have any trouble while falling sleep. Only 18.2% of the participants cited having
difficulty falling asleep because they noted that they need 3-5 hours before they can fall asleep.
Additionally, the participants were asked to interrelate how difficult it is to fall asleep while in a
positive mood to the difficulty in falling asleep in a negative mood. According to the results,
91.7% participants opinionated that they fall asleep within 2 hours if their mood is positive while
only one response suggested that they require 3-5 hours before they can fall asleep (fig. 5). In
stellar contrast, while going through a negative mood, 8 participants added that they can fall
asleep within 2 hours while a staggering number of 4 participants cited having trouble sleeping
and needing 3-5 hours before they can fall asleep (fig. 6). In essence, 66.7% participants have a
minor to no effect of a negative mood on their sleep quality while 33.3% have difficulty falling
asleep with a negative mood.
3-5 hours
8%
3-5 hours
33%
0-2 hours
67%
0-2 hours
92%
Figure 5: Positive mood and sleep
Figure 6: Negative mood and sleep
It was observed that a number of people have trouble falling asleep during a negative
mood. In order to ascertain the exact reasons of what constitutes as trouble for the participants, 3
EFFECTS OF MOOD ON SLEEP QUALITY
5
open-ended questions were made a part of the survey. It is important to note that only 9
participants out of 12 attempted these open-ended questions while 3 of the participants chose to
not answer. Articulating the results of these open-ended questions, it is observable that the
majority of the participants consider stress, caffeine, and next day planning, to be major
contributing factors to the delay in falling asleep. A number of participants consider anxiety,
interpersonal relationships, and stress to have a more critical role in sleeping habits as compared
to mood. In the second open-ended question that asks of what influences sleep rather than mood,
participants opinionated that casual habits like future planning, gaming, social media browsing,
caffeine intakes, and external forces like room temperature and certain medical conditions, like
the restless leg syndrome, keep them up at night. Therefore, they can also be blamed for delayed
sleep. In the third open-ended question regarding habits that make sleep easier, the participants
had mixed inputs with some suggesting exercise, hygienic regimes, and physical activity, while
others suggest lesser use of social media, ignorance of anxious thoughts, and more music
playback as possible contributors to better sleep.
In conclusion, it was found that mood does have an impact on the quality of sleep and the
duration before one can fall asleep. People who have a negative mood take up more time to fall
asleep as compared to people with a positive mood. However, the difference between the two
moods and the difficulty of sleep is not that big considering our survey. In essence, the survey
suggested that a positive mood helps in falling asleep and also results in better quality sleep for
the majority of the people. It confirms the hypothesis made by Triantafillou et al. (2019) which
considered mood to have an effect on sleep quality. Although the sample size was very small, the
results seem to point to the original hypothesis that stated that a negative mood does have an
impact on quality of sleep.
EFFECTS OF MOOD ON SLEEP QUALITY
References
Triantafillou, S., Saeb, S., Lattie, E. G., Mohr, D. C., & Kording, K. P. (2019). Relationship
Between Sleep Quality and Mood: Ecological Momentary Assessment Study. JMIR
mental health, 6(3), e12613. https://doi.org/10.2196/12613.
6
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Topic: Sleep Habits and Moods
Sleep relates to an individual’s mood. Lack of enough sleep influences the concentration
level and makes one prone to stress. It makes most individuals easily agitated or have a short
temper. Studies identify those individuals deprived of enough sleep have negative moods and
often do not indicate positive attitudes. It makes a person lose concentration and reduces energy
in tackling tasks. The air that creates anxiety or stress keeps the body alert, aroused, and awake.
Bad sleeping habits create sleeping problems, while healthy ones develop healthy living. Sleep,
therefore, can create anxiety, mood disorder, or depression. The paper is a correlational survey
that focuses on sleep habits and mood. Triantafillou et al. (2019) indicate that sleep quality on
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the spirit of the next day is greater than the mood effect on the sleep quality. The target
population of this survey is both male and female adults since they can read and write. The
inclusion criteria are adults aged 18 to 35 years eligible for recruiting and participating in the
survey. Engagement in the survey will involve participants voluntarily willing to participate in
the survey. Those willing to participate will be distributed questionnaires containing the
questions to fill. The team collecting the questionnaires will collect two hundred well-filled
questionnaires that will act as the sample size.
