+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

This dissertation is about to investigation on the psychological issues on Chinese oversea student.

Write the data analysis chapter. you need to use the data i sent you. Create the forms or tables. Give the numbers and then discuss with the literature review.

5.Did any of this help to your mental problems?

6.Did you have any psychological problems after that? Did our university follow up with feedback?

7.What comments and suggestions do you have for our university help?

8.What do you think our university needs to improve in helping our Chinese

students

?

A survey on the psychological problems of international students(Non-chinese overseas students)
19/08/2022, 16:42
A survey on the psychological problems of
international studentsҁNon-chinese
overseas studentsÒ‚
34 responses
Publish analytics
Copy
Your current stage of study is ֦ፓ‫ڹ‬ጱ਍ԟᴤྦྷ
34 responses
Foundation
Undergraduate
Master
70.6%
Phd
20.6%
Copy
Your gender is ֦ጱ௔‫ڦ‬
34 responses
Male
Female
58.8%
41.2%
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1Z2czWuFJ_W9Xdcm4QRZu2X62rDRIibeJ9deDbnL48Fw/viewanalytics
Page 1 of 4
A survey on the psychological problems of international students(Non-chinese overseas students)
19/08/2022, 16:42
Copy
Do you think the spread of the coronavirus has affected your feelings and
emotions? ֦ᥧ஑ෛ٢ዖఘᠣ୊੒֦ጱఘᖃ޾ᇫாฎ‫ߥ୽ํވ‬Ҙ
34 responses
Yes
No
26.5%
73.5%
Copy
What psychological problems do you think have been caused by the
COVID-19 epidemic during your study abroadҘcheckboxes֦ᥧ஑ෛ٢ዖ
ఘ੒ԭ֦ጱኸ਍ኞၚԆᥝ᭜౮ԧߺԶஞቘᳯ᷌Ҙ ग़ᭌ
34 responses
15 (44.1%)
Anxiety
8 (23.5%)
Depression
19 (55.9%)
Psychological stress
2 (5.9%)
Fear
5 (14.7%)
Confusion
10 (29.4%)
Loneliness
0
5
10
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1Z2czWuFJ_W9Xdcm4QRZu2X62rDRIibeJ9deDbnL48Fw/viewanalytics
15
20
Page 2 of 4
A survey on the psychological problems of international students(Non-chinese overseas students)
19/08/2022, 16:42
Copy
What do you think are the reasons for your psychological problems
during the COVID-19 pandemic? checkboxes ֦ᥧ஑ࣁෛ٢ዖఘӥ֦‫ڊ‬ሿ
ᬯԶஞቘᳯ᷌ጱܻࢩํߺԶҘग़ᭌ
34 responses
20 (58.8%)
Lockdown and isolation
Physical health
8 (23.5%)
4 (11.8%)
Social restrictions
19 (55.9%)
Academic pressure and…
Language and communic…
3 (8.8%)
10 (29.4%)
Making friends
5 (14.7%)
Lifestyle habits and ways
Cultural background
2 (5.9%)
12 (35.3%)
Homesickness
4 (11.8%)
Racial discrimination
0
5
10
15
20
Copy
How would you deal with your own psychological problems? checkboxes
֦ᛔ૩տই॒֜ቘᛔ૩ጱஞቘᳯ᷌Ҙग़ᭌ
34 responses
Video contact with family…
17 (50%)
Socialize and get togethe…
18 (52.9%)
Exercise, study or travel
12 (35.3%)
Sleep, play video games…
Process negative emotio…
The use of drugs
8 (23.5%)
1 (2.9%)
3 (8.8%)
Return home or leave
0
5 (14.7%)
5
10
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1Z2czWuFJ_W9Xdcm4QRZu2X62rDRIibeJ9deDbnL48Fw/viewanalytics
15
20
Page 3 of 4
A survey on the psychological problems of international students(Non-chinese overseas students)
Have you reached out to the university for psychological help? ֦ฎ‫ވ‬Ԇ
19/08/2022, 16:42
Copy
ۖ‫ݻ‬਍໊੔࿢ᬦஞቘොᶎጱଆۗҘ
34 responses
Only solve by myself
Try to solve it myself first and
then ask the university for help
if I cannot solve it
20.6%
20.6%
Ask the university for help
directly
Ask other people for help
directly
14.7%
44.1%
This content is neither created nor endorsed by Google. Report Abuse – Terms of Service – Privacy Policy
Forms
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1Z2czWuFJ_W9Xdcm4QRZu2X62rDRIibeJ9deDbnL48Fw/viewanalytics
Page 4 of 4
A survey on the psychological problems of Chinese overseas students
19/08/2022, 16:52
A survey on the psychological problems of
Chinese overseas students
63 responses
Publish analytics
Are you a Chinese student overseaҘ֦ฎӾࢵኸ਍ኞ‫ހ‬Ҙ
Copy
63 responses
Yes
No
100%
Copy
Your current stage of study is ֦ፓ‫ڹ‬ጱ਍ԟᴤྦྷ
63 responses
Foundation
Undergraduate
Master
PhD
82.5%
11.1%
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1y8mHwy4xyVHoszXOg2870WKG5NGeLRNYfkFzq5Tu4b0/viewanalytics
Page 1 of 8
A survey on the psychological problems of Chinese overseas students
19/08/2022, 16:52
Copy
Your gender is ֦ጱ௔‫ڦ‬
63 responses
Male
Female
73%
27%
Do you think the spread of the coronavirus has affected your feelings and
emotions? ֦ᥧ஑ෛ٢ዖఘᠣ୊੒֦ጱఘᖃ޾ᇫாฎ‫ߥ୽ํވ‬Ҙ
Copy
63 responses
Yes
No
7.9%
92.1%
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1y8mHwy4xyVHoszXOg2870WKG5NGeLRNYfkFzq5Tu4b0/viewanalytics
Page 2 of 8
A survey on the psychological problems of Chinese overseas students
19/08/2022, 16:52
Copy
What psychological problems do you think have been caused by the
COVID-19 epidemic during your study abroad? checkboxes֦ᥧ஑ෛ٢ዖ
ఘ੒ԭ֦ጱኸ਍ኞၚԆᥝ᭜౮ԧߺԶஞቘᳯ᷌Ҙ ग़ᭌ
63 responses
41 (65.1%)
Anxiety
34 (54%)
Depression
Psychological stress
29 (46%)
Fear
27 (42.9%)
22 (34.9%)
Confusion
34 (54%)
Loneliness
0
20
40
60
Copy
What do you think are the reasons for your psychological problems
during the COVID-19 pandemic? checkboxes ֦ᥧ஑ࣁෛ٢ዖఘӥ֦‫ڊ‬ሿ
ᬯԶஞቘᳯ᷌ጱܻࢩํߺԶҘग़ᭌ
63 responses
45 (71.4%)
Lockdown and isolation
Physical health
22 (34.9%)
35 (55.6%)
Social restrictions
28 (44.4%)
Academic pressure and…
Language and communic…
13 (20.6%)
Making friends
20 (31.7%)
Lifestyle habits and ways
21 (33.3%)
Cultural background
5 (7.9%)
19 (30.2%)
Homesickness
Racial discrimination
10 (15.9%)
0
20
40
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1y8mHwy4xyVHoszXOg2870WKG5NGeLRNYfkFzq5Tu4b0/viewanalytics
60
Page 3 of 8
A survey on the psychological problems of Chinese overseas students
19/08/2022, 16:52
Copy
How would you deal with your own psychological problems?
