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Question 1 (1 point)
Preferences established early in life are largely based on:
a) generic memory
b) episodic memory
c) emotions associated with the initial exposure
d) familiarity
Question 2 (1 point)
What was the most important finding regarding the “magic shrinking machine”
experiment?
a) The youngest children had the best memory for the event
Ob) The oldest children had the best memory for the event
c)
Results confirmed early data on Infantile Amnesia, whereby memories begin
to form after 3 years of age
d) Children as young as 2 remembered some portion of the event
Question 3 (1 point)
Miller (2010) chose to investigate the impact of scandal on memory for campaign
information, and found that, overall, participants in the scandal conditions recalled
of campaign information; this
with existing memories about the
campaign.
a) a greater proportion; this interfered
;
b)
a greater proportion; did not interfere
c) a smaller proportion; did not interfere
a
O d) a smaller proportion; this interfered
Question 4 (1 point)
Civettini and Redlawsk (2009) examined the impact of emotions on later recall of
candidate information and found that the likelihood that an item would be
remembered was
if it evoked an emotional response; importantly, the
more
an item is with the expectations of the participant, the more likely it
is to be remembered.
a) increased; congruent
b) increased; incongruent
c) decreased; incongruent
d) decreased; congruent
Question 5 (1 point)
In a normal brain, forgetting of hippocampal memories is due to this, while forgetting
in the neocortical memories is due to this.
a) omission; commission
b) decay; interference
c) commission; omission
d) interference; decay
Question 6 (1 point)
The more a person imagines a fictitious event, the more likely the person in to
develop what?
a) confusion about the details of the fictitious event
b) skepticism about the possibility that the event could occur
c) a false memory that the event actually occurred
d) motivation to make the fictitious event a reality
Question 7 (1 point)
In their research on jury note taking, Rosenhan et al. (1994) found what?
a) note takers who wrote more did not recall any more information than those
who did not take notes
b)
juror notes can help recall of trial related information
c)
a negative correlation between the amount of words written and recall scores
d)
note-taking jurors remembered about the same amount of information as
those who did not take notes
Question 9 (1 point)
Farwell’s brain fingerprinting technique:
a) is very effective for cases where facts about the crime are unknown
b) has been extensively peer reviewed
c)
relies heavily on the assumption that a guilty suspect will have a perfect,
undistorted memory of the crime
d) has been shown to me more reliable than a standard polygraph
Question 8 (1 point)
Forgetting is critical for healthy memory function for all of the following reasons
except:
a)
forgetting makes recalling pertinent information easier and more accurate by
eliminating other similar (i.e. redundant) memories
b)
forgetting helps the perceptual acuity for all sensory modalities
maintaining memories over time requires an animal to expend energy
d)
people with hyperthymesia have difficulty functioning normally
Question 9 (1 point)
Farwell’s brain fingerprinting technique:
a) is very effective for cases where facts about the crime are unknown
b) has been extensively peer reviewed
c)
relies heavily on the assumption that a guilty suspect will have a perfect,
undistorted memory of the crime
d) has been shown to me more reliable than a standard polygraph
Question 10 (1 point)
According to the neuroanatomical model of memory development, the early-
maturing system mediates what?
a)
memories of simple learned procedures and perceptual and motor skills but
does not allow for complex encoding-the neuroanatomical model predicts
that infants younger than nine months of age will have unstable memory
traces
b) complex encoding of explicit memories-the model predicts that infants
younger than nine months of age will have stable memory traces rich in detail
c)
both memories of simple perceptual and motor skills and of complex explicit
encoding
d)
both memories of complex perceptual and motor skills and of simple explicit
encoding
Question 51 (1 point)
The memory debate refers to:
a) The existence of Episodic memories
b) The existence of Prospective memories
c) The existence of Repressed memories
d) The existence of Generic memories
Question 52 (1 point)
As people get older, the structure of the brain itself changes as the brain shrinks in
size and the ventricles become larger; however, different parts of the brain shrink at
different rates: the
shrink more quickly, while the
shrink more
slowly.
