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Working Memory and Trauma
First Middle Last
Department of Psychology, Bowie State University
PSYC 415: Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Katrina Kardiasmenos
March 8, 2022
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Working Memory and Trauma
A wide variety of research has been done regarding the impact trauma has on working
memory. That impact is important to understand because of how essential working memory is in
the brain. The role of working memory is to store a limited amount of information for a short
amount of time so it can be easily recalled while performing everyday tasks. Some of the tasks
working memory is needed to complete are learning, language and decision making. The
function of working memory is reason alone anything that effects it should be studied. The
purpose of this paper is to review the current literature available on the topic of working memory
and trauma as well as propose a study examining treatments for the effect trauma has on working
memory.
Literature Review
In 2021 Mueller et al. conducted a study examining the effect of war and trauma on
working memory as well as other cognitive processes. The researchers hypothesized that those
exhibiting high trauma symptoms (HTS) as opposed to low trauma symptoms (LTS) would have
worse working memory and it would be affected more. The participants in this study were 62
teenagers from Syria who had fled from war. This study consisted of five measures including an
event impact questionnaire, a childhood depression questionnaire, a resilience questionnaire, an
anxiety questionnaire, and an exposure questionnaire. The results of this study showed that both
groups, HTS and LTS, had diminished working memory but HTS working memory was severely
diminished. It was therefore concluded through the results of this study that trauma had an
impact on working memory regardless of the level of symptoms. It was also concluded that the
impact trauma had on working memory is enough to impact other aspects of life as well.
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Another study like the one conducted by Mueller et al. (2021) was conducted in 2016 by
Blanchette and Caparos. Their study set out to determine if there was a relationship between
working memory and trauma separate from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The
researchers hypothesized that the working memory of individuals who had experienced trauma
would be negatively impacted. The participants in this study were 228 women who had to
complete a total of four measures. Those measures consisted of one assessing abuse, life stress,
PTSD symptoms and a working memory measure. The results of this study were that working
memory of individuals who had experienced trauma was negatively impacted. It was therefore
concluded that trauma alone impacted working memory without the presence of PTSD.
Unlike the study conducted by Blanchette and Caparos (2016) not focusing on PTSD the
one conducted in 2019 by Mirabolfathi et al. did. Their study set out to determine if different
PTSD symptoms had different effects on working memory. The researchers hypothesized that
intrusive and avoidance PTSD symptoms would have the worst effect on working memory. The
participants in this study were 28 motor vehicle accident survivors. The participants had to
complete two measures one assessing PTSD symptoms and the other assessing working memory.
The results of this study were that re-experiencing and avoidance PTSD symptoms had the worst
effect on working memory. After reviewing their results, the researchers concluded that people
with PTSD experiencing re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms would benefit from
intervention to improve working memory.
Another study focusing on PTSD and working memory was conducted in 2009 by Morey
et al. examining the function of working memory networks while being distracted by trauma
cues. The researchers hypothesized that working memory networks would not perform as well
when being distracted by trauma cues. The participants consisted of 42 9/11 veterans, 22 having
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PTSD. All participants did an fMRI and performed working memory tasks during the fMRI. The
results of this study were that the PTSD group showed decreased working memory ability during
the fMRI. The conclusion was then drawn that the decrease in working memory ability was
consistent with PTSD symptoms like hypervigilance.
One more study focusing on PTSD was one conducted in 2008 by Moores et al. with the
intention of studying PTSD and non-PTSD brains to establish a difference in working memory.
The researchers hypothesized that working memory would be negatively impacted by PTSD.
There were a total of 25 participants, 13 having PTSD and 12 non-traumatized controls. All
participants underwent an fMRI while completing a working memory task. The results
confirmed the researcher’s hypothesis of PTSD negatively impacting working memory. It was
further concluded that the negative impact PTSD has one working memory explains why those
with PTSD have trouble engaging in everyday activities.
The last study examining working memory and trauma was conducted in 2010 by ElHage et al. with the goal of establishing a difference in working memory in psychiatric
outpatients. The researchers hypothesized that the patients who had a history of trauma would
not perform as well on working memory tasks. The participants consisted of 63 psychiatric
outpatients, 33 with trauma history and 30 without. The measures completed by the participants
assessed the participants demographics, anxiety and depression and speed while completing a
working memory task. Just like the researchers anticipated the participants with a history of
trauma had delayed working memory in comparison to their counterparts. The researchers ended
up concluding that the delay should be considered when examining speed while completing a
working memory task in those with trauma and not just their emotional struggles.