checkboxes ֦ᛔ૩տই॒֜ቘᛔ૩ጱஞቘᳯ᷌Ҙग़ᭌ
63 responses
Video contact with family…
46 (73%)
Socialize and get togethe…
28 (44.4%)
Exercise, study or travel
29 (46%)
Sleep, play video games…
39 (61.9%)
Process negative emotio…
12 (19%)
The use of drugs
4 (6.3%)
Return home or leave
3 (4.8%)
0
20
40
Are you aware of the support and help that the university offers you for
various psychological problems? ֦ฎ‫ވ‬ԧᥴय़਍ᕳ֦൉‫׀‬ጱग़ᐿஞቘᳯ᷌
60
Copy
ጱඪ೮޾ଆۗҘ
63 responses
Very well understood
Generally understood
20.6%
71.4%
Not at all
7.9%
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1y8mHwy4xyVHoszXOg2870WKG5NGeLRNYfkFzq5Tu4b0/viewanalytics
Page 4 of 8
A survey on the psychological problems of Chinese overseas students
19/08/2022, 16:52
Have you reached out to the university for psychological help? ֦ฎ‫ވ‬Ԇ
Copy
ۖ‫ݻ‬਍໊੔࿢ᬦஞቘොᶎጱଆۗҘ
63 responses
Only solve by myself
39.7%
11.1%
Try to solve it myself first and
then ask the university for help
if I cannot solve it
Ask the university for help
directly
Ask other people for help
directly
46%
Do you Hnd the help offered by the university useful? ֦ᥧ஑य़਍൉‫׀‬ጱଆ
ۗฎ‫ํވ‬አ Ҙ
Copy
63 responses
Very useful
Generally useful
22.2%
68.3%
Completely useless
9.5%
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1y8mHwy4xyVHoszXOg2870WKG5NGeLRNYfkFzq5Tu4b0/viewanalytics
Page 5 of 8
A survey on the psychological problems of Chinese overseas students
19/08/2022, 16:52
Are you satisHed with the psychological help provided by the
Copy
university? ֦੒਍໊ᕳԨጱஞቘଆۗฎ‫ވ‬ჿ఺ Ҙ
63 responses
Very satisfied
Generally satisfied
Not satisfied
17.5%
73%
9.5%
Do you think the university is eIcient? ֦ᥧ஑਍໊ጱ‫ې‬Ԫපሲṛ‫ހ‬Ҙ
Copy
63 responses
Very high
33.3%
Generally high
Not high
12.7%
54%
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1y8mHwy4xyVHoszXOg2870WKG5NGeLRNYfkFzq5Tu4b0/viewanalytics
Page 6 of 8
A survey on the psychological problems of Chinese overseas students
19/08/2022, 16:52
What do you think of the university serviceҘ֦ᥧ஑਍໊ጱ๐‫ۓ‬ই֜Ҙ
Copy
63 responses
Good
So-so
Bad
65.1%
7.9%
27%
Do you feel like the university is constantly paying attention to your
psychological feelings? ֦ᥧ஑਍໊ํဌํ೮ᖅ‫֦ဳى‬ጱஞቘఽ‫ݑ‬Ҙ
Copy
63 responses
Yes
31.7%
No
68.3%
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1y8mHwy4xyVHoszXOg2870WKG5NGeLRNYfkFzq5Tu4b0/viewanalytics
Page 7 of 8
A survey on the psychological problems of Chinese overseas students
19/08/2022, 16:52
Do you think the university’s help is comprehensive? ֦ᥧ஑਍໊൉‫׀‬ጱଆ
Copy
ۗฎ‫قވ‬ᶎҘ
63 responses
Very comprehensive
Generally comprehensive
Not comprehensive
14.3%
69.8%
15.9%
Do you accept the help offered by the universityҘ֦ฎ‫ވ‬ള‫ݑ‬ԧय़਍ጱଆ
Û—Ò˜
Copy
63 responses
Yes
47.6%
No
52.4%
This content is neither created nor endorsed by Google. Report Abuse – Terms of Service – Privacy Policy
Forms
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1y8mHwy4xyVHoszXOg2870WKG5NGeLRNYfkFzq5Tu4b0/viewanalytics
Page 8 of 8
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Background
The purpose of this article is to examine psychological problems among international
students at the University of Sheffield since the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2019 and how
the university has offered assistance.
The psychological problems of international students have been widely concerned
and discussed. Before the outbreak of COVID-19 , Sandhu and Rostami (1991) found that
there is a common notion that foreign students are a highly-vulnerable group with a far
higher number of psychological complications relative to their American counterparts.
According to the duo, foreign students experience multiple complications due to the
extensive changes they must suddenly make in their academic and social lives. Their
findings reveal that foreign students are psychologically vulnerable on various fronts
including homesickness, loneliness, irritability, disorientation, confusion, discrimination,
and fear.