a) frontal lobes; the temporal and occipital lobes
b) frontal lobes; the parietal
c) occipital lobes; the frontal lobes
d)
parietal lobes; the frontal lobes
Question 53 (1 point)
Compared to standard interviews, cognitive interviews typically result in:
a) less accurate information being recalled
b) less information being recalled
c)
more information being recalled
d)
more accurate information being recalled
Question 54 (1 point)
The paired-comparison task is:
a) an experimental paradigm in which an individual is exposed to a stimulus
together with a much more salient stimulus
an experimental paradigm in which an individual is familiarized with a
b)
b
stimulus and then, following a delay, presented with that stimulus and a novel
stimulus during a test phase
an experimental paradigm in which an individual is habituated to a stimulus
c)
and then, following a delay, presented with the same stimulus and a novel
stimulus during a test phase
d) a test of associative memory to study language development
a
Question 55 (1 point)
The use of “nonsense syllables” first proposed by Ebbinghaus is important in
experimental psychology because:
a) they do not require complex equipment
b) they are short
c) they are difficult to remember
d) they avoid uncontrolled cues
Question 56 (1 point)
In his experiment on voter memory, Redlawsk (2001) found that memory was a
better predictor of voter choice in:
a) neither the online tally nor the memory-based processing condition
Ob) both the online tally
c) both the online tally and the memory-based processing condition
d) the memory-based processing condition
Question 57 (1 point)
Imagination inflation is:
a) when a person comes to believe multiple versions of an imagined event
b) when a person comes to believe that a real event did not occur at all
c)
when a person comes to believe that her or his memory of an imagined event
represents a memory for an event that occurred
d)
when police provide a suspect of a crime information that only the culprit
would know
Question 58 (1 point)
Braun et al. (2002), exploring peoples’ memories for Disney parks following the ads,
revealed that participants reported wanting to go back and to talk about their
experiences with their friends. Thus, autobiographical advertising may benefit
marketers in:
a) two ways: It may change a consumer’s purchase intention and it may lead
viewers to form stronger explicit memories
b)
two ways: It may change a consumer’s implicit memory of the event and it
may lead viewers to advertise the brand using word of mouth
c) limited ways
d)
two ways: It may change a consumer’s purchase intention and it may lead
viewers to advertise the brand using word of mouth
Question 59 (1 point)
a very effective long-term strategy
Marketing to babies and toddlers
because:
a)
is; babies and toddlers can immediately influence the purchasing of their
parents
b)
is; companies can help establish preferences that will guide purchasing
choices when these babies and toddlers become consumers
c)
is not; it is unlikely that when babies and toddlers become consumers they
will remember the advertisements
d)
is not; companies may possibly establish dislikes for their products that will
prevent purchasing when these babies and toddlers become consumers
Question 60 (1 point)
In the lab, proactive and retroactive interference have been studied extensively
using what?
a) long-term potentiation protocol
b) nonsense syllables
paired-associate paradigm
d)
forgetting curve
Question 61 (1 point)
Pennington and Hastie (1992) suggest jurors, to remember all the information, cope
by developing a story that combines three types of information together into a
narrative. These types of information do not include:
a) jurors knowingly considering PTP, when the guilt or innocence of the suspect
is not obvious
b)
jurors’ own knowledge about similar crimes, such as crimes they have read
about in the past, or even previous criminal cases they have been involved
with
c)
jurors’ generic expectations about what makes a complete story, such as the
knowledge that human behaviour is usually motivated by goals
O d) case-specific information acquired during the trial
Question 62 (1 point)
Fast mapping was first described by Carey and Bartlett (1978) to describe the way
in which two-year-olds can learn:
a)
to remember where something is hidden after a single exposure to the act of
hiding the item
b)
to navigate a new location following a brief exposure to it
c) to interact with a new person following a single brief exposure
d)
a new word following a single brief exposure to correlated words
Question 63 (1 point)
When a person changes a recollection because outside information suggests the
original recollection is incorrect, we have a case of what?
a) suggestibility
b) interference
c) misattribution
d) blocking
Question 64 (1 point)
Habituation is defined as a:
a) increment in response to a stimulus following repeated presentation of a
different stimulus
b)
generalized loss of response to a variety of stimuli that appear to be irrelevant
decrement in response to a stimulus following repeated presentation of a
different stimulus
d)
decrement in response to a stimulus following repeated presentation of the
same stimulus
Question 65 (1 point)
When mall owners sprayed the scent of baby powder where clothing for pregnant
mothers was sold and played music from the era when the pregnant mothers were
in their teens, they observed:
a)
a drop in sales immediately but, about a year after the experiment, mothers
who shopped at the mall when they were pregnant reported that the mall
made their babies cry
b)
increased sales immediately but, about a year after the experiment, mothers
who shopped at the mall when they were pregnant reported that the mall
made their babies cry
increased sales immediately and, about a year after the experiment, mothers
who shopped at the mall when they were pregnant reported that the mall had
a uniquely calming effect on their babies
d)
a drop in sales immediately and about a year after the experiment
Question 66 (1 point)
The online tally voting model suggests that voters change their opinion of each
candidate as new information is received. However, the work by Redlawsk (2001)
shows that
influence(s) voting choice more than online tallies do.
a) the influence of social networks that are remembered implicitly by voters
b) campaign information that is remembered by voters
c) online tallies that are remembered by voters
d) deeply rooted stereotypes that are remembered by voters
Question 67 (1 point)
In 1932, Yale law professor Edwin Borcand wrote write Convicting the Innocent.