Introduction to Proposed Research
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Mueller et al. (2021) concluded that trauma had enough of an impact on working memory
to impact other aspects of life too. Blanchette and Caparos (2016) concluded that trauma history
was enough to impact working memory without the presence of PTSD. Mirabolfathi et al. (2019)
concluded there were specific PTSD symptoms associated with worse working memory than
others. Although the findings of the studies examined are valuable, researchers have yet to
examine a treatment option for the effect trauma has on working memory. Therefore, the purpose
of the current study is to present a treatment option for the effect trauma has on working
memory. More specifically, this study was designed to test the impact of working memory
training on those with diminished working memory due to trauma. It is hypothesized that after
completing working memory training the working memory of those with trauma history will be
improved.
Conclusion
After conducting research on the effect trauma has on working memory it can be
concluded that there is a clear relationship between the two. There has been an abundance of
research conducted on the topic including the study conducted by Morey et al. (2009) which
found that the effect of trauma on working memory is consistent with certain symptoms of PTSD
such as hypervigilance. What has not been found is how to improve the deficit in working
memory caused by trauma therefore leading to the current study which examined the
effectiveness of working memory training on those with diminished working memory due to
trauma. The participants consisted of 50 patients at a therapy office specializing in trauma. It was
hypothesized that working memory training would improve the working memory of the
participants. The goal of the current study was to improve the quality of life of those with
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diminished working memory due to trauma and hopefully with more research a treatment will be
determined.
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References
Blanchette, I., & Caparos, S. (2016). Working memory function is linked to trauma exposure,
independently of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Cognitive
Neuropsychiatry, 21(6), 494–509. https://doi-org.proxybs.researchport.umd.edu/10.1080/13546805.2016.1236015
El-Hage, W., Gaillard, P., Isingrini, M., & Belzung, C. (2006). Trauma-related deficits in
working memory. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 11(1), 33–46.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13546800444000164
Mirabolfathi, V., Moradi, A. R., & Jobson, L. (2019). Influence of affective distractors on
working memory capacity in relation to symptoms of posttraumatic stress
disorder. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 33(5), 904–910. https://doi-org.proxybs.researchport.umd.edu/10.1002/acp.3553
Moores, K. A., Clark, C. R., McFarlane, A. C., Brown, G. C., Puce, A., & Taylor, D. J. (2008).
Abnormal recruitment of working memory updating networks during maintenance of
trauma-neutral information in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research:
Neuroimaging, 163(2), 156–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2007.08.011
Morey, R. A., Dolcos, F., Petty, C. M., Cooper, D. A., Hayes, J. P., LaBar, K. S., & McCarthy,
G. (2009). The role of trauma-related distractors on neural systems for working memory
and emotion processing in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatric
Research, 43(8), 809–817. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.10.014
Mueller, S. C., Unal, C., Saretta, M., Al Mughairbi, F., Gómez-Odriozola, J., Calvete, E., &
Metin, B. (2021). Working memory and emotional interpretation bias in a sample of
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Syrian refugee adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(12), 1885–
1894. https://doi-org.proxy-bs.researchport.umd.edu/10.1007/s00787-020-01656-8
PSYC 415 Paper Guide
Your paper will follow this general format. In fact, if you use this as a guide to write an outline
for your paper, you’ll be in good shape:
Title page (1 page)
Introduction (1/2 – 3/4 page) where you do the following:
• What is the topic of the paper? (in general)
• What is the importance of the topic (this should be very brief)?
• Are there any important definitions (for example, if your paper is on sustained attention, you
should define that)?
• Provide a “thesis statement” for your paper (i.e., “The purpose of this paper is to review the
research on …then to propose a future research topic, and detail the participants that would be
included in this study…”
Literature Review (4-5 pages) where you do the following for each of your research article (Each
summary should be about ¾ of a page):
• Article 1 (least related to your research purpose/question/hypothesis):
o What was the research question/hypothesis? (1-2 sentences)
o In general, who were the participants? (1-2 sentences)
â–ª Do not tell me what language they spoke.
â–ª Do not tell me how they were recruited (or where they were recruited from).