As a result of the spread of COVID-19 in 2019, preexisting mental health risks among
international students were exacerbated (Mbous & Rudisill, 2022). A study conducted by
Jennifer and others examining Queen’s University students in Canada and Oxford
University students in the UK indicates that these psychological problems are primarily
related to social isolation, challenging academic changes, and disruptions of school
support services and coping strategies (Jennifer, 2022).
In spite of this, students from different countries experience psychological problems
in varying degrees. For example, students from China studying abroad are more likely to
experience anxiety and psychological stress due to the increasing apparent discrimination
against them.
A number of relevant measures have been taken during this special period to resolve
psychological problems among international students and their schools.
1.2 Research Reason
It is a topic of particular interest to me, and I have observed that many international
students around me are affected by the COVID-19 epidemic in their daily lives, their
academic studies, and their psychological well-being. The majority of these effects are
negative.
I am a postgraduate student at the University of Sheffield. I am also an international
student with similar experiences. Due to my introverted nature, I find it difficult to
communicate with strangers and to blend in with groups. A feeling of loneliness was
further exacerbated by my anxiety and fear of COVID-19. Due to social distancing
restrictions and decreased group activities, I always cook alone, shop alone, walk alone,
and rarely go out with others. My physical health was also adversely affected by the
unfamiliar environment. Having no idea where to turn for assistance, I am at a loss.
Since I was unfamiliar with the department settings of the school, I encountered a lot
of confusion when applying for NHS account registration and school BRP registration. I
miss my family and friends even more when I am under the pressure of study and
employment. Unfortunately, the outbreak of a deadly virus has caused a massive flight
meltdown, which has rendered the word “home” unreachable.For Chinese students, it is
very difficult to make friends outside of the Chinese community. Most of our classmates
and friends are Chinese.Because the similarities in language, culture and living habits
make it easier for us to feel friendly and warm in a foreign land.
It is my belief that the Pandemic of COVID-19 has somewhat exacerbated the mental
health situation of international students, and we need support from schools when we
cannot handle our mental health problems on our own. I have therefore decided to study
the psychological problems of international students within the context of the COVID-19
pandemic, their sources, and how the university should be able to assist them. It is my
hope that my research will provide schools with student feedback and data.
1.3 Research Aims and Questions
Aims:
The purpose of this study is to explore the psychological problems and sources of
international students under the COVID-19 pandemic in order to enhance their well-being.
Firstly, I will investigate the specific sources and causes of psychological problems
among international students. As opposed to local students, international students
encounter a variety of problems for a variety of reasons. There are several issues to
consider, such as the difficulty in adapting to the new environment, the unfamiliarity with
the school department setting and living environment, and the cultural differences.
Secondly, I want to give the recommendation to the UK universalities for multlised
they psychologically helps towards Chinese students.
Questions:
1. What the most psychological issues Chinese oversea students they faced ?
2. What the kind of supports universities offered to international oversea students if
they have psychological issues ? How well are these students being supported by the
university? How satisfied are students with the assistance they receive?
3. Does universities offered special helps towards Chinese students under the
covid-19?
1.4 Research Gap
Under the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a significant amount of attention paid
to research focusing on psychological problems faced by international students, as well as
the various kinds of assistance provided by the University. However, there are very few
studies which focus specifically on mental health issues among University of Sheffield
students.
In addition, few studies have been conducted on the specific characteristics of
Chinese international students and their feedback on school assistance.
This study aims to explore the source of psychological problems among international
students under the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of Chinese students.
Through questionnaire survey and more targeted interviews, we can rationally view
the comprehensiveness and persistence of the solutions to these psychological problems,
and call for more people to pay attention to the psychological problems faced by
international students in special periods.
1.5 Overall Structure
This article covers the following sections:
In the first chapter, I summarized the background, problems and reasons of this
research. The first part of this paper introduced this research topic and summarized the
psychological problems faced by international students during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Then I explained why this is a meaningful and important issue from the unique perspective
of a Chinese student. I also discussed how I became interested in this topic based on my
own experiences and emotions. In addition, I identified three research questions around
my topic. Finally, I pointed out the Research gap of this paper.
A literature review is presented in the second chapter on the psychological problems
experienced by international students as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as
the measures taken by students themselves and the types of assistance provided by
schools to international students. As a first step, I provided a comprehensive overview of
the psychological problems that international students face during this special period as
well as the causes of these problems. Also, I summarized the unique psychological
problems of Chinese students and their causes. In addition, according to my personal
experiences and theories, I discussed how I had adjusted my feelings and emotions
during the COVID-19 pandemic.
In the third chapter, I described my research methods. Initially, I presented my
ontological and epistemological position, followed by a discussion of pragmatism.
Secondly, I described the advantages and limitations of using a combination of qualitative
and quantitative methods. In conclusion, I provided a detailed description of the sample
participants and data collection procedures.
In the fourth chapter, I collected relevant research information quantitatively through
questionnaires, examining the psychological problems of Chinese overseas students and
their causes, methods of solving them, and satisfaction with the university’s assistance. In
order to facilitate comparison, the questionnaire has been divided into two versions: one
for international students who are not Chinese, and one for Chinese students. I intent to
conduct targeted interviews to obtain qualitative information about the study. During this
course, I learned more about the psychological problems of Chinese international
students and their causes, and determined whether they are aware of that help offered by
the university and how to obtain it.
In the fifth chapter, the present study is summarized and limitations and suggestions
for future research are highlighted.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1Causes of Psychological Issues
A large number of studies have explored various causes of psychological
stress among students. Schröpfer et a l. (2021) evaluated the factors
contributing to mental distress during COVID -19 among foreign students
studying health at Munich universities. They found that 44% of the students
were victims of psychological stress. The causes of psychological stress were
lack of social interaction and social support, financial difficulties worrying
about a second wave, lower life satisfaction, degrading health condition, a
potential delay in study progress, academic overloads, and inability to
positively impact the situation (Sundarasen et al., 2020). According to Afellat
et al. (2021), the boredom that comes with a lack of social interactions and
social welfare during COVID -19 is the leading cause of depressive symptoms.