Conceptual Definitions
Sleep habits refer to behavior that an individual indicates about sleeping time, waking
time, duration of sleeping, or consumption of pills due to sleeping problems. Sleeping
habits are essential in developing a person’s ability to sleep or sleep duration. The daily
sleeping schedule that one creates becomes the sleeping habit of the individual. On the
other hand, the mood is an emotional state exuded by an individual and may last for
minutes or weeks, affecting response to stimuli; for instance, a depressed mood may
stimulate an individual to respond negatively; however manic mood stimulates an
enthusiastic response. Mood differs from emotions because its creation is not by anything
and lasts for a more extended period.
Questions
Does the sleeping habit of the participant change due to mood?
Does the participant have problems staying or falling asleep?
How many hours can the participant sleep while in a positive mood?
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How many hours can the participant sleep while in a negative mood?
What other environmental factors stimulate changes in mood affecting the sleeping habits
of a person?
Variables
The measurable aspects deducted from the questions are the variables of the survey. They
include:
1) Mood change or not- the participant is supposed to indicate whether they have a change in
mood or not.
2) Other environmental factors influencing sleep habits- the participant has to indicate
another environmental factor other than a mood that impacts sleep habits.
3) Sleep hours while having a negative mood- the participant is supposed to indicate the
number of hours they can be able to sleep while having a negative mood.
4) Number of hours of sleep while in a positive mood- the participant fills the number of
hours they sleep while in a positive mood.
5) Frequency of sleeping difficulties- the respondent should demonstrate the number of
difficulties sleeping at night.
Operational Definitions
Operational Definition enables measurement of the specific variables.
Variable 1- Mood
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o In determining if the participant has mood changes, one should respond
either ‘Yes’ or ‘No.’
Variable 2- Sleep Habits
o Sleep hours while having a negative mood – hours per night
o Number of hours of sleep while in a negative mood- hours per night
o Sleep difficulty when on a positive mood- Number of times per night
o Sleep difficulties while in a negative mood- Number of times per night
The survey intends to demonstrate the relationship between sleeping habits and mood change
among adults. The mood is the independent variable measured using a single measurement while
sleeping patterns are the dependent variable and have various measurement variables.
Hypothesis
The survey will be essential in accepting or refuting the following hypothesis. I
hypothesize that mood influences sleeping habits. Specifically, a positive mood increases
the sleeping hours of participants per night, while a negative attitude reduces the sleeping
hours of participants. Averagely, individuals with a positive mood can sleep more. In
addition, a positive mindset minimizes the number of sleeping problems and ensures an
individual has quality sleep. The data collected using the sample size will be analyzed to
either accept or not accept the hypothesis.
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References
Triantafillou, S., Saeb, S., Lattie, E. G., Mohr, D. C., & Kording, K. P. (2019). Relationship between
sleep quality and mood: ecological momentary assessment study. JMIR mental health, 6(3),
e12613. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456824/
1
Method
Sample
Data was collected from a sample of 12 participants , including 4 males and 8 females. The
participants ranged in age from 17 to 40, with a mean age of 25.8 (SD = 6.74). A majority of
the participants were Asian(66.7%), three were Hispanic or Latino (25%), and one was
white(8.3%). These samples were selected using the random sampling method. All the data
was collected by anonymous surveys.
Materials
This survey collected demographic information about the participants, including gender age,
and race. Also, it has 6 close-ended questions and 3 open-ended questions that need to be filed.
The close-ended questions engaged questions about Sleep and Moods. Such as “How is your
mood when you can easily fall asleep?”, and “How many hours before you can fall asleep while
in a positive/negative mood?”. The first kind of question used the Descriptive Rating Scale,
and the participants need to choose the answers from “Positive”,” Negative”, or “Neutral”. The
second kind of question used the Interval Scale and they are answered by “0 ~2 hours”,” 3~5
hours”, “5~8 hours “or “Over 8 hours”.
For the open-ended questions, such as “In your practice, what habit can make you sleep
better ?”.They required the participants to give their own answers regarding other factors effect
their sleep.
Design and Procedure
This survey was designed to study the relationship between sleep and mood. Engagement in
the survey will involve participants voluntarily being distributed questionnaires containing the
questions to fill.
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In the beginning of the study, there will be an Informed Consent which gives a brief
introduction of the whole study. They will be informed that the study is about Sleep and Moods
and may take 10 minutes to finish. Also, participation is voluntary, and all responses are
anonymous.
Then there will be 3 question sections, which are Demographic Questions, closed-ended
questions and open-ended questions that need to be filled. The instruction for each section will
tell the participants what is the section about and how many questions are in each section.
In the end, there will be a debriefing statement, which presents the appreciation to the
participants and restate the study’s purpose and hypothesis. In addition, it provides the contact
information of the survey designer.

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