â–ª Do not tell me how they were compensated.
o In general, what did the participants do (i.e. what was the procedure)? (3-4 sentences)
â–ª This should be a SUMMARY
o In general, what were the results? (1-3 sentences)
â–ª No numbers!
â–ª Just tell me general findings
o In general what did the researchers conclude (relate this back to the research
question/hypothesis)? (1-2 sentences)
• Article 2:
o Transition sentence that connects the summary of article 2 with the previous summary.
o What was the research question/hypothesis? (1-2 sentences)
o In general, who were the participants? (1-2 sentences)
â–ª Do not tell me what language they spoke.
â–ª Do not tell me how they were recruited (or where they were recruited from).
â–ª Do not tell me how they were compensated.
o In general, what did the participants do (i.e. what was the procedure)? (3-4 sentences)
â–ª This should be a SUMMARY
o In general, what were the results? (1-3 sentences)
â–ª No numbers!
â–ª Just tell me general findings
o In general what did the researchers conclude (relate this back to the research
question/hypothesis)? (1-2 sentences)
• Article 3:
o Transition sentence that connects the summary of article 3 with the previous summary.
•
•
o What was the research question/hypothesis? (1-2 sentences)
o In general, who were the participants? (1-2 sentences)
â–ª Do not tell me what language they spoke.
â–ª Do not tell me how they were recruited (or where they were recruited from).
â–ª Do not tell me how they were compensated.
o In general, what did the participants do (i.e. what was the procedure)? (3-4 sentences)
â–ª This should be a SUMMARY
o In general, what were the results? (1-3 sentences)
â–ª No numbers!
â–ª Just tell me general findings
o In general what did the researchers conclude (relate this back to the research
question/hypothesis)? (1-2 sentences)
Article 4:
o Transition sentence that connects the summary of article 4 with the previous summary.
o What was the research question/hypothesis? (1-2 sentences)
o In general, who were the participants? (1-2 sentences)
â–ª Do not tell me what language they spoke.
â–ª Do not tell me how they were recruited (or where they were recruited from).
â–ª Do not tell me how they were compensated.
o In general, what did the participants do (i.e. what was the procedure)? (3-4 sentences)
â–ª This should be a SUMMARY
o In general, what were the results? (1-3 sentences)
â–ª No numbers!
â–ª Just tell me general findings
o In general what did the researchers conclude (relate this back to the research
question/hypothesis)? (1-2 sentences)
Article 5:
o Transition sentence that connects the summary of article 5 with the previous summary.
o What was the research question/hypothesis? (1-2 sentences)
o In general, who were the participants? (1-2 sentences)
â–ª Do not tell me what language they spoke.
â–ª Do not tell me how they were recruited (or where they were recruited from).
â–ª Do not tell me how they were compensated.
o In general, what did the participants do (i.e. what was the procedure)? (3-4 sentences)
â–ª This should be a SUMMARY
o In general, what were the results? (1-3 sentences)
â–ª No numbers!
â–ª Just tell me general findings
o In general what did the researchers conclude (relate this back to the research
question/hypothesis)? (1-2 sentences)
Do NOT provide a critique of the articles in your summary. Keep personal feelings/opinions out of it.
Discuss the article least related to your proposed research first. The last article to be discussed in the
Review of the Research is the one that is the most related to your proposed research.
**REMINDER: You’re always integrating the literature with YOUR proposed research**
Proposed Research (1/2 – 1 page)
This section should be the intro to your research. It will almost follow the form of: “Past research (cite)
has found/examined A. Past research has also found B and C (cite). Further, past research (cite) has
indicated that…. However, research has not examined D. Therefore the purpose of the current study is
to examine D. More specifically, the current study was designed to examine… It is hypothesized
that…” Your idea for research should NATURALLY stem from the previous research.
**Please note that the above is an example, you may not have all of those things to discuss in the first
few sentences. That’s okay. I’m just trying to show that (1) things need to be cited; and (2) you should
use proper sentence structure and not just have a run on sentence.
•
•
•
•
•
IN SUMMARY, what has the previous research shown?
o Be sure you cite things appropriately.
IN SUMMARY, what still needs to be done (this is where you first introduce your study)?
What is the general purpose of your proposed research (to further study “A”)?
What is the research question (The research will determine whether “A” is affected by “B”)?
What do you hypothesize for your proposed research (It is hypothesized that “B” will help “A”
more than…)?