For international students studying in India, the main causes of psychological
distress were negative psychology (unpleasant social interactions, emotions, thoughts,
and traumatic/harmful events), career, mental tension, financial issues, economic
downturn, life satisfaction, and thoughts about their future lives (Satpathy & Ali, 2020). In
Jordan, Almomani et al. (2021) place the blame on the three-month military-enforced
curfew. For students studying in the United Kingdom, lack of social connection and quick
transitions to online learning are the leading factors causing depression.
According to Pang et al. (2021), quarantined students experienced more
depression, with female students having higher stress, fear, and melancholy (Dodd et al.,
2021; Browning et al., 2021; Almomani et al., 2021; Traunmüller et al., 2020).
Psychological mindedness and psychological flexibility during coronavirus are associated
with stress, fear, and depression. In a study on Bangladeshi international health students,
past or recent COVID-19 infection, negative financial impact, and contact with
COVID-19-infected individuals led to psychological distress (Sabrina et al., 2021). In
addition to the findings by Sabrina et al., (2021) and Song et al. (2020) identifies factors
such as economic pressure and academic plans.
Xu (2021) conducted an online survey on foreign students in Chinese
universities and revealed that the students suffer psychological distress due to both
factors in the external environment (social support, social distancing, lockdown measures)
and intrinsic determinants such as behaviors and values. The researcher also found that a
new model of teaching and analogous variations in learning behaviors is considerably
associated with mental distress during the pandemic (Al-Tammemi et al., 2020). Khan et
al. (2021) concluded that, when international students trust the university leadership, their
anxiety levels go down significantly.
In a study by Kee (2021), international students are more concerned about the
efficiency of the new learning arrangements. Others worry about the possibility of not
meeting their friends physically in class. Similar to Chu et al. (2022), Kee (2021) also cited
lack of control as a psychological issue. Dodd et al. (2021) say that the female gender,
negative overall learning experiences, and low social status are determinants of
psychological stress among students. Other than being female, Browning et al. (2021)
found that having a poor/fair overall health status, being aged between 18 and 24 years,
and spending over 8 hours a day on screen leads to more fear and depressive tendencies.
Almomani et al. (2021) confirm Browning et al.’s findings. They too found high depression
levels in the same age group.
Alam et al. (2021) contradict Browning et al. and Almomani et al. While Browning and
company found that foreign students aged between 18 and 24 years during COVID-19 are
more susceptible to psychological distress, Alam et al. (2021) found that students aged
between 26 and 30 are more at risk. According to Alam et al., other factors include living
with housemates and having resided in Mainland China for more than two years. East
Asian students are also more vulnerable to psychological issues. Furthermore, Business,
Engineering, Law and Social Sciences, and Linguistic students are more at risk of fear
and depression compared to learners taking other disciplines. Even though
Odriozola-González et al. (2020) agree with Alam and colleagues that being a Law and
Social Sciences student predisposes a student to depression, anxiety, and stress, they
don’t agree that being an Engineering student has a role to play. In addition, they say that
being an Arts and Humanities student is a risk factor.
Ghazawy et al. (2020) probed the psychological influencers affecting
international students in Cairo during the epidemic. Their research supported Pang et al.
(2021) and Dodd et al. (2021) in that it found that being a female predisposes students to
COVID-19 era psychological distress. Their finding that having acquaintances or relatives
infected with the disease lead to psychological distress supports Pang et al.’s findings
(Browning et al., 2021). According to Ghazawy et al. (2020), other triggers include having
preexisting medical conditions and lacking psychological and social support from family
members, the university, and the community. Furthermore, being a medical student, and
spending more time following COVID-19 news also cause anxiety (Satpathy & Ali, 2020).
Le Vigouroux et al. (2021) evaluated the mental state of French international college
students during lockdown. They found that students’ perception that the lockdown
compromised their future employment opportunities, concerns about personal health, and
COVID-19-infected relatives were causes of depression (Cao et al., 2020; Li et. al., 2020).
Dwelling status, age, fear, anxiety, and history of mental complications are major
predictors of mental distress among students during pandemics (Saravanan et al., 2020).
A high age, family concerns, the internet as the main information source, poor general
health, and underestimating the seriousness of the pandemic bear more psychological
burden (Traunmüller et al., 2020).
Xiong et al. (2022) evaluated the correlation between prejudice and
psychological distress among edu-tourists in the U.S. during the epidemic. They found a
positive relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress.
Moriarty et al. (2021) found that limited sleep and exercise during the pandemic led to high
stress intensity in international students after controlling for employment status and
gender. Similar to Moriarty et al., Nurunnabi et al. (2020) also reported lack of emotional
support, inadequate sleep, social appeal, and mental support as psychological stressors.
Zsido et al. (2022) found that the two most prevalent causative factors to be
rumination and catastrophizing. Positive focalization, and family social welfare are the
best coping strategies. According to Zsido and colleagues (2022), rumination is the
repetitive and constant thoughts about the pandemic; catastrophizing refers to thinking of
only the negative aspects of the problem; positive refocusing involves attempts to think
about happy and pleasant situations rather than think about harmful ones. Some students
were very concerned that changes in their visa statuses could disrupt their studies (Gao et
al., 2022).
2.2What can International Students do?
The solution to psychological distress might just be within the students
themselves.
Self-suggestion is one of the most effective ways to help international
students cope with these unique challenges. It was Harriet, my personal tutor,
who provided me with my inspiration. She said, “Know it will be hard to act; the
firstly is to tell yourself repeatedly, “This time will pass. There are plenty of
bright times ahead.” Remind yourself of these positive expressions at the
beginning and end of each day. For example, “Every day, in Every day I’m
getting better and better” (Yankauer, 1999). As Coue points out, curing some
of our problems requires changin g our subconscious thinking, and positive
self-suggestions can bring about both physical and mental changes (as cited
in Coue). We can also apply cognitive psychology theories (Yankauer, 1999).
In order to receive the right positive psychological cues, we can take all the
necessary steps. The influence of psychological suggestion can greatly affect people’s
psychological outlook, and in many instances, unconsciously, their behavior is affected by
self-suggestion or other requests. In addition, with the help of positive self-suggestion,
Chinese students oversea studies should be more open and tolerant and be brave
enough to seek foreign friends.