Borcand claimed, based on his analysis of 65 cases, that
was the single
leading cause of wrongful convictions.
a)
eyewitness corruption
b)
eyewitness misidentification
c) cultural stereotypes
d) false memories
Question 68 (1 point)
Associative-chain paradigms test to see whether an individual will form an
association between two stimuli:
a)
that have been presented before only once, but that have been connected
later repeatedly through a series of associations
b)
that have been presented before only twice, but that have been connected in
between repeatedly through a series of associations
c) presented a long time before only once but whose association was reminded
repeatedly with the presentation of the same context
d)
that have never been presented before, but that are connected through a
series of associations
Question 69 (1 point)
Proactive interference is:
a)
a reduction in the ability to retrieve old memories because of newly learned
information
b)
a reduction in the ability to retrieve old traumatic memories
c)
a reduction in the ability to create new memories because of existing
memories
d)
an enhancement in the ability to create new memories because of existing
memories
Question 70 (1 point)
When stimuli become associated because they are each independently associated
with the same stimuli is called:
a) Transitivity
b) Overshadowing
c) Habituation
d) Potentiation
Question 71 (1 point)
In their study of juror memory mistakes, Pritchard and Keenan (2002) found what?
a)
a strong correlation between juror memory accuracy and juror memory
confidence
b)
jurors with more accurate memories tend to be most influential during
deliberation
c) jurors who are more confident are more likely to change their verdicts to
match the verdict of those leading the deliberation
d)
more confident jurors tend to lead jury deliberations
Question 72 (1 point)
When a weak stimulus is less well learned when simultaneously presented with a
strong stimulus is called:
a) Overshadowing
b) Habituation
c) Potentiation
d) Sensory preconditioning
Question 73 (1 point)
According to the ecological model of memory development, infant memory
processes:
a) are under the strong influence of the specific type of socio-economic
environment in which the child is raised
b) cannot be studied outside their natural environment, i.e., the family
c)
are essentially the same as those of older individuals; however, the demands
of different ecological niches lead infants to attend to and encode different
information than older individuals
d)
are fundamentally different from those of older individuals
Question 74 (1 point)
Negative PTP is
that depicts the defendant in a way that suggests what?
a) pre-trial publicity; the defendant did not commit the crime or was incapable
of committing the crime she or he is accused of committing
b)
pre-trial publicity; the defendant committed the crime or was capable of
committing the crime she or he is accused of committing
c) post-trial publicity; the defendant committed the crime and that could affect
the outcome of any subsequent civil proceeding
d) post-trial publicity; the defendant committed the crime and that could affect
the outcome of any subsequent appeal
Question 75 (1 point)
The results from sensory-preconditioning (SPC), potentiation, paired-comparison,
and associative-chain experiments show that:
a)
young infants form detailed memories spontaneously and that these
memories can be maintained for long periods of time-these results cannot be
reconciled with the neuroanatomical model
b)
young infants cannot form detailed memories spontaneously and that these
memories cannot be maintained for long periods of time-these results can be
reconciled with the neuroanatomical model
c)
young infants form detailed memories but these are rapidly forgotten
d) young infants form inaccurate memories but these memories can be
maintained for long periods of time
Question 76 (1 point)
When we discuss forgetting, we are referring to information that is what?
a) neither inaccessible nor unavailable
b) unavailable but not necessarily inaccessible
c) inaccessible but not necessarily unavailable
d) both inaccessible and unavailable
Question 77 (1 point)
The results from Loftus et al. (1979) show that blatantly inaccurate information
inoculate participants from encoding more subtle misinformation
a)
cannot; even if the blatantly false information is presented at a different time
b)
can help; no matter when the blatantly false information is presented
can help; but only if the blatantly false information is presented at the same
time as the other misinformation
d)
cannot; even if the blatantly false information is presented at the same time
as the other misinformation
Question 78 (1 point)
Any process that makes learning (the process of creating a memory) less likely or
successful is called:
a) Encoding suppression
b) Retrieval suppression
c) Changing context
d) Thought substitution
Question 79 (1 point)
In order for an advertisement to influence consumer behaviour, it must what?
a) be truthful and reliable
b) interact with a person’s memory
c) demonstrate the efficacy of the product
d) manipulate the public with lies and coercion
Question 80 (1 point)
to
In 2011, advertisers spent $20 billion on advertising directed at
establish brand preferences
a) teens and young adults
b) senior citizens who collect a pension
c)
working-class adults
d) children under four years of age
Question 81 (20 points)
Essay Questions (2 @ 10 points each): Please answer any 2 of the 4 options. Be sure to
label your choices clearly at the beginning of your responses.
1. Define infantile amnesia in regard to the 2 phase pattern that has emerged. Describe the 4
interesting findings for infantile amnesia. Describe the passage of time, brain development,
and the neurogenic hypothesis explanations for infantile amnesia’s occurrence.
2. Define, compare, and contrast, in detail, the neuroanatomical model of memory
development and the ecological model of memory development. Remember to include
predictions, findings, critiques, and arguments for and against each model in your answer.
3. Describe, in detail, the Loftus et al. (1978) red Datsun study. As well, describe, in detail, the
Loftus et al. (1979) study regarding the misinformation effect. What are the main conclusions
of these studies?
4. Describe, in detail, the Schmidt and Eisend (2015) meta-analysis regarding advertisement
repetitions, product content recall, and consumer attitude. What were the major findings?
What would be the best method for simultaneously improving product recall and consumer
attitude toward products?
A/
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