Conclusion (1/2 -1 page)
• Summarize the topic, and the previous research on the topic.
• Summarize your research question.
• Include a few sentences regarding who your participants might be in your study as well as what
they will do in the study.
• “Wrap up” any loose ends.
Summer 2022 – PSYC 415 – Research Proposal
Instructor: Katrina S. Kardiasmenos, Ph.D.
Topic for Summer 2022: Decision making or reasoning
This means that your paper must be on some aspect of decision making or reasoning.
To Submit Your Topic:
You must submit your topic choice via the dropbox on Blackboard.
Answer the following questions about your topic:
Why did you choose your topic?
What do you already know about the aspect of decision making you chose?
Based on what you already know about your topic, what is your research question/idea related to this topic and why do
you think it’s important?
You must submit your choice for your topic by 8:00 PM on Monday, June 6, 2022, via the dropbox on Blackboard.
This paper will include a review of the research on your topic, all leading to a future research idea. You will need to say what the
purpose of your study is/what your research question is, state the hypothesis for your study, and write a “Conclusion” section.
I have provided you with helpful information that will assist you in writing your paper. I would make every attempt to listen to these
presentations, and review the other documents, so that you can do well on your paper.
Requirements for paper
7 pages (this means 6-7 pages of text, not 6-7 pages total)
Double spaced
point font
inch margins on all sides
LEAST 5 primary, scientific references (from peer-reviewed journals)
Found using ResearchPort or Google Scholar
Published between 2010-2022 (I’d prefer if you stay away from sources that were published prior to 2010)
You MUST use primary, scientific references – that means they are peer-reviewed RESEARCH articles (so, they have
a methods and results sections)
You MAY NOT use meta-analyses.
You MAY NOT use review articles.
NOT USE:
Google (unless it’s google scholar)
Wikipedia
Newspapers (Baltimore Sun, etc)
Popular Magazines (Psychology Today, Time, etc)
Textbooks
Websites made for the general public (NIH, WebMD, emedicine)
APA Writing Style – you must use the 7th edition.
APA Style Title page
Abstract
Proper in-text citations and references page
DIRECT QUOTES
Other APA Writing Style rules are followed (e.g., avoid personal pronouns, proper use of abbreviations, proper
formatting of headings, avoid use of contractions, etc.)
What your paper should be:
introduction to your topic with a clearly stated thesis statement,
summary of the published research on the topic you choose, which…
…leads to an idea for a future research study, complete with a purpose, research question, hypothesis for the study,
and
“Conclusion” where you wrap up loose ends, suggest who your participants will be and what they will do in the study.
This paper is NOT the same paper that you would do for Seminar (PSYC 431). Although, it is very similar and has been designed to
help prepare for the paper you must write for PSYC 431.
Small Paper Assignment 1: Topic Proposal
You must submit your topic choice and answers to the questions by 8:00 PM on Monday, June 6.
Plagiarism training and Certificate
You must complete an online plagiarism training, and take the quiz for the training by 8:00 PM on Wednesday, June 8
You will earn easy points towards your grade in the class by submitting this certicate. HOWEVER, this certificate is also the
“pre-requisite” for all of your other drafts to be accepted/graded.
Your quiz (which you must earn a 9/10 on) is due by 8:00 PM on Wednesday, June 8
Rough Draft 1: Title page, References page, Introduction to paper & summary of ALL research articles (properly cited), and
Proposed Research sections
You must submit a properly APA-formatted title page, Introduction to your paper, summary of ALL research
articles/references, Proposed Research and properly formatted APA style references page (with all 6 of your sources) by
8:00 PM on Wednesday, June 15 (via Turn It In dropbox on Blackboard)
allow UP TO 10% matching for your rough draft.
you have more than 10% matching, regardless of whether it is cited as a direct quote, you will receive a 0 on the
draft. NO EXCEPTIONS. NO TEARS. NO EXCUSES. Please make sure you understand what does and what
does not constitute plagiarizing (both intentional and unintentional). There is a presentation that goes over this. I
won’t even bother grading the draft if it more than 10% matching.
will look at the draft to see what is being picked up as similar. I will primarily look for phrases that appear in the
introduction, literature review, proposed research, and conclusion sections.
You may submit your draft as many times as you’d like prior to the due date/time so that you can check the
plagiarism and make revisions if necessary.
you have more than 10 grammatical and/or APA style errors, you will receive a 0 on the draft.