Chu et al. (2022) examined whether copping approaches (avoidant,
emotion-focused, and problem-focused) cause coronavirus-related stress. They
hypothesized that emotion-based and problem-centric coping mechanisms would lead to
less distress and avoidant coping would trigger more stress. Similarly, they assumed that
higher threat appraisals, uncontrollability, and centrality are associated with distress. Their
findings indicated that increased use of avoidant mechanisms is related to stress levels
irrespective of whether it was considered a threat or not. Problem-centric and
emotion-centric coping were also linked to more stress and spread. According to Xu
(2021), collectivist values help reduce psychological distress while individualist values
have the opposite impact. Kee (2021) wants students to find ample space to operate and
connect with other people for psychological support. Chen (2020) advises students to
relax, exercise, or walk around campus to minimize the pressure.
When Jordan imposed a three-month military-enforced curfew to deal with
COVID-19, many international students were psychologically affected and had to find
ways of coping. Almomani et al. (2021) have broken down the coping strategies into
different demographic characteristics. Female students managed their depressive
symptoms by worshipping, studying, and sleeping. Male students played video games,
exercised, and worked. Students aged between 18 and 25 preferred playing video games
and sleeping while those over 25 years old coped by worshipping, exercising, and
studying. Al-Tammemi et al. (2020) call for the inclusion of universal psychological support
programs in all Jordanian universities.
Nam&Jiang interviewed 16 Chinese students at U.S. colleges and universities. Due
to burnout and severe homesickness, nine of the 16 participants chose to return to China
during the spring semester. Returning students said they thought it would be easier to
help them deal with their emotional and mental health issues back in China than in the
United States. One even said he needed to take time off work to ease his feelings of
unease(Nam&Jiang,2021).
Online social networking with new acquaintances, family, and peers reduces
feelings of isolation and encourages involvement in university activities (Al-Oraibi et al.,
2022). This is in contradiction with Browning et al. (2021) who revealed that more screen
time leads to higher anxiety and depression. However, Al-Tammemi et al. (2020) agrees.
Savarese et al. (2020) says students can establish their own counseling services that
incorporate telephone listening, web-based psychological ted-talks, psychoeducational
communities for anxiety management intrusions, and study methods workshops. The
researchers argue that, online counseling increase resilience.
Traunmüller et al. (2020)’s advice to international students is that, protective
factors against depression and anxiety include the possibility to learn from home, constant
contact with families and friends, access to virus-specific information, and physical activity,
and trust in the diagnostic capabilities are important coping strategies. Adefris and Moges
(2021) also encourage students to actively engage in various activities, rely on credible
sources of information, and take rest to mitigate psychological stress.
According to Zsido and colleagues, positive refocusing (attempts to think about
happy and pleasant situations rather than think about harmful ones) and familial social
support are the best coping strategies. Among Polish international students, the best
coping strategies are, doing something else, acceptance, physical activity, and active
coping. The worst coping mechanisms were living in denial, substance use, and
behavioral detachment. The students also used adaptive strategies (Guszkowska &
DÄ…browska-Zimakowska, 2022; Lopes & Nihei, 2021).
Religion and spirituality play a huge role in how international students cope with
COVID-19 psychological distress. Pakistani international university students not only use
religious coping but active coping, self-distraction, and acceptance as well (Salman et al.,
2020). Che Rahimi et al. (2021) studied religious coping and religiosity in Malaysian
International students and found that a higher religious coping forms a protective layer
against psychological disorder. Among Chinese students in Malaysia, it was found that
spirituality mediated the relationship between psychological well-being and social support
(Yue Qi et al., 2021).
Hassan et al. (2022) studied foreign students in Iraq and they had this to say:
students should build emotional resilience and learn how to survive difficult times and
recover. Such skills can be fostered by regular counseling. Padrón et al. (2021) also
support building emotional resilience and learning ways of surviving hard times. Vidas et
al. (2021) suggest that psychologically stressed students should listen to music to
manage stress. A study on international students in the Philippines revealed that the
students used various coping mechanisms to deal with rapid adjustments to remote
learning (Vidas et al., 2021). These include looking for good time and space, seeking peer
support, borrowing learning tools, talking to tutors, performing tasks beforehand,
practicing time consciousness, regulating self, praying, crying, and taking extra tasks (Kee,
2021).
Chandra (2020) noticed how the sudden shift from physical to virtual classrooms
disrupted student programs and caused psychological distress. His study on the
emotional intelligence tactics they employ to deal with psychological distress revealed that
students can shift to creative activities and enroll in course that enables them to learn
technical hands-on expertise (Kee, 2021). Using emotional intelligence to distance
themselves from depressive thoughts and boredom enabled them to cope with the
adverse impacts of the pandemic. Therefore, students are urged to use emotional
intelligence skills to manage depressive symptoms.
Lu et al. (2022) suggest that prevention of or intervention of mental health problems
can be mitigated through increased perceived social support and reduction in unfavorable
coping strategies such as substance abuse, avoidant strategies, oversleeping, binge
eating, and impulsive spending. Xiong et al. (2022) advocate for problem-centric and
emotion-based coping mechanisms to reduce the impact of COVID-19 in their lives.
Islam et al. (2020) propose general behaviours students may adopt to promote
psychological healthcare and endurance during the pandemic. These behaviors include,
implementing preventive mechanisms to deal with coronavirus-related issues; staying
connected with family and friends; regular physical exercises (Traunmüller et al., 2020);
adequate sleep (Moriarty et al., 2021); avoiding drug and alcohol abuse; using digital
media in a controlled way; and getting professional help for psychological healthcare
complications.
In Gomes et al. (2021) psychological well-being is nurtured by students through
their sense of belonging. Therefore, international students should prepare for life in
another country by relying on pre-created social networks before going to their respective
universities. They can as well give back to others through their academic careers.
Institutional backing that addresses and acknowledges these social responsibilities and
relationships is vital for their academic outcome and resilience.
According to Khawaja and Stellman (2011), most students feel like they are illprepared for studying abroad, and recommended that students do the groundwork
before they depart. Future students should familiarize themselves with the university,
campus, courses, and educational system. They should also learn about their
destination cities and countries. Also, important is studying the culture of the destination
society to avoid culture shocks and improve their English language skills before they
leave. Based on first-hand experience, international students advise future arrivals to
get ready to live independently and sharpen their day-to-day survival abilities before
departing.