Due by 8:00 PM on Thursday, June 30 (via the Turn It In dropbox on Blackboard)
Turn It In is a plagiarism-check tool
allow UP TO 10% matching for your paper.
you have more than 10% matching, regardless of whether it is cited as a direct quote, you will receive a 0 on the
paper. NO EXCEPTIONS. NO TEARS. NO EXCUSES. Please make sure you understand what does and what
does not constitute plagiarizing (both intentional and unintentional). There is a presentation that goes over this. I
won’t even bother grading the paper if it more than 10% matching.
will look at the draft to see what is being picked up as similar. I will primarily look for phrases that appear in the
introduction, literature review, proposed research, pand conclusion sections.
You may submit your paper as many times as you’d like prior to the due date/time so that you can check the
plagiarism and make revisions if necessary.
you have more than 10 grammatical and/or APA style errors, you will receive a 0 on the draft.
Only Microsoft Word Files will be accepted (.doc or .docx)
Please see the paper rubric for grading specifics
Final Paper
Please note that if there are more than 10 instances of APA writing style errors, OR more than 10 instances of serious errors in
spelling/grammar/punctuation on your rough draft or your final OR if you have more than 10% plagiarism, you will receive a 0 for the
assignment.
Poor (50%)
Title Page
Title head is not
appropriate for a
scientific paper.
Title page does not
follow APA style.
(5 points)
Below Average (60%)
Title does not effectively
convey all the variables in
the study. Some needed
elements may be missing.
(6 points)
Average (85%)
All relevant parts of the
title page are included.
Title is appropriate but
may not be very
concise.
(8.5 points)
Above Average
(100%)
Title includes
variables and is
concise and
descriptive. All
relevant parts of the
title page are
included. APA style
is completely
correct.
(10 points)
Introduction
Paper focuses
immediately on the
method, or no
context for the topic
is provided. The
topic is not
appropriate or is
overly simplistic for
the class level.
There is no thesis
statement.
(10 points)
More clarity in the opening
may be needed or the paper
may begin with a definition
of the topic but provide very
little context for the idea
(e.g., may begin immediately
with review of previous
research). The topic, while
generally appropriate for the
class, may be simplistic.
There is a sentence that
could be considered a
thesis, but it’s not clear, or it
doesn’t appear at the end of
the Introduction.
(12 points)
Paper starts somewhat
broadly, and provides
some theoretical or
real- world context for
the main concept in
the study. An
explanation of the key
concept or question is
provided, but it could
be clearer. The topic is
appropriate for the
class but not
necessarily novel in
the field. Thesis
statement is present,
but somewhat vague.
confident that that
literature has been
adequately
Literature
Review
reviewed. Much of
the reviewed
literature may be
inappropriate or not
reviewed in enough
detail for the reader
to be sure of its
relation to other
studies.
Alternatively, the
summaries may
have
Some of the reviewed
literature seems to be
inappropriate or not welllinked to the topic. Literature
may not be reviewed in
enough detail for the reader
to be sure of its relation to
other studies. Alternatively,
almost every summary may
consist of too much
information. There might be
an over-reliance on
quotations. There are no
(20 points)
(17 points)
Too few summaries
are included for the
reader to be
Paper (i.e., first
paragraph or two)
begins in a broad
manner and clearly
explains the problem
to be investi- gated.
Appropriate topic in
level and in content.
Thesis statement is
included and give
the reader a clear
idea of what will
occur in the paper.
Summaries are
concise but might not
contain all the
information necessary
(as posed in the paper
guide) or there are
minor instances where
the summaries contain
too much information.
There might be some
tests that are named,
or critiques/opinions.
Transitions are mostly
there,
Summaries are
concise but contain
all information posed
in the paper guide.
Names of tests are
left out, and there
are no
critiques/opinions
about the research
provided. Transitions
are present and
connect the different
summaries.
Literature review
tells a coherent story
that starts with the
research
entirely too much
info and the
literature review
may resemble
more of an
annotated
bibliography.
but primarily consist of one
transitions, and
there is little logical
word. Literature review is
mostly coherent, but the
least related to the
study being proposed
flow between
summaries.
articles could be ordered
differently to make more
sense.
and ends with the
most related.
(36 points)
(51 points)
(30 points)
A. brief
summary of
the
Proposed
Research:
Summary/Critique
of Past Research
(60 points)
A. brief
summary of
literature is
not
provided.
The
description
the literature
is not
provided. The
description of
what is
A. brief summary of the
literature is provided,
but the description of
of what is
missing
from this
literature or
what
researchers
missing from
this literature
or what
researchers
do not yet
know is
what is missing from
this literature or what
researchers do not
yet know could be
stated more clearly.
An explanation of
do not yet
know is
absent or
very
unclear.
unclear.
There is little
justification
why the
proposed
how the proposed
study will answer this
question or fill this
research gap is
included, but it could
There is no
discussion
of why the
proposed
study will be
study will be
important to
this literature,
or the author
makes a
be more specific; or,
the author makes a
vague call for more
research without
giving a more specific
important to
this
literature, or
no study is
proposed at
this point.
vague call for
more
research
without any
specificity.
B. points)
research question.
B. 5 points)
A. brief summary
of the literature
is provided, and
there is a
specific, clear
description of
what is missing
from this
literature or
what
researchers do
not yet know. A
clear
explanation of
how the
proposed study
will answer this
question or fill
this research
gap is included.
There is a clear
research
question that
follows from the
purpose.
B. points)
B. points)
Proposed
Research:
Hypothesis
Direction of
hypothesis does
not follow from
the literature
presented or
there is no
hypothesis
present.
(10 points)
Variables in the
main hypothesis
are stated, but no
directional
prediction about the
relation between
the variables is
specifically stated.
A hypothesis with
no justification may
be included.
Alternatively, the
hypothesis
predicted no
Main hypotheses are
stated clearly and
directional predictions are
made. It may be unclear
how the hypothesis links to
the literature.
(17 points)
Hypotheses are all
clearly stated, and
directional predictions
are made based on
the previous
literature. They are
testable.
(20 points)
change/difference/relationship
(i.e., the null hypothesis).
(12 points)
Conclusion
References
There are a few
sentences at the
end of the paper
that could be
considered a
conclusion.
There is a conclusion,
but there is little
attempt to tie up
loose ends or
summarize the
research and
There is no
attempt to
discuss the
participants or
what they will
research proposal.
There is mention of
the participants or
what they will do, but
there is no detail
do.
provided.
(5 points)
(6 points)
Reference list is
more like a
bibliography of
related sources.
Some references
may not be
appropriate for the
assignment. Key
References may
not be scholarly
sources or
otherwise not
appropriate for
the assignment
(e.g., too many
secondary
references are clearly
cited from other
sources and not likely
read by the student.
Sources do not
include a good mix of
recent and classic, if
necessary. Most of
sources), or
they may not be
current.
the articles are not
primary research
articles.
(5 points)
Organization is
confusing.
Scientific
Writing
Style
Transitions are
missing or are
very weak. Tone
is consistently
too informal.
Punctuation and
grammar
mistakes
throughout the
paper.
Sentences are
not concise and
word choice is
(6 points)
Conclusion is present.
There is some attempt to
tie up loose ends, and
summarize the research
and research proposal.
There is some attempt to
discuss the participants
or what they will do in the
study.
Conclusion is present and
clearly wraps up loose ends,
and is a good summary of the
research and research
proposal. Student discusses
the participants and what they
are doing in the study.
(10 points)
(8.5 points)
Reference list may leave
out some cited article or
include one that was not
cited. The articles are
Reference page includes all
and only cited articles. The
articles are primary research
appropriately scholarly
but may be somewhat
tangential and were likely
read by the student.
There may be an article
that is not primary
research. Sources
include a good mix of
articles and are appropriately
scholarly and appropriate to
the topic. Sufficient recent
sources make the review
current, and classic studies
are included if applicable and
available. Original articles
were clearly read by the
recent and classic, as
necessary.
student.
(10 points)
(8.5 points)
Organization is less
adequate, making the
paper difficult to
follow. Tone is
somewhat colloquial
and informal.
Punctuation and
grammar are usually
correct, but there are
consistent mistakes.
Sentences are not
always concise and
Tone is appropriately
formal, for the most part,
but there might be some
instances of information
speech. Punctuation and
grammar are almost
completely correct.
Sentences are generally
Tone is appropriately formal
and avoids personal
pronouns, contractions, and
other informal speech.