2.3What can Universities do?
Schröpfer et al., (2021) encourage universities to pay special attention to
learners with low financial, low social, and low satisfaction levels. Having that in mind,
they should urge faculty heads to establish and maintain contact with learners, and closely
monitor their mental health, encourage them to create social networks, and support them
in their academic endeavors by offering flexible structures, and adjusting the workload to
cater to the COVID-19 challenge (Ghazawy et al., 2020; Odriozola-González et al., 2020;
Cao et al., 2020; Nania et al., 2020). Additionally, faculty members should implement
appropriate and timely intrusions for at-risk students to mitigate the psychological danger.
Interventions can include peer group sessions, digital study groups, psychological
counseling and mentoring, and regularly scheduling online consultation hours.
Procedures A cross-sectional study designed by Jennifer and others, through
quantitative analysis and framework technique, Students at Queen’s University in Canada
and the University of Oxford in the UK were found to be concerned about their study
experience, finances, and future academic and career prospects in the face of COVID-19.
Their findings highlight the need for universities to understand students’ areas of concern
and pay attention to students’ negative psychological issues affected by COVID-19, which
can help support their good university experience.
To reduce psychological stress among international students, Satpathy and Ali (2020)
recommend that universities promote healthy behavior, and advise students to minimize
their exposure to negative news, use alternative communication means, and prevent
social isolation (Dodd et al., 2021). Also, there should be an online student counseling
committee composed of the head of the university, faculty members, clinical psychologists,
and sociologists. Pang et al. (2021) want universities to target psychological mindedness
and psychological flexibility to timely prevent and intervene on the mental healthcare of
their students. In addition to clinical and academic teaching, Sabrina et al. (2021) urges
universities to establish mental health support systems. Xu (2021) is also in support of
formal social support systems – arguing that, informal social support does little to alleviate
psychological distress.
In addition to medical and government agencies’ efforts, higher education institutions
should minimize psychological concerns bothering international students by offering
credible information as well as emotional, fiscal, and medical support (Khan et al., 2021).
Dodd et al. (2021) want mitigations strategies to target female scholars as they are the
most vulnerable. Also, mitigations strategies should target students with low social status.
According to Al-Oraibi (2022), personalized and proactive strategies for student support
are vital for desirable student experiences and retention in the United Kingdom.
Saravanan et al. (2020) highly recommend regular online seminars that include
web-based counseling, guidance, insight, COVID-19 coping mechanisms, and scheduled
activities. Loscalzo (2022) advocates for the use of non-native languages during
therapeutic sessions because international students are always willing to disclose
information in professional spaces but are afraid of being laughed at by colleagues. Using
a language that the international students are familiar with encourages them to attend
psychology services and exchange their feelings and thoughts. Also, hands-on therapy
and art might supplement oral counseling. Li et al. (2020) advocate for identifying students
experiencing more stressors and providing suitable psychological interventions for them.
Having found that the abrupt shift of learning systems from physical offline to
online causes depression, Nishimura et al. (2021) encourages universities to notify
students that online learning is not mediocre relative to physical in-class learning.
Universities also should implement health promotion strategies meant to improve sleep
and exercise, more so in groups at a higher risk level like females, persons with
disabilities, and financially-disadvantaged students. Even though several studies
acknowledge that female students are at more risk than males, Hunt et al. (2021) claim
that gender-diverse students are at more risk and that universities should give them more
access to psychological treatment and additional support.
Screening for social and psychological disruptions is vital for strategy
development by universities to evaluate and examine negative psychological impacts and
behavioral changes. Students with higher anxiety levels should be given priority (Zainel et
al., 2021). To mitigate the psychological issues caused by changes in visa status, Gao et
al. (2022) say that institutions of higher learning can help international students with
international travel issues and student visas, access to COVID-19 infection treatments,
and developing telemedicine for psychological health services.
Resilience is a protective measure against COVID-19 anxiety and depression
and is crucial in coping with stress. According to Oducado et al. (2021), universities should
promote the resilient character traits of international students during pandemic times and
other trying events to help fight negative psychological states and undesirable mental
ramifications. Lu et al. (2022) suggest that prevention of or intervention of mental health
problems can be mitigated through increased perceived social support and reduction in
negative coping. Xiong et al. (2022) advocate for problem-based and emotion-centric
coping strategies to reduce the impact of COVID-19 in their lives.
Bono et al. (2020) studied the importance of grit and gratitude on resilience. Grit
is the perseverance and passion for long-term goals. The researchers found that grit is a
significant predictor of pandemic resilience and universities can use it to safeguard the
psychological welfare of international university students and better deal with the
epidemic’s adversity. The authors argue that gratitude and grit interventions would be
generally important for helping to protect and support the psychological welfare of
incoming international students. Universities should also be sensitive in improving
intervention. To be specific, grit interventions can involve trained faculty members that
instill on students a mindset of reflection, adaptability, and mindset. Gratitude strategies
should personalize practices to improve personal interactions between students and the
university.
Kim and Kim (2021) vouch for collaborative efforts between government
agencies and higher learning institutions to manage the psychological health of foreign
students. Mittal et al. (2021) discussed the psychological health and curriculum impacts of
coronavirus on international medical students. They agree that medical institutions must
address the consequences of the pandemic on students. Jiang et al. (2020) want
universities to pay more attention to vulnerable populations such as women,
gender-diverse people, and persons living with disabilities. Counseling to increase
cognitive reappraisal
and encourage emotional expression may help trauma survivors. Universities can
also work with mental healthcare personnel to contemplate the importance of a sense of
control in strategies to reduce COVID-19-fear and improve success among the student
fraternity.
Islam et al. (2020) encourage university psychological health practitioners,
researchers and students exposes to COVID-19 trauma to foster awareness via
campaigns, online counseling, social media, and other avenues. During distance learning,
the incorporation of stress management and web-based counseling programs helps in
mitigating student psychological stress (AlAteeq et al., 2020). Lai et al. (2020) found that
foreign students who stay suffer advanced health impacts relative to return. Therefore,
they call on university mental health departments and educators to offer proper support for
foreign students – especially the stayers.