Punctuation and grammar are
completely correct, including
proper tenses and voice.
Sentences are concise
vague. There
are numerous
instances where
an imprecise
word is used
indicating the
reliance upon
synonyms.
(10 points)
word choice is
sometimes vague.
The author includes
many quotes or
improper
“paraphrases” that
may constitute
unintentional
plagiarism.
APA
Style
(10 points)
(17 points)
and word choice is precise,
with nonbiased language.
Proper use of paraphrasing
without using synonyms that
make text unclear.
(20 points)
(12 points)
Four or more
consistent style
errors, or many
inconsistent
style errors.
concise and word choice is
usually precise. There are a
few instances where improper
paraphrasing occurs.
Consistent APA style
errors in referencing
and spacing.
(12 points)
Style is generally correct and
includes correct spacing, fonts,
Information is included in the
appropriately titled sections. In-
and margins. Page breaks are
in appropriate places. May
have minor mistakes in
punctuation of references, intext citations.
text citations, paper format,
and Reference page are in
APA style with no mistakes. All
headers, margins, etc., are in
APA style.
(17 points)
(20 points)
1
Title with First Letters of Major Words Capitalized and in Bold
First Middle Last
Department of Psychology, Bowie State University
PSYC 415: Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Kartrina Kardiasmenos
Date
2
Title with First Letters of Major Words Capitalized and in Bold
Your introductory paragraph should go here. You do not need a heading for
“Introduction” as it is assumed that the first paragraph is the introductory paragraph. In this
paragraph, you are introducing your topic. You are indicating, briefly, why it is important to do
research on that topic. You should not be citing anything in this paragraph. The last
sentence(s) of your introductory paragraph should be your thesis statement. The thesis
statement should the following form: The purpose of the current paper is to review the
literature examining…and then to propose an idea for future research examining this topic.
Literature Review
You should start your literature review here. Do not start it on a different page. Please
note that this is where you will be summarizing the articles you found that are related to your
topic. You should have one paragraph per article, and your summaries should be about ½ to
2/3 of a page long. If you have more than that (or you have more than one paragraph per
article, you probably have too much info).
One of the biggest mistakes I see in this section is the failure to include transition
sentences or phrases at the beginning of each paragraph after the first one. A transition is
more than “Next” or “Furthermore.” Instead, consider how each summary relates to the
previous ones. For example, you may say “While so-and-so (year) conducted research
examining…so-and-so (year) took a different approach to studying…”
The other error I tend to see in this paper is that students may not remember to cite
things (you only need to cite each article one time per paragraph), and use proper grammar (for
example, you should be indenting the first line of every new paragraph. Some things that
3
students sometimes do in this section (which you should not do), include: put the title of the
articles (or use the titles as subheaders), not cite things, include too much information, and use
informal words like “etc.” Students should avoid those mistakes. The next paragraph is an
example of a summary.
This section should tell a story, in some sense. So, the first summary that appears in this
section should be the one that is least related to what you are proposing in your research. It
might be that it is describing a related, but different, construct. You may find that you will
summarize one article, and then go to summarize the others, but then you need to reorganize
them. The very last summary to appear should be the one most related, or similar, to your
proposed research. As part of your story, therefore, you should have transitions that “link”
your paragraphs.
Remember that this section should only consist of summaries of primary research.
Please review the links provided so that you are clear on what constitutes primary research.
Briefly, primary research is a study. That should be the only articles summarized in this paper.
You should not be summarizing meta-analyses, review articles, and so on. The following
paragraph consists of a sample summary.
While Sullivan et al. (1990) found that MS patients reported having problems with PM,
Kardiasmenos et al. (2006) wanted to systematically examine PM in MS patients. The study
included 60 middle-aged participants: 15 with RR MS, 15 with PP MS, and 15 with SP MS, as
well as 15 healthy controls. To test PM performance, participants completed a virtual week
during which they were given both time-based and event-based PM tasks to complete further
around the board. Participants were also given a real-life time- and event-based task to
4
complete during the study. After completing the game, participants filled out a demographic
questionnaire and other measures of working memory and attention. The results suggested
that, collectively, the healthy controls completed more PM tasks than MS patients.
Furthermore, the results suggested that PP MS patients did worse on time-based tasks than
event-based tasks as compared to patients with RR or SP MS. Kardiasmenos et al. concluded
that the PM deficit experienced by MS patients may impact their ability to remember doctor’s
appointments and medication protocols.