Firang and Mensah (2021) argue that universities should come up with public
health strategies such as contact tracing, masking policy, and social distancing to contain
the virus as well as incorporate flexibility to cover international students’ needs. For
instance, they can revise operations and academic services to accommodate remote and
virtual learning. Universities can also pinpoint underlying immigration barriers that sideline
international students thus denying them public support. Furthermore, they can act as
activists who advocate for social programs or public support on behalf of their international
students.
Questionnaire
1.Are you a Chinese student oversea?
Yes
No
2.Your current stage of study is
Foundation
Undergraduate
Master
PhD
3.Your gender is
Male
Female
4.Do you think the spread of the coronavirus has affected your feelings and emotions?
Yes
No
5.What psychological problems do you think have been caused by the COVID-19 epidem
ic during your study abroad?
Anxiety
Depression
Psychological stress
Fear
Confusion
Loneliness
other
6.What do you think are the reasons for your psychological problems during the COVID-1
9 pandemic? multi-select
Lockdown and isolation
Physical health
Social restrictions
Academic pressure and employment pressure
Language and communication
Making friends
Lifestyle habits and ways
Cultural background
Homesickness
Racial discrimination
other
7.How would you deal with your own psychological problems?
Video contact with family and friends in China
Socialize and get together with your new friends in the UK
Exercise, study or travel
Sleep, play video games or play on your phone
Process negative emotions alone
Go straight to someone else for help
The use of drugs
Return home or leave
other
8.Are you aware of the support and help that the university offers you for various psychol
ogical problems?
Very well understood
Generally understood
Not at all
9.Have you reached out to the university for psychological help?
Only solve by myself
Try to solve it myself first and then ask the university for help if I cannot solve it
Ask the university for help directly
Ask other people for help directly
10.Do you find the help offered by the university useful?
Very useful
Generally useful
Completely useless
11.Are you satisfied with the psychological help provided by the school?
Very satisfied
Generally satisfied
Not satisfied
12.Do you think the school is efficient?
Very high
Generally high
Not high
13.What do you think of the school service?
Good
So so
Bad
14.Do you feel like the school is constantly paying attention to your psychological feelings?
Yes
No
15.Do you think the school’s help is comprehensive?
Very comprehensive
Generally comprehensive
Not comprehensive
16.Do you accept the help offered by the university?
Yes
No
Interview 1
Researcher: Under the Covid-19 epidemic, what psychological problems do you think you have?
Student 1: I think the main problem is stress and anxiety.
Because I came to the UK from China, the UK is an unfamiliar environment to me. This
unfamiliar environment made me feel pressure, and on the other hand, the pressure was brought
by my master’s study.
Anxiety is one of the most immediate feelings that the Covid-19 epidemic has brought me, that
it has affected all aspects of my life and study. Whenever I go out, I think about whether I will
be infected with the Covid-19 if I go out today. Even when I go to school , I have concerns
about this. What impressed me the most was that once I came back from class,NHS sent me a
text message saying that someone around me was diagnosed, and I was in close contact, so I
immediately went to the supermarket to buy a nucleic acid test kit to test it, luckily the final
result was negative. I breathed a sigh of relief that day, but for the next few days I was always
worried about whether I would potentially carry the Covid-19 virus. Another friend of mine,
unfortunately, was infected with the Covid-19 in February this year. I found that the Covid-19
virus had a great impact on his body, so I have always been worried that I will get the virus. This
puts more pressure on me.
In addition, I would like to add another point. I think that under the Covid-19 epidemic, I still
have a psychological problem, which is insecurity. I came to Sheffield from a long way, the city
was very foreign to me, and I needed to adapt to this environment on my own.
Researcher: I just heard that you came to the UK from China, so do you feel lonely?
Student 1: I don’t feel much loneliness, because I’m not the same as the younger students, I’ve
been working in China for about four years, and I’m in my 30s this year. Loneliness is easier to
overcome for me. If I really want to miss my family, I will video call with them, now the network
is more developed.
Researcher: OK, so when did you start having these psychological problems?
Student 1: Since last September, when I came to the new city of Sheffield, I have felt stress and
anxiety. Around Christmas time, my psychological problems were particularly severe. At that
time, there were many foreign friends around, and they all went out to play. I also really want
to go out and feel the festive atmosphere of Christmas, because I think it’s very lively outside and
I’m very alone. But at that time, I had to complete the dissertation by myself, and I was very
afraid of the new crown. I was very worried that if I went out to travel, I would be infected with
the Covid-19. In addition, it was also the time when China was about to celebrate the New Year’s
Day and the Spring Festival. I had a video call with my family. I could feel the festive celebration of
the Spring Festival when they were far away in China, and I felt even more lonely and stressed. So
in December last year I asked the personal tutor of our school for help.
Researcher: So when you found out that you couldn’t solve it on your own, you turned to the
school for help?
Student 1: Yes, because at the beginning of the semester our school assigned me to each one of
us with a tutor who held a meeting for us, and he said we could turn to him if we had any
questions. Well, then my personal tutor and my classmates both suggested that I look for a
psychology department in the school, and I can ask them for help on the website or by calling
them.
Researcher: OK. Then, what kind of help did this psychological department provide you?
Student 1: I made an appointment with them I made an appointment with the department and
then called them too, but in the end I felt that the department didn’t help me much. As I found
it difficult to make an appointment during the Christmas period, they said there was no suitable
place for me. I’ve been waiting in line. In addition, I myself found on the school’s website that
our school has a cooperation with the NHS, that is, if you have psychological problems, you can
call them. I spoke to them on the phone and they asked me some questions and gave me a
suggestion. The suggestion was that they gave me a website to follow the steps on this website
and do some lessons on my own. I don’t think this is of much use to me personally.
Researcher: Why?
Student 1: Because I think the best way to solve psychological problems is to communicate with
people. I desperately need someone to listen to me instead of answering some questions on
the site myself, even I feel like it’s a waste of my time. I need someone to communicate with
me face-to-face so that they can give me the most direct help.
I don’t get direct
human-to-human support. I am a little disappointed. Especially we, international students,
don’t know much about the school department setting, so we often fall into the predicament of
helplessness.
Researcher: Okay, do you think that such a kind of remote help through a computer or machine
is ineffective for you?
Student 1: Yes
Researcher: Has this way of talking to you continued to follow up on your psychological
problems?