Introduction to Current Research
Once again, you should not be starting this section on a new page. Instead, you should
start it right under the last article you summarize in your Literature Review. In this area, you
should start out summarizing what previous research found (you should be summarizing no
fewer than three to four). Please note that you should cite this research again. These
summaries should lead into a statement of what previous research has not done/found. This
should naturally lead into what you are studying, and it should start with your research purpose
(very general/broad). The research purpose will almost be restating what has not been
done/found. Then, you state your research question (more narrow) as a statement (not a
question). The research question should be more specific than your research purpose, but not
as specific as your hypothesis. Finally, you should state your hypothesis (very specific) or
prediction of what you think you will find. The next paragraph is an example of what you would
put in this section.
In general, you want this section to continue your story by taking the following form:
Previous research has found… (cite). Research has also found… (cite) and… (cite). In addition,
5
previous research has shown… (cite). However, previous research has not… Therefore, the
current research is designed to… More specifically, the current research will… It is
hypothesized/predicted that….
This is probably the section where I see the most errors being made by students. First, I
have seen students who have stated something has not been done, but I am unable to figure
out how that even follows from what they said previous research did/found. So, make sure
that there is a logical progression. Second, many students will leave out one of the following:
what has not been done, the purpose, the research question, or the hypothesis. You should
have each of those four things. Third, students will predict that there is no
difference/change/relationship, which is akin to predicting the null hypothesis. Consider this:
why are you doing the research if you do not expect to find a difference/change/relationship?
There is no reason to do research in that case. Finally, students may make a prediction that
does not follow from the previous research. If previous research consistently shows something,
you probably do not want to predict the exact opposite. The following paragraph is an example
of what I would be looking for in this section.
Sullivan et al. (1990) found that MS patients reported having problems with PM.
However, these results were based on self-report. Haupts et al. (1994) reported MS patients
experienced everyday memory impairment, however the researchers did not specify if these
were PM or RM impairments. Kardiasmenos et al. (2006) completed a systematic study of PM
in MS and found that MS patients perform much worse on PM tasks than healthy controls.
Despite promising findings, however, researchers have not systematically examined if there’s a
way to increase PM task performance in MS patients. Therefore, the purpose of the current
6
study is to determine if there are methods that MS patients can use to increase their PM. More
specifically, this study was designed to test the use of implementation intentions as a method
of increasing PM in MS patients. It is predicted that the use of implementation intentions will
increase PM performance in MS patients compared to not using any methods to increase PM.
Conclusion
In this section, you should start out by summarizing the findings of the previous
research (make sure you are citing these findings). From there, you should go into the purpose
of the proposed research, the research question, as well as the hypothesis. You are not simply
restating the Proposed Research section. It should not be the same. You can also use this
section to describe who the participants might be in the study as well as what they might do in
the study. You will not be doing a full Methods section, but that does not mean that you
cannot say what they might be doing. You can give a sentence about the participants.
While some previous research (Sullivan et al., 1990) found that MS patients reported
deficits in PM performance, Kardiasmenos et al. (2006) actually found that MS patients do
actually have PM performance deficits compared to healthy controls. However, given the
importance for MS patients to have intact PM performance, researchers have not examined if
there is a way in which PM performance can be remediated. As such, the purpose of the
current study is to examine if the use of implementation intentions can increase PM
performance in MS patients.
RR MS patients will be randomly assigned to a control group who do not receive the
implementation intention instructions or an experimental group who do receive those
instructions. Participants will complete a virtual week game that mimics seven days in a
7
person’s life where the person must go to work, and complete various hypothetical PM tasks
later in the game. Participants will also complete two real-life PM tasks and other cognitive
measures. It is hypothesized that MS patients who use implementation intentions to
remember PM tasks will remember more PM tasks than MS patients who do not use anything
to increase their ability to remember PM tasks.
8
References
Chukwudi Nwaolu
06/07/22
Topic: Monetary Desicions
1) I chose this topic because I wanted to learn more about money. I struggle to save money
but somehow find a way of spending a lot of money.
2) I know people believe money runs the world so that can have an effect on how you spend
it and what you spend it on
3) My research question will be what decision do you make affect your money? It is
important because many people misuse money and this research will help individuals like
me find a balance between spending and saving money

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