Do you continue to give you feedback?
Student 1: I don’t think so, unless I continue to report my psychological issues to the school
department.
Researcher: After listening to your feelings, you are not satisfied with the school’s help. So do
you have any comments and suggestions for the school’s help?
Student 1: I think that under the special circumstances of the global epidemic, whether it is
study or life, the difficulties faced by students will increase, especially the unstable changes in the
isolation policy and the constant threat of the virus will also increase in addition to learning
pressure. other mental problems. But from my own experience, schools do not seem to be
adequately prepared to deal with the psychological problems students may face.
The most prominent problem is that students cannot receive timely and effective support,
because the school’s psychological counseling services have limited resources, which results in
students’ psychological problems being put on hold. While the school provides support services,
there are not enough resources available to solve the problem for students.
The most
important thing schools need to solve is to provide more effective services that can cover more
students.
Another more effective psychological support service is preferably one-on-one
professional counseling services.
Researcher: Then how did you solve your own psychological problems?
Student 1: Since I’m a graduate student in educational psychology myself, I use what I’ve learned
in my course to self-mediate. In addition, the friends and roommates around me are very
attentive and patient, they will listen to me carefully, and they say that they will face difficulties
with me. I feel very warm. I am also happy to share my joys and pains with them. I
sometimes share stories with them that I have accumulated in my heart. I find this direct
support helpful.
Interview 2 :
Researcher: What psychological problems do you feel you have with the new crown epidemic?
Student 2:I am not sure it is a psychological problem. Because of the epidemic, we international
students couldn’t come to classes offline at school. I think studying abroad is not just about
studying, it’s more about experiencing different cultures. But I can’t communicate with my
classmates from different countries at home and this situation has caused me anxiety and
psychological stress.
Researcher: Do you feel that the distance learning online classes have caused you anxiety?
Student 2: Yes. Including when I came to Sheffield, I was afraid to go out and interact with
foreigners because I was worried about being infected. The restrictions on making friends also
caused me anxiety and I had doubts about the meaning of studying abroad.
Researcher: And when did you feel you were having such psychological problems? When did this
anxiety start to set in?
Student 2: It started in my second semester. When I finished the first semester, I realised that I
didn’t know our class very well. And we have a regional and national network of Internet users,
so most of the students I knew were our Chinese students.
Researcher: Because you felt you didn’t have face-to-face communication with your classmates
and teachers, studying abroad in this way created anxiety for you, right?
Student 2: Yes, I felt that I was getting very closed information.
Researcher: And how did you later solve your psychological problems like this?
Student 2:At the time, we couldn’t go to the UK for offline classes because of the different
policies in each country. But I was able to travel to the surrounding cities when the epidemic was
a little better in our country. I was able to relieve my anxiety through some other social activities.
Then the epidemic got so bad in Shanghai that the city was closed and my only entertainment
became watching videos online. This was the time when I felt the most anxious.
Researcher: Did you have any psychological problems after coming to Sheffield?
Student 2: Yes. Coming to Sheffield all of a sudden was an unfamiliar environment for me and I
was feeling panicky. With the epidemic, I felt it was more difficult for me to integrate into this
new environment because of the difference in language and culture.
Researcher: And how did you alleviate this panic and anxiety?
Student 2: I found out that our school library, it gives us some courses, such as social courses. By
taking these social courses, it can help those of us who are shy about communicating with
strangers to get along with others.
Researcher: Have you found any special help for our Chinese students?
Student 2: I think it is probably because the school provides an atmosphere where students from
different countries can understand and support each other. For example, we Chinese students are
used to wearing masks in class, and our teachers show respect and understanding for this
phenomenon. I am from Shanghai and there was a time when the epidemic was very serious in
Shanghai and I have seen schools organise special care for Shanghai students, such as helping
students to understand their family’s situation to ease their worries about their families.
Researcher: How does the school help students to understand their families and how does this
help each Chinese student?
Student 2: I read on the school’s student union website that if I am a student from Shanghai, I can
apply for free supplies or help to make life easier. For example, when you come to the UK and
need to be isolated, the school union can arrange for students to distribute supplies to you. This
made me feel warm in a foreign country.
Researcher: Do you feel that this special help from the school has helped you to ease your fears?
Student 2:Yes. When we are on our own in Sheffield or have a new crown, we feel overwhelmed
and need the help we get from the school.
Researcher: Did you see this on the Sheffield students union website?
Student 2: Yes
Researcher: Do you feel that this particular help from the school has really improved your mental
state?
Student 2: Yes, it made me feel that the university was a very humane place and that I felt warm
and cared for.
Researcher: Have you had any more of these two psychological problems since then?
Student 2: I have since adjusted to the environment and the pace of my studies.
Researcher: Do you think that the school continued to follow up on your psychological state
afterwards? For example, you mentioned that the school provided you with some courses, did
they follow up on your feedback about the courses?
Student 2: I didn’t talk to the school’s psychology department about my psychological condition. I
talked to my personal tutor about how I was feeling. She gave me a lot of help. She asked me how
I was feeling every time we had a one-to-one session, which made me feel that the school and
the teachers really cared about me. This was very good. In addition, I found that the school has a
digital media wall, through which we students can record our mental state and changes. On this
wall, I found that many of my classmates had similar problems to me, which also eased my
anxiety.
Researcher: So do you have any comments and suggestions on how the school can help?
Student 2: Well, I think the school teachers are very good, but I think the school needs to provide
a service centre with Chinese support for us Chinese students. Because psychological problems
are often related to culture. Not everyone can understand it. But I found that the school does not
have such a department. I would suggest that in the future the university could consider
providing a cultural interpretation and translation support department for students from
different countries. This department could recruit psychology students from various countries.
These students would be able to work in these departments and also help students from their
own countries.
Researcher: I think this is great. I would also like to volunteer for such an activity. What do you
think the school needs to improve?
Student 2: I think there is also efficiency. Because of the epidemic um, a lot of school staff work
from home. It’s very slow for us to go to the school to make appointments for counselling or NHS
help. I saw on the official website that it could take up to two weeks to get an appointment. For
me, that’s too long.
Researcher: Yes, thank you

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

  
error: Content is protected !!